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Switzerite

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Formula:
(Mn,Fe)3(PO4)2 · 7H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Pale pink, pinkish brown
Lustre:
Pearly
Hardness:
2
Name:
Named after George Shirly Switzer (1915-2008), Curator of Minerals, US National Museum (Smithsonian Institution), Washington D.C., USA.
Ludlamite Group.

Switzerite rapidly and irreversibly dehydrates in air within minutes to Metaswitzerite which contains only 4 water molecules per formula unit. All "switzerites" in collections should be considered metaswitzerites, unless there is some analytical evidence to the contrary.

Classification of Switzerite

Approved
8.CE.25

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
E : With only medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O about 1:2.5
40.3.5.4

40 : HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
3 : A3(XO4)2·xH2O
19.12.23

19 : Phosphates
12 : Phosphates of Mn
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First Recorded Occurrence of Switzerite

Year of Discovery:
1967

Physical Properties of Switzerite

Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Pale pink, pinkish brown
Hardness (Mohs):
2

Crystallography of Switzerite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.54Å, b = 13.16Å, c = 11.87Å
β = 110.12°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.649 : 1 : 0.902
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,252.62 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Switzerite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.560 nβ = 1.574 nγ = 1.580
2V:
Measured: 70° , Calculated: 64°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.020
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
r > v moderate

Chemical Properties of Switzerite

Formula:
(Mn,Fe)3(PO4)2 · 7H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Switzerite to other Species

8.CE.05Chudobaite(Mg,Zn)5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 10H2O
8.CE.05GeigeriteMn52+(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 10H2O
8.CE.10NewberyiteMg(HPO4) · 3H2O
8.CE.15BrassiteMg(HAsO4) · 4H2O
8.CE.20PhosphorrössleriteMg(HPO4) · 7H2O
8.CE.20RössleriteMg(HAsO4) · 7H2O
8.CE.25MetaswitzeriteMn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CE.30LindackeriteCuCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 8-9H2O
8.CE.30OndrušiteCaCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 10H2O
8.CE.30VeselovskýiteZnCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2O
8.CE.30PradetiteCoCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2O
8.CE.30KlajiteMnCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9-10H2O
8.CE.35BobierriteMg3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40ArupiteNi3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40Barićite(Mg,Fe)3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40FerrisymplesiteFe33+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
8.CE.40HörnesiteMg3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40KöttigiteZn3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40Manganohörnesite(Mn,Mg)3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40ParasymplesiteFe32+(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40PakhomovskyiteCo3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.45SymplesiteFe32+(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.50CattiiteMg3(PO4)2 · 22H2O
8.CE.55KoninckiteFe3+PO4 · 3H2O
8.CE.60KaňkiteFeAsO4 · 3.5H2O
8.CE.65SteigeriteAl(VO4) · 3H2O
8.CE.70MetaschoderiteAl2(PO4)(VO4) · 6H2O
8.CE.70SchoderiteAl2(PO4)(VO4) · 8H2O
8.CE.75MalhmooditeFeZr(PO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CE.75ZigrasiteMgZr(PO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CE.75Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Zigrasite)CaZr[PO4]2 · 4H2O
8.CE.80SantabarbaraiteFe33+(PO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
8.CE.85Metaköttigite(Zn,Fe,Fe)3(AsO4)2 · 8(H2O,OH)
19.12.1MetaswitzeriteMn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
19.12.2BermaniteMn2+Mn23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
19.12.3NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4
19.12.4SidorenkiteNa3Mn2+(CO3)(PO4)
19.12.5Niahite(NH4)(Mn2+,Mg)(PO4) · H2O
19.12.6RobertsiteCa3Mn43+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
19.12.7PararobertsiteCa2Mn33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
19.12.8SinkankasiteMn2+Al(PO3OH)2(OH) · 6H2O
19.12.9MangangordoniteMn2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.10Heterosite(Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
19.12.11Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
19.12.12Wolfeite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)(OH)
19.12.13Triploidite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(OH)
19.12.14LipscombiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
19.12.15FrondeliteMn2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
19.12.16RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
19.12.17Kryzhanovskite(Fe3+,Mn2+)3(PO4)2(OH,H2O)3
19.12.18LandesiteMn2+3-xFex3+(PO4)2(OH)x · (3-x)H2O
19.12.19Phosphoferrite(Fe2+,Mn2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2O
19.12.20Reddingite(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2O
19.12.21EarlshannoniteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
19.12.22Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
19.12.24LaueiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.25PseudolaueiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.26StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
19.12.27StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.28Alluaudite(Na,Ca)Mn2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)2(PO4)3
19.12.29Ferroalluaudite(Na,Ca)Fe2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)3
19.12.30Fillowite{Mn2+}{Na8}{Ca4Na4}{(Mn2+,Fe2+)43}(PO4)36
19.12.31JohnsomervilleiteNa10Ca6Mg18Fe25(PO4)36
19.12.32WicksiteNaCa2(Fe2+,Mn2+)4MgFe3+(PO4)6 · 2H2O
19.12.33Dickinsonite-(KMnNa){KNa}{Mn2+◻}{Ca}{Na3}{Mn132+}{Al}(PO4)12(OH)2
19.12.34Sarcopside(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)3(PO4)2
19.12.35Ludlamite(Fe,Mn,Mg)3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
19.12.36Graftonite(Fe2+,Mn2+,Ca)3(PO4)2
19.12.37WilhelmvierlingiteCaMnFe3+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
19.12.38FairfielditeCa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)(PO4)2 · 2H2O
19.12.39Beusite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2
19.12.40MesseliteCa2(Fe2+,Mn2+)(PO4)2 · 2H2O
19.12.41Jahnsite-(CaMnFe){Ca}{Mn2+}{Fe22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.42Jahnsite-(CaMnMn){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mn22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.43Jahnsite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{(Mg,Fe2+)2}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.44KeckiteCaMn2+Fe23+Fe23+(PO4)4(OH)3(H2O)7
19.12.45StanfielditeCa7Ca2Mg9(PO4)12
19.12.46Laubmannite(Fe2+,Mn2+,Ca)3Fe63+(PO4)4(OH)12
19.12.47ZodaciteCa4Mn2+Fe43+(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
19.12.48HagendorfiteNaCaMn2+Fe22+(PO4)3
19.12.49Maghagendorfite(□,Na,)(Na,Ca,Fe2+)Mn(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)3(PO4)3
19.12.50VaruliteNaCaMn2+Mn22+(PO4)3
19.12.51GriphiteNa4Li2Ca6(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)19Al8(PO4)24(F,OH)8
19.12.52Attakolite(Ca,Sr)Mn(Al,Fe)4(HPO4,PO4)3(SiO4,PO4)(OH)4
19.12.53Arrojadite-(KFe){KNa}{Fe2+◻}{Ca}{Na2◻}{Fe132+}{Al}(PO4)11(HPO4)(OH)2
19.12.54Lun'okite(Mn,Ca)(Mg,Fe,Mn)Al(PO4)2OH · 4H2O
19.12.55Eosphorite(Mn2+,Fe2+)Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
19.12.56Ernstite(Mn2+,Fe3+)Al(PO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
19.12.57Childrenite(Fe2+,Mn2+)Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
19.12.58BobfergusoniteNa2Mn5FeAl(PO4)6
19.12.59QingheiiteNaMn3+Mg(Al,Fe3+)(PO4)3
19.12.60Whiteite-(CaFeMg){Ca}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.61Whiteite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.62Whiteite-(MnFeMg){(Mn2+,Ca)}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.63Rittmannite{(Mn2+,Ca)}{Mn2+}{(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)2}{(Al,Fe3+)2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.64ZanazziiteCa2Mg5Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
19.12.65Samuelsonite(Ca,Ba)Ca8Fe22+Mn22+Al2(PO4)10(OH)2

Other Names for Switzerite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Switzerit
Simplified Chinese:水磷铁锰石
Spanish:Switzerita
Traditional Chinese:水磷鐵錳石

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Switzerite

Reference List:
American Mineralogist (1967): 52: 1595-1602.

American Mineralogist (1986): 71: 1221-1223, 1224-1228.

Internet Links for Switzerite

Specimens:
The following Switzerite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Switzerite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob
Francis, G. A. (2010): Minerals of Iron Monarch. OneSteel, Whyalla, Australia, 165 pp
    • Flinders Ranges
      • South Flinders Ranges
        • Martins Well
Johnston, C.W . & Hill, R.J. (1978): Zinc phosphates at Reaphook Hill South Australia. Mineralogical Record 9,(1), 20-24
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Doce valley
      • Conselheiro Pena
Tony Nickischer
Canada
 
  • Yukon Territory
    • Dawson Mining District
[Mineralogical Record Vol 23 No.4 p36]
Robinson, G.W., Van Velthuizen, J., Ansell, H.G. & Sturman, B.D. (1992): Mineralogy of the Rapid Creek and Big Fish River area, Yukon Territory. Mineralogical Record 23, 1-47.
Finland
 
  • Western and Inner Finland Region
    • Orivesi
      • Eräjärvi area
Lahti Seppo I., 1981. On the granitic pegmatites of the Eräjärvi area in Orivesi, Southern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 314, 82 s.
Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 314
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Waidhaus
        • Hagendorf
http://www.berthold-weber.de/h_miner.htm
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Sauerland
      • Iserlohn
        • Letmathe
Blaß, G. & Graf, H.W. (1994): Neufunde von bekannten Fundorten (IX). Mineralien-Welt, 5 (1), 18-21.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Kanto Region
      • Saitama Prefecture
        • Chichibu City
          • Urayama
K. Nishikubo, T. Yamada, A. Harada, M. Takizawa, K. Tange, Y. Kosuge, R. Miyawaki, and S. Matsubara (2005) "Rambergite from the Hirogawara mine, Urayama, Chichibu City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan"
Portugal
 
  • Viseu District
    • Mangualde
UK
 
  • England
    • Cumbria
      • North and Western Region (Cumberland)
        • Caldbeck Fells
          • Coombe Height
Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 8, 2003
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Eureka District
        • Hillside
          • Bagdad Mine area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 387; Peacor, D., et al (1984, Paulkerrite, a new titanium phosphate from AZ, Min.Rec.: 15: 303-307.
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield Co.
      • Ridgefield
        • Branchville
Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State, p.235.
  • Maine
    • Cumberland Co.
      • Baldwin
        • West Baldwin
Gene Bearss, "What's New at the Estes Quarry" Micromounters of New England 2010 Symposium presentation
    • Oxford Co.
      • Greenwood
        • Uncle Tom Mountain
Ray Sprague
      • Newry
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1; King, V. (ed.), 2000, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 2.
King, V. T., 2006, Minerals of Halls Ridge and Plumbago-Puzzle Mountain, Newry, ... Maine, Mineral News, v. 22(6): p. 1-3.
      • Paris
  • North Carolina
    • Cleveland Co.
      • Kings Mountain District
[Nickel & Nichols, 1991 - "Mineral Reference Manual", p204]; Rocks and Minerals, (1985) 60:76-82; Carolina Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook 1981, 39-48
  • South Dakota
    • Custer Co.
      • Custer District
        • Fourmile
Rocks & Minerals: 60: 117.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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