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Susannite

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Formula:
Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Colourless to greenish ...
Lustre:
Adamantine
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Name:
Named after the type locality, the Susanna Mine, Leadhills, Scotland.
The trigonal dimorph of leadhillite.

A mineral closely related to leadhillite and macphersonite. Tabular forms of susannite are easily confused with leadhillite.

Heating leadhillite causes it to reversibly transform into susannite in the temperature range from 50 to 82°C (Bindi & Menchetti, 2005).

Classification of Susannite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
5.BF.40

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
F : With (Cl), SO4, PO4, TeO3
17.1.3.1

17 : COMPOUND CARBONATES
1 : Miscellaneous
12.2.13

12 : Carbonates with other anions
2 : Carbonates with sulphate
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First Recorded Occurrence of Susannite

Year of Discovery:
1827

Occurrences of Susannite

Geological Setting:
Secondary mineral in oxidized zones of hydrothermal lead deposits formed above 80 degrees C.

Physical Properties of Susannite

Adamantine
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless to greenish or yellowish
Hardness (Mohs):
2½ - 3
Density:
6.52 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Susannite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3 - Pyramidal
Space Group:
P3
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.07Å, c = 11.57Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.276
Unit Cell Volume:
V 824.62 ų
Z:
3
Morphology:
Thin hexagonal plates.

Optical Data of Susannite

Type:
Uniaxial
Comments:
Anomalously biaxial

Chemical Properties of Susannite

Formula:
Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Susannite to other Species

5.BF.05FerrotychiteNa6(Fe,Mn,Mg)2(CO3)4(SO4)
5.BF.05ManganotychiteNa6Mn2(CO3)4(SO4)
5.BF.05NorthupiteNa3Mg(CO3)2Cl
5.BF.05TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
5.BF.10BonshtedtiteNa3Fe2+(CO3)(PO4)
5.BF.10BradleyiteNa3Mg(CO3)(PO4)
5.BF.10CrawforditeNa3Sr(CO3)(PO4)
5.BF.10SidorenkiteNa3Mn2+(CO3)(PO4)
5.BF.15Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
5.BF.20Reederite-(Y)(Na,Mn)15Y2(CO3)9(FSO3)Cl
5.BF.25Mineevite-(Y)Na25Ba(Y,Gd,Dy)2(CO3)11(HCO3)4(SO4)2F2Cl
5.BF.30BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
5.BF.35PhilolithitePb12Mn2+(Mg,Mn2+)2(Mn2+,Mg)4(CO3)4(SO4)O6(OH)12Cl4
5.BF.40LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
5.BF.40MacphersonitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
12.2.1BurkeiteNa6(CO3)(SO4)2
12.2.2HanksiteNa22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl
12.2.3TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
12.2.4MotukoreaiteMg6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2O
12.2.5FerrotychiteNa6(Fe,Mn,Mg)2(CO3)4(SO4)
12.2.6NakauriiteCu8(SO4)4(CO3)(OH)6 · 48H2O
12.2.7CarbonatecyanotrichiteCu4Al2(CO3,SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
12.2.8RapidcreekiteCa2(SO4)(CO3) · 4H2O
12.2.9TatarskiteCa6Mg2(SO4)2(CO3)2(OH)4Cl4 · 7H2O
12.2.10Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4,CO3)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
12.2.11LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
12.2.12MacphersonitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
12.2.14WherryitePb7Cu2(SO4)4(SiO4)2(OH)2
12.2.15CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
12.2.16NasledovitePbMn3Al4(CO3)4(SO4)O5 · 5H2O
12.2.17JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4}(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
12.2.18SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
12.2.19ManganotychiteNa6Mn2(CO3)4(SO4)
12.2.20HauckiteFe33+(Mg,Mn2+)24Zn18(SO4)4(CO3)2(OH)81
12.2.21ParaotwayiteNi(OH)2-x(SO4,CO3)0.5x
12.2.22Carrboydite[(Ni1-xAlx)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2O
12.2.23Mountkeithite[(Mg1-xFex3+)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2O
12.2.24CamerolaiteCu6Al3(OH)18(H2O)2[Sb(OH)6](SO4)

Other Names for Susannite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Susannit
Spanish:Susannita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Susannite

Reference List:
Brooke (1827) Edinburgh New Phil. J.: 3: 117 (as Sulphato-tricarbonate of Lead).

Haidinger (1845) Handbuch bestimm.Min., 1st ed.: 505.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 298-299.

American Mineralogist (1970): 55: 1449.

K. Walenta, U. Kolitsch and T. Gulden (1997): On leadhillite and susannite with special regard to occurrences in the Black Forest. Aufschluss 48 (1), 59-64. (in German)

Steele, I. M., Pluth, J. J. & Livingstone, A. (1999): Crystal structure of susannite, Pb4SO4(CO3)2(OH)2. A trimorph with macphersonite and leadhillite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 11: 493-499.

Bindi, L. & Menchetti, S. (2005): Structural changes accompanying the phase transformation between leadhillite and susannite: A structural study by means of in situ high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist 90, 1641-1647.

Internet Links for Susannite

Specimens:
The following Susannite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Susannite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
      • Hüttenberg
        • Waitschach
Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
  • Styria
    • Fischbacher Alpen
      • Spital am Semmering
        • Steinhaus am Semmering
          • Fröschnitz valley (Fröschnitz)
P. Tomazic, F. Bernhard, U. Kolitsch und G. Knobloch (2012): Mineralogie eines historischen Bergbaues auf Eisen und Silber am Arzberg bei Steinhaus am Semmering. Der Steirische Mineralog 26, 4-9.
Brazil
 
  • São Paulo
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias (1983), 55 (3), 263-270.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Ústí Region
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
        • Dubí (Eichwald)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 298.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 299.
France
 
  • Auvergne
    • Haute-Loire
      • Sainte-Sigolène
        • Saint-Pal-de-Mons
Queneau Patrice collection
  • Burgundy
    • Saône-et-Loire
      • Saint-Léger-sous-Beuvray
        • Saint-Prix
          • L'Argentolle
Sarp, H. (1984): Seconde occurrence du nouveau minéral Scotlandite PbSO3. Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt., 64, 317-321.
  • Franche-Comté
    • Territoire-de-Belfort
      • Auxelles-Haut
U. Kolitsch (1997): Neufunde von Mineralien aus einigen Vorkommen der Vogesen, Frankreich: Giromagny, Auxelles-Haut und Kruth 1. Aufschluss 48 (4), 243-256.
  • Languedoc-Roussillon
    • Lozère
      • Pont-de-Montvert
        • Vialas
No reference listed
  • Lorraine
    • Vosges
      • Upper Moselle Valley
        • Remiremont
Nicolas MEISSER analysis, Lausanne Geological Museum
  • Rhône-Alpes
    • Loire
      • La Pacaudière
        • Le Crozet
          • Les Rats Mine
Chollet, P. & Devouard, B. (2013): La mine de cuivre et de plomb des Rats, Le Crozet (Loire). Le Règne Minéral, 109, 7-46.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Badenweiler
Lapis 23(12), 45 (1998)
      • Gengenbach
        • Haigerach valley
Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
      • Hausach
        • Einbach valley
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Münstertal
        • Belchen
Lapis 23(12), 45 (1998)
Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
      • Schapbach
        • Wildschapbach valley
Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
      • Schauinsland Pb-Zn mining district
        • Hofsgrund (South field)
Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
      • Todtnau
Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/Deutschland/Baden-W%FCrttemberg/Schwarzwald/Todtnau/Lisb%FChl
      • Waldshut
        • Brenden
Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
KOLITSCH, U. (1997): Uranosphärit und weitere neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Clara im Schwarzwald. - Mineralien-Welt 8 (3), 18-26; U. Kolitsch, J. Gröbner, G. Blaß and H.-W. Graf (2007): Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald (III): Cerianit-(Ce), Dravit, Florencit-(La), Gilmarit, Olenit und Scotlandit. Lapis 32, 19-23, 70.
  • Hesse
    • Richelsdorf District
      • Süss
        • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Taunus
      • Bad Camberg
        • Eisenbach
S. Weiss: Mineralfundstellen Deutschland West, Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
        • Bockswies veins
          • Oberschulenberg
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Zellerfeld veins
Gröbner, J. & Nikoleizig, J. (2009): Die Mineralien der Gruben Kahlenbergsglück & Grüne Tanne am Kahlenberg bei Zellerfeld. Mineralien-Welt 20 (4), 34-39.
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
No reference listed
      • Lautenthal
No reference listed
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1991): Mineralogische Notizen V. Aufschluss 42, 155-171.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Stolberg
International Association of Collectors of Slag
    • Bergisches Land
      • Engelskirchen
        • Loope
Habel, B. & Linder, R. (2009): Die Grube "Castor" bei Loope und ihre Mineralien. Mineralien-Welt 20 (3), 10-23
    • Münsterland
      • Steinfurt
        • Ibbenbüren
          • Schafberg
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Niederberg area
      • Velbert
        • Rützkausen
Harms, U. (2010): Sekundärmineralisation von der Grube Josephine in Velbert (Rheinland) - Beschreibung und geochemische Bildungsbedingungen. Decheniana (Bonn) 163, 179-184.
    • Sauerland
      • Meschede
        • Ramsbeck
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Sundern
        • Bönkhausen
Lapis, 14 (2), 22-27+33+42.
    • Siegerland
      • Burbach
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Eiserfeld
        • Kohlenbach Valley
Henrich, M. (2009): Mineralien-Welt 20 (5), 14-27.
      • Wilnsdorf
Lapis, 12 (1), 11-18+42.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Lahn valley
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Frücht
Der Aufschluss Vol.55, March/April 2004
    • Palatinate
      • Dahn (Dahner Felsenland)
        • Nothweiler
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Siegerland
      • Niederfischbach
        • Niederndorf
Henrich, J. M. (2007: Die Mineralien der Grube Fürst Moritz bei Niederndorf. Mineralien-Welt 18 (4), 20-26. (in German)
    • Westerwald
      • Linz am Rhein
        • Rheinbreitbach
Weiss: "Mineralienfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Zschopau
checked SEM-EDS / X-RAY by St.Michalski
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1982): Neue Schlackenminerale aus Laurion. Der Aufschluss, 33 (12), 459-462.
        • Agios Nikolaos [St Nicholas] area
No reference listed
        • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
No reference listed
        • Oxygon area
No reference listed
        • Panormos area
No reference listed
        • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Sounion area
Laurion The minerals in the ancient slags by Piet Gelaude etc.
No reference listed
        • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Tourkolimanon area
No reference listed
        • Vrissaki area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
  • Thraki Department (Thrace; Thracia)
    • Évros Prefecture
      • Kirki Mines (Kirka)
L. Rantos collection
Ireland
 
  • Co. Mayo
Italy
 
  • Lombardy
    • Varese Province
      • Boarezzo
Orlandi, P., & Campostrini, I., 2006. Boarezzo. I minerali della ricerca mineraria "Pradisci". Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 30 (1), 14-24.
  • Sardinia
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Iglesias
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias (1983), 55 (3), 263-270.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Piombino
Muenchener Micromounter-Lithothek
  • Veneto
    • Vicenza Province
      • Torrebelvicino
        • Mercanti Valley
- Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
- Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
XRD analysis at Padova University
Namibia
 
  • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
    • Tsumeb
Georg Gebhard, Tsumeb II, page 200
Romania
 
  • Caraş-Severin Co.
    • Banat Mts
      • Moldova Nouă-Sasca Cu-Mo ore field
www.minerals-of-the-carpathians,2009
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
      • Chitinskaya Oblast'
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 299.
UK
 
  • England
    • Cumbria
      • North and Western Region (Cumberland)
        • Caldbeck Fells
          • Carrock Fell
No reference listed
          • Deer Hills
No reference listed
          • Roughton Gill
No reference listed
Journal of The Russell Society, Volume11, 2008
No reference listed
No reference listed
Pluth, J. J., Steele, I. M., Kampf, A. R. & Green, D. I. (2005): Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)•H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.
    • Derbyshire
      • Whitwell
vanadinite and descloizite, probably the best yet to be found in England and the secondary lead mineral suite including leadhillite, lanarkite, cerussite, anglesite, pyromorphite, scotlandite, mattheddleite and possibly susannite. Other minerals found were barite, calcite, hemimorphite, and sphalerite.
  • Scotland
    • Dumfries & Galloway (Dumfriesshire)
      • Wanlockhead
        • Wanlock Dod-Whytes Cleuch
BMS Database
    • Strathclyde (Lanarkshire)
      • South Lanarkshire
Scottish J. Geol. 23, 1-8(1987)
No reference listed
          • Mine Hill-Broad Law
Steve Rust collection
Minerals of Scotland 2002. A.Livingstone.pp132-133
          • Wanlock Dod
Steve Rust Collection
Steve Rust Collection
          • Wool Law
S. Rust Collection
  • Wales
    • Ceredigion (Dyfed; Cardiganshire)
      • Ceulanymaesmawr
        • Talybont
[UKJMM 17 (1996) p.18]
          • Nant-y-Moch Reservoir area
S Rust collection
UKJMM No5
      • Llangynfelyn
        • Tre-Taliesin
S Rust Collection
      • Trefeirig
        • Bontgoch
S. Rust collection
        • Pen-bont Rhydybeddau
S. Rust collection
S Rust Collection
S Rust Collection
      • Upper Llanfihangell-y-Creuddyn
        • Cwmystwyth
Steve Rust
        • Devil's Bridge
No reference listed
        • Pontrhydygroes
UKJMM 17
      • Ysbyty Ystwyth
No reference listed
BMS Database
        • Lisburne Lead and Silver Mines
No reference listed
    • Powys (Montgomeryshire)
      • Llangynog
S.Rust collection
      • Machynlleth
        • Dylife
S Rust Collection
    • Powys (Radnorshire)
      • Rhayader
S. Rust collection
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
[MinRec 24:421]
  • Pennsylvania
    • Montgomery Co.
      • Lower Providence Township
        • Audubon
          • Perkiomen Mines
Min of PA 1922-65, A. Montgomery, pgs. 25-26
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