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Susannite

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Formula:
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
System:TrigonalColour:Colourless to greenish ...
Lustre:AdamantineHardness:2½ - 3
Name:Named after the type locality, the Susanna Mine, Leadhills, Scotland.
Polymorph of:Leadhillite, Macphersonite


The trigonal dimorph of leadhillite.

A mineral closely related to leadhillite and macphersonite. Tabular forms of susannite are easily confused with leadhillite.

Heating leadhillite causes it to reversibly transform into susannite in the temperature range from 50 to 82°C (Bindi & Menchetti, 2005).

Classification of Susannite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/B.13-70
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:5.BF.40

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
F : With (Cl), SO4, PO4, TeO3
Dana 8th edition ID:17.1.3.1

17 : COMPOUND CARBONATES
1 : Miscellaneous
Hey's CIM Ref.:12.2.13

12 : Carbonates with other anions
2 : Carbonates with sulphate
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Type Occurrence of Susannite

Type Locality:Susanna Mine (Glennery Scar Vein; Susanna Vein [Scar Vein]; Portobello Vein; Humby Vein; Lead Vein), Leadhills, South Lanarkshire, Strathclyde (Lanarkshire), Scotland, UK
Year of Discovery:1827

Occurrences of Susannite

Geological Setting:Secondary mineral in oxidized zones of hydrothermal lead deposits formed above 80 degrees C.

Physical Properties of Susannite

Lustre:Adamantine
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colourless to greenish or yellowish
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3
Density (calculated):6.52 g/cm3

Crystallography of Susannite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3 - Pyramidal
Space Group:P3
Cell Parameters:a = 9.07Å, c = 11.57Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.276
Unit Cell Volume:V 824.62 ų
Z:3
Morphology:Thin hexagonal plates.

Optical Data of Susannite

Type:Uniaxial
Comments:Anomalously biaxial

Chemical Properties of Susannite

Formula:
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Essential elements:C, H, O, Pb, S
All elements listed in formula:C, H, O, Pb, S

Relationship of Susannite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
5.BF.05Ferrotychite
Na
 
6
(Fe,Mn,Mg)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
5.BF.05Manganotychite
Na
 
6
Mn
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
5.BF.05Northupite
Na
 
3
Mg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
Cl
5.BF.05Tychite
Na
 
6
Mg
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
5.BF.10Bonshtedtite
Na
 
3
Fe
2+
 
(CO
 
3
)(PO
 
4
)
5.BF.10Bradleyite
Na
 
3
Mg(CO
 
3
)(PO
 
4
)
5.BF.10Crawfordite
Na
 
3
Sr(CO
 
3
)(PO
 
4
)
5.BF.10Sidorenkite
Na
 
3
Mn
2+
 
(CO
 
3
)(PO
 
4
)
5.BF.15Daqingshanite-(Ce)
(Sr,Ca,Ba)
 
3
(Ce,La)(CO
 
3
)
 
3-x
(PO
 
4
)(OH,F)
 
2x
5.BF.20Reederite-(Y)
(Na,Mn)
 
15
Y
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
9
(FSO
 
3
)Cl
5.BF.25Mineevite-(Y)
Na
 
25
Ba(Y,Gd,Dy)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
11
(HCO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
F
 
2
Cl
5.BF.30Brianyoungite
Zn
 
3
(CO
 
3
,SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
5.BF.35Philolithite
Pb
 
12
Mn
2+
 
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)O
 
6
(OH)
 
12
Cl
 
4
5.BF.40Leadhillite
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
5.BF.40Macphersonite
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
12.2.1Burkeite
Na
 
6
(CO
 
3
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
12.2.2Hanksite
Na
 
22
K(SO
 
4
)
 
9
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
Cl
12.2.3Tychite
Na
 
6
Mg
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
12.2.4Motukoreaite
Mg
 
6
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
18
[Na(H
 
2
O)
 
6
][SO
 
4
]
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
12.2.5Ferrotychite
Na
 
6
(Fe,Mn,Mg)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
12.2.6Nakauriite
Cu
 
8
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· 48H
 
2
O
12.2.7Carbonatecyanotrichite
Cu
 
4
Al
 
2
(CO
 
3
,SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 2H
 
2
O
12.2.8Rapidcreekite
Ca
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(CO
 
3
) · 4H
 
2
O
12.2.9Tatarskite
Ca
 
6
Mg
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
Cl
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
12.2.10Schulenbergite
(Cu,Zn)
 
7
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
10
· 3H
 
2
O
12.2.11Leadhillite
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
12.2.12Macphersonite
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
12.2.14Wherryite
Pb
 
7
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
12.2.15Caledonite
Pb
 
5
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
12.2.16Nasledovite
PbMn
 
3
Al
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)O
 
5
· 5H
 
2
O
12.2.17Jouravskite
Ca
 
3
Mn
4+
 
(SO
 
4
}(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· 12H
 
2
O
12.2.18Schröckingerite
NaCa
 
3
(UO
 
2
)(CO
 
3
)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)F · 10H
 
2
O
12.2.19Manganotychite
Na
 
6
Mn
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
12.2.20Hauckite
Fe
3+
3
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
24
Zn
 
18
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
81
12.2.21Paraotwayite
Ni(OH)
 
2-x
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
0.5x
12.2.22Carrboydite
[(Ni
 
1-x
Al
 
x
)(OH)
 
2
][SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
12.2.23Mountkeithite
[(Mg
 
1-x
Fe
3+
x
)(OH)
 
2
][SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
12.2.24Camerolaite
Cu
 
4
Al
 
2
(HSbO
 
4
,SO
 
4
)(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
10
· 2H
 
2
O

Other Names for Susannite

Other Languages:
German:Susannit
Russian:Сузаннит
Spanish:Susannita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Susannite

Reference List:

- +
Brooke (1827) Edinburgh New Phil. J.: 3: 117 (as Sulphato-tricarbonate of Lead).

Haidinger (1845) Handbuch bestimm.Min., 1st ed.: 505.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 298-299.

American Mineralogist (1970): 55: 1449.

K. Walenta, U. Kolitsch and T. Gulden (1997): On leadhillite and susannite with special regard to occurrences in the Black Forest. Aufschluss 48 (1), 59-64. (in German)

Steele, I. M., Pluth, J. J. & Livingstone, A. (1999): Crystal structure of susannite, Pb4SO4(CO3)2(OH)2. A trimorph with macphersonite and leadhillite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 11: 493-499.

Bindi, L. & Menchetti, S. (2005): Structural changes accompanying the phase transformation between leadhillite and susannite: A structural study by means of in situ high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist 90, 1641-1647.

Internet Links for Susannite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Susannite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Search for Susannite on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Localities for Susannite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
        • Hüttenberg
          • Waitschach
    Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
    • Styria
      • Fischbacher Alpen
        • Spital am Semmering
          • Steinhaus am Semmering
            • Fröschnitz valley (Fröschnitz)
    P. Tomazic, F. Bernhard, U. Kolitsch und G. Knobloch (2012): Mineralogie eines historischen Bergbaues auf Eisen und Silber am Arzberg bei Steinhaus am Semmering. Der Steirische Mineralog 26, 4-9.
    Brazil
     
    • São Paulo
    Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias (1983), 55 (3), 263-270.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Ústí Region
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
          • Dubí (Eichwald)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 298.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 299.
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Haute-Loire
        • Sainte-Sigolène
          • Saint-Pal-de-Mons
    Queneau Patrice collection
    • Burgundy
      • Saône-et-Loire
        • Saint-Léger-sous-Beuvray
          • Saint-Prix
            • L'Argentolle
    Sarp, H. (1984): Seconde occurrence du nouveau minéral Scotlandite PbSO3. Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt., 64, 317-321.
    • Franche-Comté
      • Territoire-de-Belfort
        • Auxelles-Haut
    U. Kolitsch (1997): Neufunde von Mineralien aus einigen Vorkommen der Vogesen, Frankreich: Giromagny, Auxelles-Haut und Kruth 1. Aufschluss 48 (4), 243-256.
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Lozère
        • Pont-de-Montvert
          • Vialas
    No reference listed
    • Lorraine
      • Vosges
        • Upper Moselle Valley
          • Remiremont
    Nicolas MEISSER analysis, Lausanne Geological Museum
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Loire
        • La Pacaudière
          • Le Crozet
    Chollet, P. & Devouard, B. (2013): La mine de cuivre et de plomb des Rats, Le Crozet (Loire). Le Règne Minéral, 109, 7-46.
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Badenweiler
    Lapis 23(12), 45 (1998)
        • Gengenbach
          • Haigerach valley
    Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
        • Hausach
          • Einbach valley
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Münstertal
          • Belchen
    Lapis 23(12), 45 (1998)
    Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
        • Schapbach
          • Wildschapbach valley
    Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
        • Schauinsland Pb-Zn mining district
          • Hofsgrund (South field)
    Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
        • Todtnau
    Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
    http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/Deutschland/Baden-W%FCrttemberg/Schwarzwald/Todtnau/Lisb%FChl
        • Waldshut
          • Brenden
    Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
            • Rankach valley
    KOLITSCH, U. (1997): Uranosphärit und weitere neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Clara im Schwarzwald. - Mineralien-Welt 8 (3), 18-26; U. Kolitsch, J. Gröbner, G. Blaß and H.-W. Graf (2007): Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald (III): Cerianit-(Ce), Dravit, Florencit-(La), Gilmarit, Olenit und Scotlandit. Lapis 32, 19-23, 70.
    • Hesse
      • Richelsdorf District
        • Süss
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Taunus
        • Bad Camberg
          • Eisenbach
    S. Weiss: Mineralfundstellen Deutschland West, Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
          • Bockswies veins
            • Oberschulenberg
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
          • Zellerfeld veins
    Gröbner, J. & Nikoleizig, J. (2009): Die Mineralien der Gruben Kahlenbergsglück & Grüne Tanne am Kahlenberg bei Zellerfeld. Mineralien-Welt 20 (4), 34-39.
        • Goslar
          • Astfeld
    No reference listed
        • Lautenthal
    No reference listed
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1991): Mineralogische Notizen V. Aufschluss 42, 155-171.
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Aachen
        • Stolberg
    International Association of Collectors of Slag
      • Bergisches Land
        • Engelskirchen
          • Loope
    Habel, B. & Linder, R. (2009): Die Grube "Castor" bei Loope und ihre Mineralien. Mineralien-Welt 20 (3), 10-23
      • Münsterland
        • Steinfurt
          • Ibbenbüren
            • Schafberg
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Niederberg area
        • Velbert
          • Rützkausen
    Harms, U. (2010): Sekundärmineralisation von der Grube Josephine in Velbert (Rheinland) - Beschreibung und geochemische Bildungsbedingungen. Decheniana (Bonn) 163, 179-184.
      • Sauerland
        • Meschede
          • Ramsbeck
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Sundern
          • Bönkhausen
    Lapis, 14 (2), 22-27+33+42.
      • Siegerland
        • Burbach
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Eiserfeld
          • Kohlenbach Valley
    Henrich, M. (2009): Mineralien-Welt 20 (5), 14-27.
        • Wilnsdorf
    Lapis, 12 (1), 11-18+42.
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Lahn valley
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
          • Frücht
    Der Aufschluss Vol.55, March/April 2004
      • Palatinate
        • Dahn (Dahner Felsenland)
          • Nothweiler
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Siegerland
        • Niederfischbach
          • Niederndorf
    Henrich, J. M. (2007: Die Mineralien der Grube Fürst Moritz bei Niederndorf. Mineralien-Welt 18 (4), 20-26. (in German)
      • Westerwald
        • Linz am Rhein
          • Rheinbreitbach
    Weiss: "Mineralienfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
        • Zschopau
    checked SEM-EDS / X-RAY by St.Michalski
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1982): Neue Schlackenminerale aus Laurion. Der Aufschluss, 33 (12), 459-462.
          • Agios Nikolaos [St Nicholas] area
    No reference listed
          • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
    No reference listed
          • Oxygon area
    No reference listed
          • Panormos area
    No reference listed
          • Passa Limani area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Sounion area
    No reference listed
          • Thorikos area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Tourkolimanon area
    No reference listed
          • Vrissaki area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    • Thraki Department (Thrace; Thracia)
      • Évros Prefecture
        • Kirki Mines (Kirka)
    L. Rantos collection
    Ireland
     
    • Co. Mayo
    Italy
     
    • Lombardy
      • Varese Province
        • Boarezzo
    Orlandi, P., & Campostrini, I., 2006. Boarezzo. I minerali della ricerca mineraria "Pradisci". Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 30 (1), 14-24.
    • Sardinia
      • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
        • Iglesias
    Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias (1983), 55 (3), 263-270.
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Piombino
    Muenchener Micromounter-Lithothek
    • Veneto
      • Vicenza Province
        • Torrebelvicino
          • Mercanti Valley
    - Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
    - Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
    XRD analysis at Padova University
    Namibia
     
    • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
      • Tsumeb
    Georg Gebhard, Tsumeb II, page 200
    Romania
     
    • Caraş-Severin Co.
      • Banat Mts
        • Moldova Nouă-Sasca Cu-Mo ore field
    www.minerals-of-the-carpathians,2009
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Chitinskaya Oblast'
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 299.
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cumbria
        • North and Western Region (Cumberland)
          • Caldbeck Fells
            • Carrock Fell
    No reference listed
            • Deer Hills
    No reference listed
            • Roughton Gill
    No reference listed
    Journal of The Russell Society, Volume11, 2008
    No reference listed
    No reference listed
    Pluth, J. J., Steele, I. M., Kampf, A. R. & Green, D. I. (2005): Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)•H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.
      • Derbyshire
        • Whitwell
    vanadinite and descloizite, probably the best yet to be found in England and the secondary lead mineral suite including leadhillite, lanarkite, cerussite, anglesite, pyromorphite, scotlandite, mattheddleite and possibly susannite. Other minerals found were barite, calcite, hemimorphite, and sphalerite.
    • Scotland
      • Dumfries & Galloway (Dumfriesshire)
        • Wanlockhead
          • Wanlock Dod-Whytes Cleuch
    BMS Database
      • Strathclyde (Lanarkshire)
        • South Lanarkshire
    Scottish J. Geol. 23, 1-8(1987)
    No reference listed
            • Mine Hill-Broad Law
    Steve Rust collection
    Minerals of Scotland 2002. A.Livingstone.pp132-133
            • Wanlock Dod
    Steve Rust Collection
    Steve Rust Collection
            • Wool Law
    S. Rust Collection
    • Wales
      • Ceredigion (Dyfed; Cardiganshire)
        • Ceulanymaesmawr
          • Talybont
    [UKJMM 17 (1996) p.18]
            • Nant-y-Moch Reservoir area
    S Rust collection
    UKJMM No5
        • Llangynfelyn
          • Tre-Taliesin
    S Rust Collection
        • Trefeirig
          • Bontgoch
    S. Rust collection
          • Pen-bont Rhydybeddau
    S. Rust collection
    S Rust Collection
    S Rust Collection
        • Upper Llanfihangell-y-Creuddyn
          • Cwmystwyth
    Steve Rust
          • Devil's Bridge
    No reference listed
          • Pontrhydygroes
    UKJMM 17
        • Ysbyty Ystwyth
    No reference listed
    BMS Database
          • Lisburne Lead and Silver Mines
    No reference listed
      • Powys (Montgomeryshire)
        • Llangynog
    S.Rust collection
        • Machynlleth
          • Dylife
    S Rust Collection
      • Powys (Radnorshire)
        • Rhayader
    S. Rust collection
    USA
     
    • Arizona
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    [MinRec 24:421]
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    Min of PA 1922-65, A. Montgomery, pgs. 25-26
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