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Struvite

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Formula:
(NH4)Mg(PO4) · 6H2O
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Colourless, white ...
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
1½ - 2
Member of:
Name:
Named after Heinrich Christoph Gottfried Struve (1722-1851) of the Russian diplomatic service, Consul at Hamburg (Germany).
[For comment on name see http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-284821.html]
Isostructural with:
Struvite Group.
The ammonium analogue of Struvite-(K).

A mineral commonly found as a product of organic decay in putrescent matter, canned foods or other bacterial action on organic compounds, and as a constituent of human kidney and bladder stones in alkaline and infected urines.

Classification of Struvite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8.CH.40

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
H : With large and medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O < 1:1
40.1.1.1

40 : HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
1 : AB(XO4)·xH2O
19.3.23

19 : Phosphates
3 : Phosphates of Be and Mg
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-3811.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

First Recorded Occurrence of Struvite

Year of Discovery:
1846
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
Medieval sewers

Occurrences of Struvite

Geological Setting:
Guano or dung deposits; peat beds; organically rich sediments.

Physical Properties of Struvite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless, white (dehydrated), yellow or brownish, light grey; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
1½ - 2
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {001}, good; on {100}, poor.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
1.711 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.705 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Struvite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.94Å, b = 11.2Å, c = 6.13Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.62 : 1 : 0.547
Unit Cell Volume:
V 476.47 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals equant; wedge-shaped (due to large and unequally developed {101} and {10_1}), coffin-shaped (when viewed along [100]); short prismatic [001], [010], or [100]; thick tabular {100}. The distribution of the pyramidal or domical faces is often irregular. Crystals commonly distinct, to 1 inch (2.5 cm), with a distinct hemimorphic habit.
Twinning:
On {001}. The acute poles of [001] unite in the composition plane {001}, with deep re-entrant angles.

Crystallographic forms of Struvite

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
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Struvite no.36 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Struvite no.47 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.905 (40)
5.601 (60)
4.257 (100)
4.139 (40)
2.919 (55)
2.690 (50)
2.660 (45)

Optical Data of Struvite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.495 nβ = 1.496 nγ = 1.504
2V:
Measured: 37° , Calculated: 40°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.009
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
relatively weak

Chemical Properties of Struvite

Formula:
(NH4)Mg(PO4) · 6H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Struvite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
HazeniteKNaMg2(PO4)2 · 14H2O
Struvite-(K)KMg(PO4)·6H2O
8.CH.05WalentaiteH(Ca,Mn2+,Fe2+)Fe33+(AsO4,PO4)4 · 7H2O
8.CH.10AnapaiteCa2Fe2+(PO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CH.15PicropharmacoliteCa4Mg(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 11H2O
8.CH.20Dittmarite(NH4)Mg(PO4) · H2O
8.CH.20Niahite(NH4)(Mn2+,Mg)(PO4) · H2O
8.CH.25FrancoanelliteK3Al5(PO4)2(HPO4)3 · 12H2O
8.CH.25Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
8.CH.30Schertelite(NH4)2MgH2(PO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CH.35Hannayite(NH4)2Mg3H4(PO4)4 · 8H2O
8.CH.40Struvite-(K)KMg(PO4)·6H2O
8.CH.40HazeniteKNaMg2(PO4)2 · 14H2O
8.CH.45Rimkorolgite(Mg,Mn)5(Ba,Sr,Ca)(PO4)4 · 8H2O
8.CH.50BakhchisaraitseviteNa2Mg5(PO4)4 · 7H2O
8.CH.55FahleiteZn5CaFe2(AsO4)6 · 14H2O
8.CH.55Smolyaninovite(Co,Ni,Mg,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(AsO4)4 · 11H2O
8.CH.60Barahonaite-(Al)(Ca,Cu,Na,Fe3+,Al)12Al2(AsO4)8(OH,Cl)x · nH2O
8.CH.60Barahonaite-(Fe)(Ca,Cu,Na,Fe3+,Al)12Fe23+(AsO4)8(OH,Cl)x · nH2O
19.3.1MoraesiteBe2(PO4)(OH) · 4H2O
19.3.2BerylloniteNaBePO4
19.3.3HurlbutiteCaBe2(PO4)2
19.3.4HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
19.3.5GlucineCaBe4(PO4)2(OH)4 · 0.5H2O
19.3.6FransoletiteCa3Be2(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
19.3.7UraloliteCa2Be4(PO4)3(OH)3 · 5H2O
19.3.9PahasapaiteLi8(Ca,Li,K)10.5Be24(PO4)24 · 38H2O
19.3.10TiptopiteK2(Na,Ca)2Li3Be6(PO4)6(OH)2 · H2O
19.3.11GainesiteNa(Na,K)(Be,Li)Zr2(PO4)4 · 1.5-2H2O
19.3.12RoscheriteCa2Mn52+Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
19.3.13Faheyite(Mn,Mg,Na)Be2Fe2(PO4)4 · 6H2O
19.3.14FarringtoniteMg3(PO4)2
19.3.15HoltedahliteMg2(PO4)(OH)
19.3.16AlthausiteMg4(PO4)2(OH,O)(F,☐)
19.3.17NewberyiteMg(HPO4) · 3H2O
19.3.18PhosphorrössleriteMg(HPO4) · 7H2O
19.3.19BobierriteMg3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
19.3.20Barićite(Mg,Fe)3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
19.3.21Panethite(Na,Ca)2(Mg,Fe2+)2(PO4)2
19.3.22Dittmarite(NH4)Mg(PO4) · H2O
19.3.24Hannayite(NH4)2Mg3H4(PO4)4 · 8H2O

Other Names for Struvite

Name in Other Languages:
Catalan:Struvita
Dutch:Struviet
Italian:Struvite
Polish:Struwit
Simplified Chinese:鸟粪石

Other Information

Electrical:
Pyroelectric. Piezoelectric.
Other Information:
Readily soluble in acids. Very slightly soluble in water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Struvite

Reference List:
Ulex (1845): Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm, Handlingar [Ak. Stockholm, Öfv.]: 3: 32 (as Struveit).

Teschemacher (1846): Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 28: 546 (as Guanite).

Ulex (1846): Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 58: 99 (as Struveit).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847): Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition: vol. 2, in two parts.

Ulex (1848): Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 66: 41 (as Struveit).

Ulex (1851): Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 51.

Pittman (1870): Contributions to the Minerals of Victoria: 56.

Sadebeck (1877): Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 113.

Kalkowsky (1886): Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 11: 1.

MacIvor (1887): Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science, London: 55: 215.

Robinson (1889): Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society: 6: 360.

Arzruni (1890): Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 18: 60.

Goldschmidt, V. (1890-91): Index der Krystallformen der Mineralien. 3 volumes: vol. 3, 420p.: 167.

Dana, E.S. (1892): System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 806.

Hoffmann (1901): American Journal of Science: 11: 149.

de Schulten (1903): Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 26: 95.

Bøggild (1907): Meddelelser Dansk. Geol. For.: 13: 25.

Goldschmidt, V. (1922): Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 8: 95.

Palache, C. (1923): American Mineralogist: 8: 72.

Porter (1924): American Mineralogist: 9: 93.

Hintze, Carl (1933): Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 1201.

Ayres (1942): American Mineralogist: 27: 387.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951): The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 715-717.

Acta Crystallographica: B26: 1429-1440.

Acta Crystallographica (1986): B42: 253.

Internet Links for Struvite

Localities for Struvite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Antarctica
 
  • Western Antarctica
Barczuk A. & Tatur A. 2003: BIOGENIC PHOSPHATE AND SULPHATE MINERALS IN THESOILS OF ANTARCTIC PENINSULA. Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 23, pp. 41-43
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • Bass Strait
http://www.crocoite.com/locationbulletins/part1/zeolites.pdf
    • Southern Islands
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
  • Victoria
    • Corangamite Shire
      • Skipton
        • Mt. Widderin (Anderson's Hill)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 699, 716.; Webb, J. A., Joyce, E. B., & Stevens, N. C. (1982). Lava caves of Australia. In Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology. International Speleological Foundation, Seattle. p74-85.
    • Warrnambool
Botswana
 
  • North-West District
    • Ngamiland West District
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
Canada
 
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
HORVÁTH, L. & PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. (2000) I minerali di Mont-Saint-Hilaire (Québec, Canada) Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, XXIV, 140-202 (in Italian with English summary).
  • Yukon Territory
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 710.
      • Klondike Area (Klondyke District; Klondike District)
        • Indian River Drainage
          • Quartz Creek Drainage
            • Quartz Creek
Traill, R. J. (1980) Catalog of Canadian Minerals: Revised 1980. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 80-18.
Denmark
 
  • Nordjylland Region
    • Aalborg
Bøggild, Ove Balthasar. 1907. Struvit fra Limfjorden, Meddelelser fra Dansk Geologiske Forening, 3(13), 25 Bøggild, Ove Balthasar. 1943. Danmarks mineraler, Danmarks Geologiske Undersøgelse, II. Række, no. 71 Johnstrup, Frederik. 1887. Struvit fra Limfjorden, 13. Skandinaviske Naturforskermøde Forhandlinger, 97 Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 716.
Falkland Islands
[Specimens in the Natural History Museum, London]
Germany
 
  • Hamburg
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 716.
  • Hesse
    • Taunus
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 716.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Lüneburg
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Kosovo
 
  • District of Kosovska Mitrovica
    • Kosovska Mitrovica
      • Trepča valley
        • Trepča complex
Féraud J. (1979) - La mine " Stari-Trg " (Trepca, Yougoslavie) et ses richesses minéralogiques. Avec la collaboration de Mari D. et G. (1979) Minéraux et Fossiles, n° 59-60, p. 19-28
Malaysia
 
  • Borneo Island
    • Sarawak
Mineralogical Magazine (1983): 47: 79-80.
Namibia
 
  • Karas Region
    • Lüderitz District
J.W. Anthony, R.A. Bideaux, K.W. Bladh, M.C. Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV (2000)
Netherlands
 
  • Noord-Holland
    • Amsterdam
geonieuws-1982-07-144
Réunion Island
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 716.
South Africa
 
  • Western Cape Province
    • West Coast District
      • Saldanha Bay
No reference listed; Minerals of South Africa
USA
 
  • California
    • Mono Co.
      • Mono Lake
Cohen, L.H. & P.H. Ribbe (1966), Magnesium phosphate mineral replacdement at Mono Lake California: American Mineralogist: 51: 1755-1765; Ribbe, P.H. and Cohen, L. (1966) Newberyite and monetite from Paoha Island, Mono Lake, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 19: 46; Cooper, J.F. & G.E. Dunning (1969), Struvite found at Mono Lake: California Division Mines & Geol. Min. Info Svc.: 22: 44-45; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 314; Walker, J. (1988): Paoha Island phosphates. Quarterly of San Bernardino County Museum Association, 35, 46-47.
  • Colorado
    • Chaffee Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Maine
    • Oxford Co.
      • Rumford
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, v. 1.
Venezuela
 
  • Miranda
Urbani, 1997. Bol. Soc. Venezolana de Espeleología, no.30.
Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
Mineral and/or Locality  
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