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Synchysite-(Ce)

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Formula:
Ca(Ce,La)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
System:MonoclinicColour:Gray, gray-yellow, ...
Hardness:
Member of:Synchysite Group
Name:Named in 1901 by Gustav Flink from the Greek σύγχΰσις "synchys" for "confounding" in allusion to its initially being mistaken for parisite. The suffix "-(Ce)" was added by the IMA due to the dominance of cerium in the composition.


Synchysite Group.

Ce analogue of Synchysite-(Y) and Synchysite-(Nd); Ca analogue of Huanghoite-(Ce).
F-dominant analogue of Unnamed (HBU UK-1).

Classification of Synchysite-(Ce)

IMA status:Approved 1982
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/C.07-110
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:5.BD.20c

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
D : With rare earth elements (REE)
Dana 8th edition ID:16a.1.3.1

16a : ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : (AB)(XO3)Zq
Hey's CIM Ref.:12.1.13

12 : Carbonates with other anions
1 : Carbonates with halides
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Type Occurrence of Synchysite-(Ce)

Type Locality:Narsaarsuk pegmatite (Narssârssuk pegmatite), Narsaarsuk Plateau, Igaliku (Igaliko), Narsaq, Kujalleq, Greenland
Geological Setting of type material:Pegmatitic segregations in syenite.
Associated Minerals at type locality:
RhodochrositeNeptuniteMicroclineFluoriteEpididymite
ElpiditeCordylite-(Ce)CatapleiiteAstrophylliteAlbite
Aegirine

Occurrences of Synchysite-(Ce)

Geological Setting:Hydrothermal accessory mineral in granites and alkalic syenites.

Physical Properties of Synchysite-(Ce)

Lustre:Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent, Opaque
Colour:Gray, gray-yellow, orange-yellow, brown, beige, light green, white
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Fracture:Splintery, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.9 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.88 g/cm3

Crystallography of Synchysite-(Ce)

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/b
Cell Parameters:a = 12.329(2) Å, b = 7.11Å, c = 18.741(2) Å
β = 102.68(1)°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.734 : 1 : 2.636
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,602.75 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:12
Morphology:Acute pyramidal; spindle-shaped.
Also thin or thick tabular.
Twinning:On {0001}
Comment:Strongly pseudohexagonal. Commonly observed subcell is primitive-hexagonal, a ~4.10, c ~18.2 A.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
9.1 (60)
4.53 (50)
3.55 (100)
3.32 (40)
2.80 (100)
2.06 (50)
1.934 (50)

Optical Data of Synchysite-(Ce)

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.674 nε = 1.770
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.096

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Pleochroism:Weak

Chemical Properties of Synchysite-(Ce)

Formula:
Ca(Ce,La)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca(Ce,La)(CO3)2F
Essential elements:C, Ca, Ce, F, O
All elements listed in formula:C, Ca, Ce, F, La, O

Relationship of Synchysite-(Ce) to other Species

Member of:Synchysite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Huanghoite-(Ce)
BaCe(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
Synchysite-(Nd)
Ca(Nd,Y,Gd)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
Synchysite-(Y)
Ca(Y,Ce)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
5.BD.05Cordylite-(Ce)
NaBaCe
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
F
5.BD.05Lukechangite-(Ce)
Na
 
3
Ce
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
F
5.BD.10Zhonghuacerite-(Ce)
Ba
 
2
Ce(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
5.BD.10Kukharenkoite-(Ce)
Ba
 
2
Ce(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
5.BD.10Kukharenkoite-(La)
Ba
 
2
(La,Ce,Th)(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
5.BD.15Cebaite-(Ce)
Ba
 
3
Ce
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
5
F
 
2
5.BD.15Cebaite-(Nd)
Ba
 
3
(Nd,Ce)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
5
F
 
2
5.BD.18Arisite-(Ce)
NaCe
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3-x
F
 
2x+1
5.BD.18Arisite-(La)
NaLa
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3-x
F
 
2x+1
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(Ce)
(Ce,La)(CO
 
3
)F
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(La)
(La,Ce)(CO
 
3
)F
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(Y)
(Y,Ce)(CO
 
3
)F
5.BD.20aHydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce)
(Ce,La)(CO
 
3
)(OH,F)
5.BD.20aHydroxylbastnäsite-(Nd)
(Nd,Ce,La)(CO
 
3
)(OH,F)
5.BD.20aHydroxylbastnäsite-(La)
(La,Nd,Ce)(CO
 
3
)(OH,F)
5.BD.20bParisite-(Ce)
Ca(Ce,La)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
 
2
5.BD.20bParisite-(Nd)
Ca(Nd,Ce,La)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
 
2
5.BD.20dRöntgenite-(Ce)
Ca
 
2
(Ce,La)
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
5
F
 
3
5.BD.20cSynchysite-(Nd)
Ca(Nd,Y,Gd)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
5.BD.20cSynchysite-(Y)
Ca(Y,Ce)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
5.BD.20aThorbastnäsite
Th(Ca,Ce)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(Nd)
Nd(CO
 
3
)F
5.BD.25Horváthite-(Y)
NaY(CO
 
3
)F
 
2
5.BD.25Qaqarssukite-(Ce)
Ba(Ce,REE)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
5.BD.35Huanghoite-(Ce)
BaCe(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
12.1.1Northupite
Na
 
3
Mg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
Cl
12.1.2Barentsite
Na
 
7
Al(HCO
 
3
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
 
4
12.1.3Rouvilleite
Na
 
3
(Ca,Mn,Fe)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
12.1.4Chlormagaluminite
Mg
 
4
Al
 
2
(OH)
 
12
Cl
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
12.1.5Defernite
Ca
 
6
(CO
 
3
)
 
2-x
(SiO
 
4
)
 
x
(OH)
 
7
(Cl,OH)
 
1-2x
(x<0.5)
12.1.6Brenkite
Ca
 
2
(CO
 
3
)F
 
2
12.1.7Stenonite
(Sr,Ba,Na)
 
2
Al(CO
 
3
)F
 
5
12.1.8Bastnäsite-(Ce)
(Ce,La)(CO
 
3
)F
12.1.9Bastnäsite-(La)
(La,Ce)(CO
 
3
)F
12.1.10Bastnäsite-(Y)
(Y,Ce)(CO
 
3
)F
12.1.11Parisite-(Ce)
Ca(Ce,La)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
 
2
12.1.12Parisite-(Nd)
Ca(Nd,Ce,La)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
 
2
12.1.14Synchysite-(Y)
Ca(Y,Ce)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
12.1.15Synchysite-(Nd)
Ca(Nd,Y,Gd)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
12.1.16Röntgenite-(Ce)
Ca
 
2
(Ce,La)
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
5
F
 
3
12.1.17Cordylite-(Ce)
NaBaCe
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
F
12.1.19Huanghoite-(Ce)
BaCe(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
12.1.20Zhonghuacerite-(Ce)
Ba
 
2
Ce(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
12.1.21Cebaite-(Ce)
Ba
 
3
Ce
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
5
F
 
2
12.1.22Thorbastnäsite
Th(Ca,Ce)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
12.1.23Phosgenite
Pb
 
2
CO
 
3
Cl
 
2
12.1.24Barstowite
Pb
 
4
Cl
 
6
(CO
 
3
) · H
 
2
O
12.1.25Albrechtschraufite
Ca
 
4
Mg(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
6
F
 
2
· 17-18H
 
2
O
12.1.26Kettnerite
CaBiCO
 
3
OF

Other Names for Synchysite-(Ce)

Synonyms:
IMA1982-030Synchisite-(Ce)
Other Languages:
German:Synchisit-(Ce)
Simplified Chinese:氟碳钙铈矿

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Synchysite-(Ce)

Reference List:

- +
Flink, G. (1900): Mineralogische Notizen. 1. Ueber den Synchysit von Narsarsuk in Süd-Grönland, ein Mineral, welches für Parisit gehalten wurde. Bulletin of the Geological Instution of the University of Upsala. 5, 81-87.

Yunxiang, Ni, John M. Hughes, and Anthony N. Mariano (1993) The atomic arrangement of bastnäsite-(Ce), Ce(CO3)F, and structural elements of synchysite-(Ce), röntgenite-(Ce), and parisite-(Ce). American Mineralogist: 78: 415-418.

Canadian Mineralogist (1994): 32: 865-871.

American Mineralogist (1995): 80: 1077.

Internet Links for Synchysite-(Ce)

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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  • Synchysite-(Ce) details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Synchysite-(Ce)

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