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Synchysite-(Ce)

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Formula:
Ca(Ce,La)(CO3)2F
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Gray, gray-yellow, ...
Hardness:
Name:
Named in 1901 by Gustav Flink from the Greek σύγχΰσις "synchys" for "confounding" in allusion to its initially being mistaken for parisite. The suffix "-(Ce)" was added by the IMA due to the dominance of cerium in the composition.
Synchysite Group.

Ce analogue of Synchysite-(Y) and Synchysite-(Nd); Ca analogue of Huanghoite-(Ce).
F-dominant analogue of Unnamed (HBU UK-1).

Classification of Synchysite-(Ce)

Approved 1982
5/C.07-110
5.BD.20c

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
D : With rare earth elements (REE)
16a.1.3.1

16a : ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : (AB)(XO3)Zq
12.1.13

12 : Carbonates with other anions
1 : Carbonates with halides
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Type Occurrence of Synchysite-(Ce)

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Pegmatitic segregations in syenite.

Occurrences of Synchysite-(Ce)

Geological Setting:
Hydrothermal accessory mineral in granites and alkalic syenites.

Physical Properties of Synchysite-(Ce)

Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Gray, gray-yellow, orange-yellow, brown, beige, light green, white
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Fracture:
Splintery, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
3.9 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.88 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Synchysite-(Ce)

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.329(2) Å, b = 7.11Å, c = 18.741(2) Å
β = 102.68(1)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.734 : 1 : 2.636
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,602.75 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
12
Morphology:
Acute pyramidal; spindle-shaped.
Also thin or thick tabular.
Twinning:
On {0001}
Comment:
Strongly pseudohexagonal. Commonly observed subcell is primitive-hexagonal, a ~4.10, c ~18.2 A.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
9.1 (60)
4.53 (50)
3.55 (100)
3.32 (40)
2.80 (100)
2.06 (50)
1.934 (50)

Optical Data of Synchysite-(Ce)

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.674 nε = 1.770
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.096
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of Synchysite-(Ce)

Formula:
Ca(Ce,La)(CO3)2F
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Synchysite-(Ce) to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Huanghoite-(Ce)BaCe(CO3)2F
Synchysite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Y,Gd)(CO3)2F
Synchysite-(Y)Ca(Y,Ce)(CO3)2F
5.BD.05Cordylite-(Ce)NaBaCe2(CO3)4F
5.BD.05Lukechangite-(Ce)Na3Ce2(CO3)4F
5.BD.10Zhonghuacerite-(Ce)Ba2Ce(CO3)3F
5.BD.10Kukharenkoite-(Ce)Ba2Ce(CO3)3F
5.BD.10Kukharenkoite-(La)Ba2(La,Ce,Th)(CO3)3F
5.BD.15Cebaite-(Ce)Ba3Ce2(CO3)5F2
5.BD.15Cebaite-(Nd)Ba3(Nd,Ce)2(CO3)5F2
5.BD.18Arisite-(Ce)NaCe2(CO3)3-xF2x+1
5.BD.18Arisite-(La)NaLa2(CO3)3-xF2x+1
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(Ce)(Ce,La)(CO3)F
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(La)(La,Ce)(CO3)F
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(Y)(Y,Ce)(CO3)F
5.BD.20aHydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce)(Ce,La)(CO3)(OH,F)
5.BD.20aHydroxylbastnäsite-(Nd)(Nd,Ce,La)(CO3)(OH,F)
5.BD.20aHydroxylbastnäsite-(La)(La,Nd,Ce)(CO3)(OH,F)
5.BD.20bParisite-(Ce)Ca(Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2
5.BD.20bParisite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2
5.BD.20dRöntgenite-(Ce)Ca2(Ce,La)3(CO3)5F3
5.BD.20cSynchysite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Y,Gd)(CO3)2F
5.BD.20cSynchysite-(Y)Ca(Y,Ce)(CO3)2F
5.BD.20aThorbastnäsiteTh(Ca,Ce)(CO3)2F2 · 3H2O
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(Nd)Nd(CO3)F
5.BD.25Horváthite-(Y)NaY(CO3)F2
5.BD.25Qaqarssukite-(Ce)Ba(Ce,REE)(CO3)2F
5.BD.35Huanghoite-(Ce)BaCe(CO3)2F
12.1.1NorthupiteNa3Mg(CO3)2Cl
12.1.2BarentsiteNa7Al(HCO3)2(CO3)2F4
12.1.3RouvilleiteNa3(Ca,Mn,Fe)2(CO3)3F
12.1.4ChlormagaluminiteMg4Al2(OH)12Cl2 · 3H2O
12.1.5DeferniteCa6(CO3)2-x(SiO4)x(OH)7(Cl,OH)1-2x (x<0.5)
12.1.6BrenkiteCa2(CO3)F2
12.1.7Stenonite(Sr,Ba,Na)2Al(CO3)F5
12.1.8Bastnäsite-(Ce)(Ce,La)(CO3)F
12.1.9Bastnäsite-(La)(La,Ce)(CO3)F
12.1.10Bastnäsite-(Y)(Y,Ce)(CO3)F
12.1.11Parisite-(Ce)Ca(Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2
12.1.12Parisite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2
12.1.14Synchysite-(Y)Ca(Y,Ce)(CO3)2F
12.1.15Synchysite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Y,Gd)(CO3)2F
12.1.16Röntgenite-(Ce)Ca2(Ce,La)3(CO3)5F3
12.1.17Cordylite-(Ce)NaBaCe2(CO3)4F
12.1.19Huanghoite-(Ce)BaCe(CO3)2F
12.1.20Zhonghuacerite-(Ce)Ba2Ce(CO3)3F
12.1.21Cebaite-(Ce)Ba3Ce2(CO3)5F2
12.1.22ThorbastnäsiteTh(Ca,Ce)(CO3)2F2 · 3H2O
12.1.23PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
12.1.24BarstowitePb4Cl6(CO3) · H2O
12.1.25AlbrechtschraufiteCa4Mg(UO2)2(CO3)6F2 · 17-18H2O
12.1.26KettneriteCaBiCO3OF

Other Names for Synchysite-(Ce)

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Synchysite-(Ce)

Reference List:
Flink, G. (1900): Mineralogische Notizen. 1. Ueber den Synchysit von Narsarsuk in Süd-Grönland, ein Mineral, welches für Parisit gehalten wurde. Bulletin of the Geological Instution of the University of Upsala. 5, 81-87.

Yunxiang, Ni, John M. Hughes, and Anthony N. Mariano (1993) The atomic arrangement of bastnäsite-(Ce), Ce(CO3)F, and structural elements of synchysite-(Ce), röntgenite-(Ce), and parisite-(Ce). American Mineralogist: 78: 415-418.

Canadian Mineralogist (1994): 32: 865-871.

American Mineralogist (1995): 80: 1077.

Internet Links for Synchysite-(Ce)

Specimens:
The following Synchysite-(Ce) specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Synchysite-(Ce)

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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