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Stolzite

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Formula:
Pb(WO4)
System:
Tetragonal
Colour:
Reddish brown, brown, ...
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Member of:
Name:
Named after Dr. Joseph Alexander Stolz (1803-1896), of Teplitz, Bohemia, Czech Republic, who provided the first specimen.
Dimorph of:
Stolzite-Wulfenite Series.
The tetragonal dimorph of raspite.

A rare secondary mineral in the oxidized zones of hydrothermal tungsten-bearing lead deposits.

Classification of Stolzite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7.GA.05

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
G : Molybdates, Wolframates and Niobates
A : Without additional anions or H2O
48.1.3.2

48 : ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
1 : AXO4
27.4.8

27 : Sulphites, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
4 : Tungstates
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First Recorded Occurrence of Stolzite

Place of Conservation of First Recorded Material:
Mining Academy, Freiberg, Saxony, Germany: #17596.
Year of Discovery:
1845

Occurrences of Stolzite

Geological Setting:
Oxidation zone of hydrothermal tungsten-bearing lead deposits.

Physical Properties of Stolzite

Sub-Adamantine, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Reddish brown, brown, yellowish gray, smoky-gray, gray-brown, ostraw-yellow, lemon-yellow, orange-yellow, red or green (rare)
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
2½ - 3
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
Imperfect on {001}; indistinct on {011}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
8.34 g/cm3 (Measured)    8.408 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Stolzite

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
I41/a
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.461Å, c = 12.049Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.206
Unit Cell Volume:
V 359.33 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals commonly dipyramidal {111}, {101} or other pyramidal forms; also thick tabular {001}, {101}, with {011}, {112}, {001}. Development may be complex with over 30 additional forms recorded. Prism faces horizontally striated; pyamidal faces often striated parallel to the edge {h0l}{hhl} or diagonally striated parallel to the edges with third-order pyramids.
Comment:
Space Group determined on synthetic material.

Crystallographic forms of Stolzite

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Stolzite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Stolzite no.21 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Stolzite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 2.270 nε = 2.180 - 2.190
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.090
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High

Chemical Properties of Stolzite

Formula:
Pb(WO4)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Mo

Relationship of Stolzite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Wulfenite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
PowelliteCa(MoO4)
RaspitePb(WO4)
ScheeliteCa(WO4)
WulfenitePb(MoO4)
7.GA.05Fergusonite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Nd)NbO4
7.GA.05Fergusonite-(Nd)(Nd,Ce)(Nb,Ti)O4
7.GA.05Fergusonite-(Y)YNbO4
7.GA.05PowelliteCa(MoO4)
7.GA.05ScheeliteCa(WO4)
7.GA.05WulfenitePb(MoO4)
7.GA.10Formanite-(Y)YTaO4
7.GA.10Iwashiroite-(Y)Y(Ta,Nb)O4
7.GA.15Paraniite-(Y)Ca2Y(AsO4)(WO4)2
27.4.1CuprotungstiteCu2(WO4)(OH)2
27.4.2ScheeliteCa(WO4)
27.4.4AnthoiniteAlWO3(OH)3
27.4.5MpororoiteWAlO3(OH)3 · 2(H2O)
27.4.6Yttrotungstite-(Y)YW2O6(OH)3
27.4.7Yttrotungstite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,Y)W2O6(OH)3
27.4.9RaspitePb(WO4)
27.4.10RusselliteBi2WO6
27.4.11PinalitePb3WO5Cl2
27.4.12Uranotungstite(Fe2+,Ba,Pb)(UO2)2(WO4)(OH)4 · 12H2O
27.4.13HübneriteMnWO4
27.4.14FerberiteFeWO4
27.4.15Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
27.4.16Ferritungstite
27.4.17Phyllotungstite(H2O,M)x(W,Fe)(O,OH)3 · yH2O (M = Ca, Cs, Pb or K)
27.4.18Qitianlingite(Fe,Mn)2(Nb,Ta)2WO10

Other Names for Stolzite

Other Information

May be bright red to red-orange (LW UV), and lemon-yellow (SW UV).
Thermal Behaviour:
Melting Point 1123° C.
Other Information:
Decomposed by HCl with the separation of yellow tungstic acid.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Stolzite

Reference List:
Breithaupt, A. (1820) Kurze Charakteristik des Mineral-System’s. 8vo, Freiberg: 14 (as Scheel-Bleispath).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 662 (as Scheeltine).

Haidinger (1845): 504 (as Stolzit).

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 989.

Hlawatsch (1897) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 29: 130.

Florence (1903) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 725.

Jaeger and Germs (1921) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 119: 145.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 138.

Goldschmidt, V. (1922) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 8: 87.

Vegard and Refsum (1927) Norske Videnskaps-Akademi, Oslo. Skrifter, Mat.-Nat. Kl., no. 2.

Glastonbury and Semmens (1929) Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia: 53: 258.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4094.

Aanerud (1931) Norske Videnskaps-Akademi, Oslo. Skrifter, Mat.-Nat. Kl., no. 13.

Jung (1931) Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 64A: 197.

Hodge-Smith (1934) Record of the Australian Museum: 19: 165.

Palache, C. (1941) American Mineralogist: 26: 429.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 1087-1089.

National Bureau of Standards, Circular (1957): 539(7): 24.

National Bureau of Standards Mono. (1967): 25(5): 34.

Soviet Physics – Crystallography (1971): 15: 928.

Hazen, R.M., L.W. Finger, and J.W.E. Mariathasan (1985) High-pressure crystal chemistry of scheelite-type tungstates and molybdates. Journal of Physical Chemistry Solids, 46, 253–263.

Xu Keqin, Xue Jiyue, Ding Yang, and Lu Guanglie (1994) Discovery of stolzite in China and refinement of its crystal structure. Acta Geologica Sinica, 68(3), 287–292 (in Chinese with English abs.).

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 666.

Secco, L., Nestola, F. and Dal Negro, A. (2008): The wulfenite–stolzite series: centric or acentric structures? Mineralogical Magazine, 72, 987-990.

Internet Links for Stolzite

Specimens:
The following Stolzite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Stolzite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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