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|System:||Trigonal||Colour:||Colourless to greenish ...|
|Lustre:||Adamantine||Hardness:||2½ - 3|
|Name:||Named after the type locality, the Susanna Mine, Leadhills, Scotland.|
The trigonal dimorph of leadhillite.
A mineral closely related to leadhillite and macphersonite. Tabular forms of susannite are easily confused with leadhillite.
Heating leadhillite causes it to reversibly transform into susannite in the temperature range from 50 to 82°C (Bindi & Menchetti, 2005).
Classification of Susannite
|IMA status:||Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"|
|Strunz 8th edition ID:||6/B.13-70|
|Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:||5.BF.40|
5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
F : With (Cl), SO4, PO4, TeO3
|Dana 8th edition ID:||188.8.131.52|
17 : COMPOUND CARBONATES
1 : Miscellaneous
|Hey's CIM Ref.:||12.2.13|
12 : Carbonates with other anions
2 : Carbonates with sulphate
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Type Occurrence of Susannite
|Type Locality:||Susanna Mine (Glennery Scar Vein; Susanna Vein [Scar Vein]; Portobello Vein; Humby Vein; Lead Vein), Leadhills, South Lanarkshire, Strathclyde (Lanarkshire), Scotland, UK|
|Year of Discovery:||1827|
Occurrences of Susannite
|Geological Setting:||Secondary mineral in oxidized zones of hydrothermal lead deposits formed above 80 degrees C.|
Physical Properties of Susannite
|Diaphaneity (Transparency):||Transparent, Translucent|
|Colour:||Colourless to greenish or yellowish|
|Hardness (Mohs):||2½ - 3|
|Density (calculated):||6.52 g/cm3|
Crystallography of Susannite
|Class (H-M):||3 - Pyramidal|
|Cell Parameters:||a = 9.07Å, c = 11.57Å|
|Ratio:||a:c = 1 : 1.276|
|Unit Cell Volume:||V 824.62 Å³|
|Morphology:||Thin hexagonal plates.|
Optical Data of Susannite
Chemical Properties of Susannite
|Simplified for copy/paste:||Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2|
|Essential elements:||C, H, O, Pb, S|
|All elements listed in formula:||C, H, O, Pb, S|
Relationship of Susannite to other Species
|Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):|
|Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:|
Other Names for Susannite
|Health Warning:||No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.|
References for Susannite
Brooke (1827) Edinburgh New Phil. J.: 3: 117 (as Sulphato-tricarbonate of Lead).
Haidinger (1845) Handbuch bestimm.Min., 1st ed.: 505.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 298-299.
American Mineralogist (1970): 55: 1449.
K. Walenta, U. Kolitsch and T. Gulden (1997): On leadhillite and susannite with special regard to occurrences in the Black Forest. Aufschluss 48 (1), 59-64. (in German)
Steele, I. M., Pluth, J. J. & Livingstone, A. (1999): Crystal structure of susannite, Pb4SO4(CO3)2(OH)2. A trimorph with macphersonite and leadhillite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 11: 493-499.
Bindi, L. & Menchetti, S. (2005): Structural changes accompanying the phase transformation between leadhillite and susannite: A structural study by means of in situ high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist 90, 1641-1647.
Internet Links for Susannite
|Specimens:||The following Susannite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.|
Localities for Susannite
The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
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