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Stokesite

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Formula:
CaSn[Si
 
3
O
 
9
] · 2H
 
2
O
System:OrthorhombicColour:Colourless, white, light ...
Hardness:6
Name:
Named after Sir George Gabriel Stokes (1819-1903), mathematician and physicist, University of Cambridge (England), after whom is named Stokes's law, describing the force acting on a particle moving in a fluid medium.
This page provides mineralogical data about Stokesite.

Classification of Stokesite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/F.29-30
Strunz 9th edition ID:9.DM.05
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.DM.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
M : Inosilicates with 6-periodic single chains
Dana 8th edition ID:65.5.1.1

65 : INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
5 : Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=6
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.12.3

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
12 : Silicates of Sn
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Type Occurrence of Stokesite

Type Locality:Stamps and Jowl Zawn (Roscommon Cliff), Cliff outcrops, Botallack, St Just, St Just District, Cornwall, England, UK
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Cambridge University, England
Year of Discovery:1899
Geological Setting of type material:On axinite
Associated Minerals at type locality:
Axinite Group

Physical Properties of Stokesite

Lustre:Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Comment:pearly on {100}
Colour:Colourless, white, light blue
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):6
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {101}
imperfect on {100}
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.185 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.211 g/cm3

Crystallography of Stokesite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:Pnna {P2/n 21/n 2/a}
Space Group Setting:Pnna
Cell Parameters:a = 14.465Å, b = 11.625Å, c = 5.235Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.244 : 1 : 0.45
Unit Cell Volume:V 880.29 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Prismatic crystals, spherical and radial fibrous aggregates.

Optical Data of Stokesite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.609 nβ = 1.613 nγ = 1.619
2V:Measured: 69° , Calculated: 66° to 70°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.010

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:r < v moderate

Chemical Properties of Stokesite

Formula:
CaSn[Si
 
3
O
 
9
] · 2H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:CaSn[Si3O9]·2H2O
Essential elements:Ca, H, O, Si, Sn
All elements listed in formula:Ca, H, O, Si, Sn

Relationship of Stokesite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.DM.10Calciohilairite
CaZr[SiO
 
3
]
 
3
· 3H
 
2
O
9.DM.10Hilairite
Na
 
2
Zr[SiO
 
3
]
 
3
· 3H
 
2
O
9.DM.10Komkovite
BaZr[Si
 
3
O
 
9
] · 3H
 
2
O
9.DM.10Sazykinaite-(Y)
Na
 
5
YZr[SiO
 
3
]
 
6
· 6H
 
2
O
9.DM.10Pyatenkoite-(Y)
Na
 
5
YTi[SiO
 
3
]
 
6
· 6H
 
2
O
9.DM.15Gaidonnayite
Na
 
2
Zr(Si
 
3
O
 
9
) · 2H
 
2
O
9.DM.15Georgechaoite
NaKZr[Si
 
3
O
 
9
] · 2H
 
2
O
9.DM.20Chkalovite
Na
 
2
BeSi
 
2
O
 
6
9.DM.25Vlasovite
Na
 
2
ZrSi
 
4
O
 
11
9.DM.30Revdite
Na
 
16
Si
 
16
O
 
27
(OH)
 
26
· 28H
 
2
O
9.DM.35Scheuchzerite
Na(Mn,Mg,Zn)
 
9
[VSi
 
9
O
 
28
(OH)](OH)
 
3
9.DM.40Terskite
Na
 
4
ZrSi
 
6
O
 
16
· 2H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.12.1Brannockite
(K,Na)□
 
2
Li
 
3
(Sn,Zr,Ti)
 
2
[Si
 
12
O
 
30
]
14.12.2Malayaite
CaSn(SiO
 
4
)O
14.12.4Pabstite
Ba(Sn,Ti)(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)

Other Names for Stokesite

Other Languages:
German:Stokesit
Russian:Стокезит
Simplified Chinese:硅钙锡石
Spanish:Stokesita
Traditional Chinese:硅鈣錫石

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Stokesite

Reference List:

- +
Mineralogical Magazine (1960): 32: 433-435.

Cech (1961) Occurrence of stokesite in Czechoslovakia. Mineralogical Magazine: 32: 673-675.

Mineralogical Magazine (1961): 33: 615-617.

Vorma, A. (1963) The crystal structure of stokesite CaSnSi3O9.2H2O. Bull. Comm. Geol. Finland: 208: 1-48.

Cerny (1966) A new Czechoslovak occurrence of stokesite, Mineralogical magazine: 35: 835-837.

White (1973) What's new in minerals. Mineralogical Record: 4: 275-276.

Couper and Clark (1977) Mineralogical Record: 8: 294-297.

Couper and Clark (1977) Mineralogical Magazine: 41: 411-414.

Foord, Eugene E. (1977) Mineralogical Record: 8: 472-473.

Nikao et al (1977) Stokesite in the region of Ena, Gifu prefecture. Chigaku Kenkyu (Geoscience Magazine): 28: 149-152 (in Japanese).

Miyawaki et al (1987) Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Japan: 18: 17-31 (in Japanese with English abstract).

Voloshin and Pakhymovsky (1988) On the stokesite from granitic pegmatite on Kola Peninsula and in sharn from Karelia (Pitkyaranta). New data on Minerals: 9: 35: 36-39 (in Russian).

Internet Links for Stokesite

Search Engines:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Stokesite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Specimens:The following Stokesite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Stokesite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • Doce valley
        • Galiléia
    White (1973) What's new in minerals. Mineralogical record: 4: 275-276.; B. E. Prescott and K. Nassau (1978) Black Elbaite from Corrego Do Urucum, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Magazine 42:357-359; Atencio D, Carvalho F M S, Matioli P A (2004) Coutinhoite, a new thorium uranyl silicate hydrate, from Urucum Mine, Galiléia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. American Mineralogist 89, 721-724
    Czech Republic
     
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • South Moravia Region
        • Znojmo (Znaim)
    Cech (1961) Occurrence of stokesite in Czechoslovakia. Mineralogical Magazine: 32: 673-675.
      • Vysočina Region
    Houzar, S., Novák, M., Doležalová, H., Hrazdil, V., Pfeiferová, A.: Přehled mineralogie, petrografie a geologie nedvědických mramorů, svratecké krystalinikum. Acta Musei Moraviae, Sci. geol., 2006, roč. 91, s. 3-77.
        • Třebíč
    Škoda, R. & Čopjaková, R. (2006) Herzenbergite And Sn-bearing Tinzenite From The NYF Pegmatite In Třebíč Pluton, Moldanubicum, Czech Republic. Acta Miner.-Petrograph.,Abstract Series 5, Szeged, p.107
        • Žďár nad Sázavou
          • Věžná
    Cerny (1966) A new Czechoslovak occurrence of stokesite, Mineralogical Magazine: 35: 835-837; Strübel, Zimmer: "Lexikon der Minerale", 2nd Ed., 1991
    Petr Pauliš (2001): Nejzajímavější mineralogická naleziště Moravy a Slezska. Kuttna, Kutná Hora.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chubu Region
        • Gifu Prefecture
          • Nakatsugawa City
    Miyawaki et al (1987) Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Japan: 18: 17-31 (in Japanese with English abstract).
    Nikao et al (1977) Stokesite in the region of Ena, Gifu prefecture. Chigaku Kenkyu (Geoscience Magazine): 28: 149-152 (in Japanese).
    Ritsuro Miyawaki et al (2004) Koubutsu-Gakkai Kou’en-Youshi, 130; Ritsuro Miyawaki, Satoshi Matsubara, Kazumi Yokoama, Akiyoshi Okamoto (2007) Hingganite-(Ce) and hingganite-(Y) from Tahara, Hirukawa-mura, Gifu Prefecture, Japan: The description on a new mineral species of the Ce-analogue of hingganite-(Y) with a refinement of the crystal structure of hingganite-(Y). Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 102, No. 1 February, 1-7.
    Morocco
     
    • Meknès-Tafilalet Region
      • Meknès Prefecture
        • Meknès
          • El Hammam (El Hamman)
    Ph. M. Sonnet : "Burtite, Calcium Hexahydrostannate, a New Mineral from El Hamman, Central Morocco", Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 19, 1981, pp. 397-401.
    Econ Geol (1989) 84:575-590
    Russia
     
    • Northern Region
      • Karelia Republic
    Voloshin and Pakhymovsky (1988) On the stokesite from granitic pegmatite on Kola Peninsula and in sharn from Karelia (Piotkyaranta). New data on Minerals: 9: 35: 36-39 (in Russian).; Ivashchenko, V. I., Valkama, M., Sundblad, K., Golubev, A. I., & Alekseev, V. Y. (2011, September). New data on mineralogy and metallogeny of scarns in the Pitkyaranta ore region. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 440, No. 1, pp. 1307-1311). SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
    Voloshin and Pakhymovsky (1988) On the stokesite from granitic pegmatite on Kola Peninsula and in sharn from Karelia (Piotkyaranta). New data on Minerals: 9: 35: 36-39 (in Russian).
    Spain
     
    • Madrid
      • Valdemanco
    Collection of the Geominero Museum of Madrid; Tanago, J. G., Lozano, P. L., Larios, A. , La Iglesia, A. (2012) Stokesite crystals from La Cabrera, Madrid, Spain. Mineralogical Record 43:499-508
    Sweden
     
    • Södermanland
      • Utö
    Langhof, J., Jonson, E, Gustafsson, L. & Otter, B. (1998): Utö- en klassisk svensk mineralfyndort. Bergverksmuseets Skrift 14, 29-31
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • St Just District
          • St Just
            • Botallack
              • Cliff outcrops
    Hutchinson, M.A. (1900): Mineralogical Magazine 12, 274-281
    Couper, A.G., and Clark, A.M. (1977): Mineralogical Magazine 41, 411-414
        • Wendron & Falmouth District
          • Carnmenellis Area
            • Longdowns
    Couper, A.G., and Clark, A.M. (1977): Mineralogical Magazine 41, 411-414; Economic Geology (1980) 75, 752-759; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
    USA
     
    • California
      • San Diego Co.
        • Mesa Grande District
          • Gem Hill
    Foord, Eugene E. (1977) Mineralogical Record: 8: 472-473; www.minsocam.org
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