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Anton von Swab
Colorless, light yellow, gray, light brown; colourless in transmitted light.
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Greasy
Specific Gravity:
3.5 - 3.8
Crystal System:
Named in 1891 by (Sten Anders) Hjalmar Sjögren in honor of Anton von Swab (Svab) [July 29, 1703 Fahlun, Sweden - January 28, 1768 Stockholm, Sweden], chemist, mineralogist, and Swedish mining official - Bergmästaregatan in Skåne and Kronoberg. Swab was a step-brother of Emmanuel Swedenborg. Swab made important discoveries. He refined zinc from calamine and later from blende and together with Axel Cronstedt developed a commercial process for refining zinc and in turn greatly aided the manufacture of brass in Sweden. Swab also discovered native antimony at Sala, Sweden. Weeks (1960) cited an obituary of Anton von Swab and Georg Brandt written by Carl von Linne: "The kingdom and our sciences have now lost in a single year two stars of the first magnitude, Brandt and Svab. The Bureau of Mines and the science of mining have lost their supporting pillars. Men such as these never spring up like mushrooms. So far as I know, Europe has none like them. ... A king can lose an army, but within a year have another ]ust as good. A king can lose a fleet and within two years have another rigged up, but a Brandt and a Svab cannot be gotten again during his entire reign"

Isostructural with:
Apatite Supergroup. The arsenate analogue of fluorapatite.

Forms a series toward fluorapatite with an increase of P for As. Also forms a series toward hedyphane and mimetite with an increase of Pb and Cl. Occurs as an rare accessory mineral in calc-silicate skarns.

Sjögren (1891) described and named svabite as a new mineral from Harstigen, Värmland, Sweden. In 1892 he reported the occurrence of svabite at Harstigen and also at another locality, the Jakobsberg Mine, Sweden. At the time they did not distinguish between OH-dominant and F-dominant calcium arsenate. A re-examination of the chemical analyses of Sjögren (1891, 1892) shows that the mineral from Harstigen was probably not svabite (F-dominant), but johnbaumite (OH-dominant). The reason for "probably" concerns the inaccuracy of fluorine determinations in the time period. The Sjögren (1891, 1892) chemical analysis of the specimen from Jakobsberg is F-dominant (svabite). The accuracy of the analysis of the Harstigen specimen relating to its being the type locality for svabite, has been questioned (Biagioni & Pasero 2013) and Jakobsberg may be regarded as the type locality.

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Classification of SvabiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
N : With only large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 0.33:1

8 : A5(XO4)3Zq

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
1 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with fluoride

Physical Properties of SvabiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Greasy
Transparent, Translucent
Colorless, light yellow, gray, light brown; colourless in transmitted light.
On {1010}, indistinct.
3.5 - 3.8 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.67 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Lowest in material low in Pb and high in P.

Optical Data of SvabiteHide

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.706 nε = 1.698
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.008
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of SvabiteHide

Common Impurities:

Crystallography of SvabiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.75 Å, c = 6.92 Å
a:c = 1 : 0.71
Unit Cell V:
569.70 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals short prismatic [0001]. Also massive.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
3.94 (40)
3.44 (50)
2.87 (100)
2.79 (90)
2.65 (40)
1.981 (40)
1.860 (60)
From "Langban, Sweden"

Type Occurrence of SvabiteHide

Other Language Names for SvabiteHide

Relationship of Svabite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)Hex. 6/m : P63/m
JohnbaumiteCa5(AsO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m
MimetitePb5(AsO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
PieczkaiteMn5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
StronadelphiteSr5(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
Unnamed (F-analogue of Pyromorphite)Pb5(PO4)3F
Unnamed (OH-analogue of Mimetite)Pb5(AsO4)3(OH)
VanadinitePb5(VO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Tilasite21 photos of Svabite associated with Tilasite on
Calcite7 photos of Svabite associated with Calcite on
Barysilite4 photos of Svabite associated with Barysilite on
Spessartine3 photos of Svabite associated with Spessartine on
Bergslagite2 photos of Svabite associated with Bergslagite on
Braunite2 photos of Svabite associated with Braunite on
Barytocalcite2 photos of Svabite associated with Barytocalcite on
Richterite2 photos of Svabite associated with Richterite on
Hematite2 photos of Svabite associated with Hematite on
Långbanite1 photo of Svabite associated with Långbanite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.BN.05AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Belovite-(Ce)NaCeSr3(PO4)3FTrig. 3 : P3
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich FluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)Hex.
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)Hex.
8.BN.05ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Mimetite-MPb5(AsO4)3ClMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.BN.05Johnbaumite-MCa5(AsO4)3OHMon. 2/m : P21/m
8.BN.05FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3ClHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
8.BN.05HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)Hex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05JohnbaumiteCa5(AsO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05MimetitePb5(AsO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05FluorstrophiteSrCaSr3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05VanadinitePb5(VO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Belovite-(La)NaLaSr3(PO4)3FTrig. 3 : P3
8.BN.05FluorcaphiteSrCaCa3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Kuannersuite-(Ce)NaCeBa3(PO4)3F0.5Cl0.5Trig. 3 : P3
8.BN.05Hydroxylapatite-MCa5(PO4)3OHMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.BN.05PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05StronadelphiteSr5(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05FluorphosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Carlgieseckeite-(Nd)NaNdCa3(PO4)3FTrig. 3 : P3
8.BN.05Miyahisaite(Sr,Ca)2Ba3(PO4)3F Hex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.10ArctiteNa2Ca4(PO4)3FTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 6/m : P63/m 2/m : P21/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

22.1.1AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)FTric. 1 : P1
22.1.2LacroixiteNaAl(PO4)FMon. 2/m : B2/b
22.1.3NatrophosphateNa7(PO4)2F · 19H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
22.1.5NacaphiteNa2Ca(PO4)FMon. 2/m : P21/b
22.1.6ArctiteNa2Ca4(PO4)3FTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
22.1.9FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
22.1.10HerderiteCaBePO4(F,OH)Mon. 2/m
22.1.11IsokiteCaMg(PO4)FMon. 2/m : B2/b
22.1.14FluelliteAl2(PO4)F2(OH) · 7H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Fddd
22.1.15MinyuliteKAl2(PO4)2(OH,F) · 4H2OOrth. mm2 : Pba2
22.1.16MoriniteNaCa2Al2(PO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
22.1.18FluorstrophiteSrCaSr3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
22.1.20VäyryneniteMn2+Be(PO4)(OH,F)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
22.1.22Wagnerite(Mg,Fe2+)2(PO4)FMon. 2/m : P21/b
22.1.23Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)Mon. 2/m
22.1.25Zwieselite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)FMon. 2/m : P21/b
22.1.26McauslaniteFe3Al2(PO4)3(PO3OH)F · 18H2OTric.
22.1.29TilasiteCaMg(AsO4)FMon. m : Bb
22.1.30Johnbaumite-MCa5(AsO4)3OHMon. 2/m : P21/m
22.1.31DurangiteNaAl(AsO4)FMon. 2/m : B2/b

Fluorescence of SvabiteHide

Fluoresces golden yellow to orange yellow SW and LW

Other InformationHide

Soluble in dilute acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for SvabiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Sjögren, H. (1891): Bidrag till Sveriges mineralogi. Svabit, ett mineral af apatitgruppen från Harstigsgrufvan. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar. 13: 789-796.
Sjögren, H. (1892): Contributions to Swedish mineralogy. Part I: 7. Svabite a new member of the apatite group. Bulletin of the Geological Institution of the University of Upsala. 1: 50–56.
Sjögren (1895) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 17: 313.
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 140.
Flink (1925) Geologiska Föreningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 47: 127.
Bauer and Berman (1930) American Mineralogist: 15: 347.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 899–900.
Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (1966): 166: 134.
Welin, E. (1968) X-ray powder data for minerals from Långban and the related mineral deposits of Central Sweden. Arkiv Mineral. Geol., 4(30), 499–541.
Whitfield, Pamela S.; Le Page, Yvon; Mercier, Patrick H. J.; Kim, Jean Y. (2007): Least-squares thermal expansion tensor of vanadate and arsenate triclinic apatites derived from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction cell data. Journal of Applied Crystallography 40, 1019-1026.
Biagioni, C. & Pasero, M. (2013): The crystal structure of johnbaumite, Ca5(AsO4)3OH, the arsenate analogue of hydroxylapatite. American Mineralogist: 98: 1580–1584.
Biagioni, C., Bosi, F., Hålenius, U., Pasero, M. (2016): The crystal structure of svabite, Ca5(AsO4)3F, an arsenate member of the apatite supergroup. American Mineralogist 101, 1750-1755.

Internet Links for SvabiteHide

Localities for SvabiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
  • Piedmont
    • Cuneo Province
      • Corsaglia Valley
        • Montaldo di Mondovì
          • Borgata Oberti
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp. Kolitsch, U., Ciriotti, M.E., Cadoni, M., Armellino, G., Piccoli, G.C., Ambrino, P., Blass, G., Odicino, G., Ciuffardi, M. (2011): Montaldo di Mondovì Minerali della miniera di manganese e ferro. Micro, 9, 4-21.
  • Sardinia
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Domusnovas
        • Oridda
Brizzi, G., Cocco, E., Olmi, F., Sabelli, C. (1989): Nuovi ritrovamenti di minerali nella Sardegna nord-occidentale. 2° Sa Duchessa (Domusnovas). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/1989, 121-134.
  • Nordland
    • Sørfold
G. Raade, U. Kolitsch and T. A. Husdal (2006): Si-rich bergslagite from a granitic pegmatite at Tennvatn, north Norway. GFF 128, 65-68.
    • Tysfjord
Raade, G. (1982): Svabitt fra Hellemofjorden. in Geologisk Museum. Interne notater 1961-1990. Published by Geologisk Museums Venner, Oslo 1991, p 99.; Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68. p. 124;
  • Dalarna
    • Hedemora
      • Garpenberg
American Mineralogist, Volume 88, pages 251–255, 2003
  • Dalsland
    • Åmål
      • Strandhem ore field
Johansson, Dan (1990):Mineralnytt från Sverige. STEIN 17(4),39
  • Lappland
    • Ultevis
Augsten, R. (2010): Mineralientouren nach Skandinavien (III). Lapplands bunte Farben: Manganmineralien vom Tjaktjajaure, Ultevis, Schweden. Lapis, 35 (2), 39-41.
Wilke Band 4 Skandinavien
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 900; Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183; K. Gatedal
      • Nordmark district
        • Jakobsberg ore field
Sjögren, H. (1892): Contributions to Swedish mineralogy. Part I: 7. Svabite a new member of the apatite group. Bulletin of the Geological Institution of the University of Upsala. 1, 50–56.
Nysten, P. (1987). Armangite from Nordmark. GFF, 109(2), 110-110.
Nysten, P. (1994): Alabandit och synadelfit, Nordmark. Långbansnytt. vol 10. [reprinted in: Långbansnytt. De första 20 åren 1983-2003. Långbansällskapet - Skrifter och rapporter. 2, 43]
Mineralogical Magazine (1998) 62 (3), 395-407; Mineralogical Magazine (1998) 62 (3), 395-407
      • Persberg district
        • Pajsberg
Sjögren, H. (1891): Bidrag till Sveriges mineralogi. Svabit, ett mineral af apatitgruppen från Harstigsgrufvan. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar. 13, 789-796.; DAN Earth Sci. 166 (1966), 134; Biagioni, C. & Pasero, M. (2013): The crystal structure of johnbaumite, Ca5(AsO4)3OH, the arsenate analogue of hydroxylapatite. American Mineralogist. 98, 1580–1584
  • Västmanland
    • Lindesberg
      • Nyberget ore field
Collection of Bergsskolan, Filipstad. Kjell Gatedal photo (8115)
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Crimmins, Laura G. (2012) Structure and Chemistry of Minerals in the Ca-(AsP)-(OH,F,Cl) Apatite System" Johnbaumite, Svabite, and Turneaureite from Franklin and Sterling Hill, New Jersey, USA. M.S. Thesis, Miami University, Miami, Ohio, pp. 55.
FOMS Millsite Committee (1986) (circa), List of Mineral Species Found on the Franklin Mill Site, Franklin-Ogdensburg Mineralogical Society (unpublished).
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