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Stibnite

This page kindly sponsored by Ruggy Holloway
Formula:
Sb2S3
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Lead-gray with pale blue ...
Hardness:
2
Name:
Re-named in 1832 by François Sulpice Beudant. According to Dioscorides, the original Greek names for the mineral were Στιβι "stibi", Στιμμι "stimmi", and Πλατνόπθαλμου. The former name became the Latin "stibium" and the old name for the element antimony (Sb). Named spiessglas in 1430 by Basil Velentine who showed the mineral contained sulphur. Also kniown as antimony glance, antimonite, and stibine.
Dimorph of:
Stibnite Group.

Classification of Stibnite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
2.DB.05

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
D : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 3 :4 and 2:3
B : M:S = 2:3
2.11.2.1

2 : SULFIDES
11 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
3.7.14

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
7 : Sulphides etc. of V, As, Sb and Bi
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Physical Properties of Stibnite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Lead-gray with pale blue tint
Streak:
Lead grey
Hardness (Mohs):
2
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=71 - 86 kg/mm2
Comment:
VHN on (010) section
Tenacity:
Flexible
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {010}, imperfect on {100}{110}
Fracture:
Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
4.63 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.625 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Stibnite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.229Å, b = 11.31Å, c = 3.8389Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.993 : 1 : 0.339
Unit Cell Volume:
V 487.54 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Slender to stout crystals
Twinning:
Rare {130}{120}{310}

Crystallographic forms of Stibnite

Crystal Atlas:
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Stibnite no.9 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Stibnite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Stibnite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Stibnite no.31 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Stibnite no.55 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Stibnite no.110 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Stibnite no.115 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.052 (55)
3.573 (65)
3.556 (70)
3.053 (95)
2.764 (100)
2.680 (50)
2.525 (45)

Optical Data of Stibnite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=31.1%R2= 53.3%
420nmR1=30.8%R2= 53.2%
440nmR1=30.6%R2= 53.0%
460nmR1=30.7%R2= 52.8%
480nmR1=31.0%R2= 52.2%
500nmR1=31.2%R2= 51.1%
520nmR1=31.4%R2= 49.7%
540nmR1=31.2%R2= 48.5%
560nmR1=30.8%R2= 47.2%
580nmR1=30.3%R2= 45.8%
600nmR1=29.7%R2= 44.5%
620nmR1=29.3%R2= 43.5%
640nmR1=29.2%R2= 42.6%
660nmR1=29.4%R2= 41.8%
680nmR1=29.6%R2= 41.1%
700nmR1=29.4%R2= 40.3%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 53.3%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:
white

Chemical Properties of Stibnite

Formula:
Sb2S3
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Stibnite to other Species

2.DB.05AntimonseliteSb2Se3
2.DB.05BismuthiniteBi2S3
2.DB.05GuanajuatiteBi2Se3
2.DB.05MetastibniteSb2S3
2.DB.05PääkköneniteSb2AsS2
2.DB.10Ottemannitebeta Sn2S3
2.DB.10SuredaitePbSnS3
2.DB.15Bowieite(Rh,Ir,Pt)2S3
2.DB.15Kashinite(Ir,Rh)2S3
2.DB.20Montbrayite(Au,Sb)2Te3
2.DB.25EdgariteFeNb3S6
2.DB.30Tarkianite(Cu,Fe)(Re,Mo)4S8
2.DB.35CameroniteCu5-x(Cu,Ag)3+xTe10 (x = 0.43)
3.7.1PatróniteVS4
3.7.2DuranusiteAs4S
3.7.3DimorphiteAs4S3
3.7.4RealgarAs4S4
3.7.5PararealgarAs4S4
3.7.6AlacrániteAs8S9
3.7.7UzoniteAs4S5
3.7.8OrpimentAs2S3
3.7.9Jeromite
3.7.10LaphamiteAs2(Se,S)3
3.7.11GetchelliteAsSbS3
3.7.12Wakabayashilite[(As,Sb)6S9][As4S5]
3.7.13PääkköneniteSb2AsS2
3.7.15MetastibniteSb2S3
3.7.16TellurantimonySb2Te3
3.7.17BismuthiniteBi2S3
3.7.18NevskiteBi(Se,S)
3.7.19GuanajuatiteBi2Se3
3.7.21IkunoliteBi4(S,Se)3
3.7.22LaitakariteBi4Se2S
3.7.23PoubaitePbBi2(Se,Te,S)4
3.7.24TellurobismuthiteBi2Te3
3.7.25SoučekitePbCuBi(S,Se)3
3.7.26TsumoiteBiTe
3.7.27PilseniteBi4Te3
3.7.28HedleyiteBi7Te3
3.7.29TetradymiteBi2Te2S
3.7.30JoséiteBi4TeS2
3.7.31Joséite-BBi4Te2S
3.7.32IngoditeBi2TeS
3.7.33SulphotsumoiteBi3Te2S
3.7.34KawazuliteBi2Te2Se
3.7.36SkippeniteBi2TeSe2
3.7.37KochkaritePbBi4Te7
3.7.38Rucklidgeite(Bi,Pb)3Te4
3.7.39AleksitePbBi2Te2S2
3.7.40JunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16

Other Names for Stibnite

Other Information

Thermal Behaviour:
Melts at 546°C
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Stibnite is a very soft delicate minerals and should be kept in a container with a very soft cushion like cotton and not allowed to rub up against the sides of the box. Stibnite is a bit like graphite in that it will leave a streak when rubbed against paper. Over a period of many years, brilliant surfaces of freshly mined stibnite will become less shiny.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Stibnite

Reference List:
Dana (1883), American Journal of Science: 26: 214.

Tokody (1937-38) Ann. Mus. Hungarici, Pars. Min.: 31: 165.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 270-275.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1972): 135: 308-315.

McKee D.D., McMullen J.T. (1976), Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 142: 447.

Kyono, A., Kimata, M., Matsuhisa, M., Miyashita, Y. and Okamoto, K. (2002): Low-temperature crystal structures of stibnite implying orbital overlap of Sb 5s2 inert pair electrons. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 29, 254–260.

Kuze, S., Du Boulay, D., Ishizawa, N., Saiki, A. and Pring, A. (2004): X-ray diffraction evidence for a monoclinic form of stibnite, Sb2S3, below 290 K. American Mineralogist, 89, 1022–1025.

Internet Links for Stibnite

Specimens:
The following Stibnite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Stibnite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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