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Switzerite

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Formula:
(Mn,Fe)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Pale pink, pinkish brown
Lustre:PearlyHardness:2
Name:Named after George Shirly Switzer (1915-2008), Curator of Minerals, US National Museum (Smithsonian Institution), Washington D.C., USA.
Isostructural with:Ludlamite, Metaswitzerite, Sterlinghillite


Ludlamite Group.

Switzerite rapidly and irreversibly dehydrates in air within minutes to Metaswitzerite which contains only 4 water molecules per formula unit. All "switzerites" in collections should be considered metaswitzerites, unless there is some analytical evidence to the contrary.

Classification of Switzerite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/C.10-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.CE.25

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
E : With only medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O about 1:2.5
Dana 8th edition ID:40.3.5.4

40 : HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
3 : A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.12.23

19 : Phosphates
12 : Phosphates of Mn
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Type Occurrence of Switzerite

Type Locality:Foote Lithium Co. Mine (Foote Mine), Kings Mountain District, Cleveland Co., North Carolina, USA
Year of Discovery:1967

Physical Properties of Switzerite

Lustre:Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Pale pink, pinkish brown
Hardness (Mohs):2

Crystallography of Switzerite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:a = 8.54Å, b = 13.16Å, c = 11.87Å
β = 110.12°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.649 : 1 : 0.902
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,252.62 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Switzerite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.560 nβ = 1.574 nγ = 1.580
2V:Measured: 70° , Calculated: 64°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.020

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:r > v moderate

Chemical Properties of Switzerite

Formula:
(Mn,Fe)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:(Mn,Fe)3(PO4)2·7H2O
Essential elements:H, Mn, O, P
All elements listed in formula:Fe, H, Mn, O, P

Relationship of Switzerite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.CE.05Chudobaite
(Mg,Zn)
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.CE.05Geigerite
Mn
2+
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.CE.10Newberyite
Mg(HPO
 
4
) · 3H
 
2
O
8.CE.15Brassite
Mg(HAsO
 
4
) · 4H
 
2
O
8.CE.20Phosphorrösslerite
Mg(HPO
 
4
) · 7H
 
2
O
8.CE.20Rösslerite
Mg(HAsO
 
4
) · 7H
 
2
O
8.CE.25Metaswitzerite
Mn
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CE.30Lindackerite
CuCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8-9H
 
2
O
8.CE.30Ondrušite
CaCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.CE.30Veselovskýite
ZnCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 9H
 
2
O
8.CE.30Pradetite
CoCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 9H
 
2
O
8.CE.30Klajite
MnCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 9-10H
 
2
O
8.CE.35Bobierrite
Mg
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Annabergite
Ni
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Arupite
Ni
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Barićite
(Mg,Fe)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Erythrite
Co
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Ferrisymplesite
Fe
3+
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
3
· 5H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Hörnesite
Mg
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Köttigite
Zn
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Manganohörnesite
(Mn,Mg)
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Parasymplesite
Fe
2+
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Vivianite
Fe
2+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Pakhomovskyite
Co
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.45Symplesite
Fe
2+
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.50Cattiite
Mg
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 22H
 
2
O
8.CE.55Koninckite
Fe
3+
 
PO
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
8.CE.60Kaňkite
FeAsO
 
4
· 3.5H
 
2
O
8.CE.65Steigerite
Al(VO
 
4
) · 3H
 
2
O
8.CE.70Metaschoderite
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(VO
 
4
) · 6H
 
2
O
8.CE.70Schoderite
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(VO
 
4
) · 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.75Malhmoodite
FeZr(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CE.75Zigrasite
MgZr(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CE.75Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Zigrasite)
CaZr[PO
 
4
]
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CE.80Santabarbaraite
Fe
3+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
3
· 5H
 
2
O
8.CE.85Metaköttigite
(Zn,Fe,Fe)
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8(H
 
2
O,OH)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.12.1Metaswitzerite
Mn
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.12.2Bermanite
Mn
2+
 
Mn
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.12.3Natrophilite
NaMn
2+
 
PO
 
4
19.12.4Sidorenkite
Na
 
3
Mn
2+
 
(CO
 
3
)(PO
 
4
)
19.12.5Niahite
(NH
 
4
)(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
19.12.6Robertsite
Ca
 
3
Mn
3+
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
19.12.7Pararobertsite
Ca
 
2
Mn
3+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
19.12.8Sinkankasite
H
 
2
Mn
2+
 
Al(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 6H
 
2
O
19.12.9Mangangordonite
Mn
2+
 
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.10Heterosite
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)PO
 
4
19.12.11Purpurite
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)PO
 
4
19.12.12Wolfeite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
19.12.13Triploidite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
19.12.14Lipscombite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
19.12.15Frondelite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
5
19.12.16Rockbridgeite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
5
19.12.17Kryzhanovskite
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,H
 
2
O)
 
3
19.12.18Landesite
Mn
2+
3-x
Fe
3+
x
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
x
· (3-x)H
 
2
O
19.12.19Phosphoferrite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
19.12.20Reddingite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
19.12.21Earlshannonite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.12.22Hureaulite
(Mn,Fe)
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.12.24Laueite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.25Pseudolaueite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.26Strunzite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
19.12.27Stewartite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.28Alluaudite
(Na,Ca)Mn
2+
 
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.29Ferroalluaudite
(Na,Ca)Fe
2+
 
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.30Fillowite
{Mn
2+
 
}{Na
 
8
}{Ca
 
4
Na
 
4
}{(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
43
}(PO
 
4
)
 
36
19.12.31Johnsomervilleite
Na
 
10
Ca
 
6
Mg
 
18
Fe
 
25
(PO
 
4
)
 
36
19.12.32Wicksite
NaCa
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
4
MgFe
3+
 
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
19.12.33Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)
{KNa}{Mn
2+
 
◻}{Ca}{Na
 
3
}{Mn
2+
13
}{Al}(PO
 
4
)
 
12
(OH)
 
2
19.12.34Sarcopside
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
19.12.35Ludlamite
(Fe,Mn,Mg)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.12.36Graftonite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
19.12.37Wilhelmvierlingite
CaMnFe
3+
 
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
19.12.38Fairfieldite
Ca
 
2
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
19.12.39Beusite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Ca,Mg)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
19.12.40Messelite
Ca
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
19.12.41Jahnsite-(CaMnFe)
{Ca}{Mn
2+
 
}{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
3+
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.42Jahnsite-(CaMnMn)
{Ca}{Mn
2+
 
}{Mn
2+
2
}{Fe
3+
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.43Jahnsite-(CaMnMg)
{Ca}{Mn
2+
 
}{(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
}{Fe
3+
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.44Keckite
CaMn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
(H
 
2
O)
 
7
19.12.45Stanfieldite
Ca
 
7
Ca
 
2
Mg
 
9
(PO
 
4
)
 
12
19.12.46Laubmannite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
Fe
3+
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
12
19.12.47Zodacite
Ca
 
4
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)
 
4
· 12H
 
2
O
19.12.48Hagendorfite
NaCaMn
2+
 
Fe
2+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.49Maghagendorfite
(□,Na,)(Na,Ca,Fe
2+
 
)Mn(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.50Varulite
NaCaMn
2+
 
Mn
2+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.51Griphite
Na
 
4
Li
 
2
Ca
 
6
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
19
Al
 
8
(PO
 
4
)
 
24
(F,OH)
 
8
19.12.52Attakolite
(Ca,Sr)Mn(Al,Fe)
 
4
(HPO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
19.12.53Arrojadite-(KFe)
{KNa}{Fe
2+
 
◻}{Ca}{Na
 
2
◻}{Fe
2+
13
}{Al}(PO
 
4
)
 
11
(HPO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
19.12.54Lun'okite
(Mn,Ca)(Mg,Fe,Mn)Al(PO
 
4
)
 
2
OH · 4H
 
2
O
19.12.55Eosphorite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)Al(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.12.56Ernstite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)Al(PO
 
4
)(OH,O)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.12.57Childrenite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Al(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.12.58Bobfergusonite
Na
 
2
Mn
 
5
FeAl(PO
 
4
)
 
6
19.12.59Qingheiite
NaMn
3+
 
Mg(Al,Fe
3+
 
)(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.60Whiteite-(CaFeMg)
{Ca}{(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)}{Mg
 
2
}{Al
 
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.61Whiteite-(CaMnMg)
{Ca}{Mn
2+
 
}{Mg
 
2
}{Al
 
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.62Whiteite-(MnFeMg)
{(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)}{(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)}{Mg
 
2
}{Al
 
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.63Rittmannite
{(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)}{Mn
2+
 
}{(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
}{(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.64Zanazziite
Ca
 
2
Mg
 
5
Be
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
19.12.65Samuelsonite
(Ca,Ba)Ca
 
8
Fe
2+
2
Mn
2+
2
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
10
(OH)
 
2

Other Names for Switzerite

Other Languages:
German:Switzerit
Russian:Свитцерит
Simplified Chinese:水磷铁锰石
Spanish:Switzerita
Traditional Chinese:水磷鐵錳石

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Switzerite

Reference List:

- +
American Mineralogist (1967): 52: 1595-1602.

American Mineralogist (1986): 71: 1221-1223, 1224-1228.

Internet Links for Switzerite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Switzerite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Switzerite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Switzerite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Switzerite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Specimens:The following Switzerite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Switzerite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • South Australia
      • Eyre Peninsula
        • Middleback Range
          • Iron Knob
    Francis, G. A. (2010): Minerals of Iron Monarch. OneSteel, Whyalla, Australia, 165 pp
      • Flinders Ranges
        • South Flinders Ranges
          • Martins Well
    Johnston, C.W . & Hill, R.J. (1978): Zinc phosphates at Reaphook Hill South Australia. Mineralogical Record 9,(1), 20-24
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • Doce valley
        • Conselheiro Pena
    Tony Nickischer
    Canada
     
    • Yukon Territory
      • Dawson Mining District
    [Mineralogical Record Vol 23 No.4 p36]
    Robinson, G.W., Van Velthuizen, J., Ansell, H.G. & Sturman, B.D. (1992): Mineralogy of the Rapid Creek and Big Fish River area, Yukon Territory. Mineralogical Record 23, 1-47.
    Finland
     
    • Western and Inner Finland Region
      • Orivesi
        • Eräjärvi area
    Lahti Seppo I., 1981. On the granitic pegmatites of the Eräjärvi area in Orivesi, Southern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 314, 82 s.
    Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 314
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Upper Palatinate
        • Oberpfälzer Wald
          • Vohenstrauß
            • Waidhaus
              • Hagendorf
    http://www.berthold-weber.de/h_miner.htm
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Sauerland
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H.W. (1994): Neufunde von bekannten Fundorten (IX). Mineralien-Welt, 5 (1), 18-21.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Kanto Region
        • Saitama Prefecture
          • Chichibu City
            • Urayama
    K. Nishikubo, T. Yamada, A. Harada, M. Takizawa, K. Tange, Y. Kosuge, R. Miyawaki, and S. Matsubara (2005) "Rambergite from the Hirogawara mine, Urayama, Chichibu City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan"
    Portugal
     
    • Viseu District
      • Mangualde
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cumbria
        • North and Western Region (Cumberland)
          • Caldbeck Fells
            • Coombe Height
    Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 8, 2003
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Yavapai Co.
        • Eureka District
          • Hillside
            • Bagdad Mine area
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 387; Peacor, D., et al (1984, Paulkerrite, a new titanium phosphate from AZ, Min.Rec.: 15: 303-307.
    • Connecticut
      • Fairfield Co.
        • Ridgefield
          • Branchville
    Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State, p.235.
    • Maine
      • Cumberland Co.
        • Baldwin
          • West Baldwin
    Gene Bearss, "What's New at the Estes Quarry" Micromounters of New England 2010 Symposium presentation
      • Oxford Co.
        • Greenwood
          • Uncle Tom Mountain
    Ray Sprague
        • Newry
    King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1; King, V. (ed.), 2000, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 2.
    King, V. T., 2006, Minerals of Halls Ridge and Plumbago-Puzzle Mountain, Newry, ... Maine, Mineral News, v. 22(6): p. 1-3.
        • Paris
    • North Carolina
      • Cleveland Co.
        • Kings Mountain District
    [Nickel & Nichols, 1991 - "Mineral Reference Manual", p204]; Rocks and Minerals, (1985) 60:76-82; Carolina Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook 1981, 39-48
    • South Dakota
      • Custer Co.
        • Custer District
          • Fourmile
    Rocks & Minerals: 60: 117.
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