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Syngenite

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Formula:
K
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless, white, light ...
Hardness:
Name:Named from the Greek 'συγγευής', related, for its chemical resemblance to Polyhalite.
This page provides mineralogical data about Syngenite.

Classification of Syngenite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/C.21-60
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.CD.35

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
D : With only large cations
Dana 8th edition ID:29.3.1.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
3 : A2B(XO4)2·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.4.8

25 : Sulphates
4 : Sulphates of Ca, Sr and Ba
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Type Occurrence of Syngenite

Type Locality:Kalusa salt deposit (Kalusz), Ivano-Frankivs'k Oblast' (Ivanovo-Frankovsk Oblast'), Ukraine
General Appearance of Type Material:Druses in halite.
Year of Discovery:1872
Associated Minerals at type locality:
Halite

Occurrences of Syngenite

Geological Setting:Oceanic salt deposits; volcanic activity.

Physical Properties of Syngenite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colourless, white, light yellow; colourless in transmitted light
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):
Cleavage:Perfect
On {110} and {100} perfect; on {010} distinct.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.579 - 2.603 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.597 g/cm3

Crystallography of Syngenite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/m {P1 1 21/m} {P21/m} {P1 21/m 1}
Cell Parameters:a = 9.77Å, b = 7.14Å, c = 6.25Å
β = 104.01°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.368 : 1 : 0.875
Unit Cell Volume:V 423.02 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystalline crusts; lamellar aggregates. Crystals tabular {100} to prismatic [001], often exhibiting a variety of forms. Faces in the zone [001] striated vertically.
Twinning:On {100} contact twinning common.

Optical Data of Syngenite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.501 nβ = 1.517 nγ = 1.518
2V:Measured: 28° , Calculated: 28°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.017

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:relatively strong

Chemical Properties of Syngenite

Formula:
K
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:K2Ca(SO4)2·H2O
Essential elements:Ca, H, K, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Ca, H, K, O, S

Relationship of Syngenite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.CD.05Matteuccite
NaHSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CD.10Mirabilite
Na
 
2
SO
 
4
· 10H
 
2
O
7.CD.15Lecontite
(NH
 
4
,K)NaSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CD.20Hydroglauberite
Na
 
10
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
8
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CD.25Eugsterite
Na
 
4
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CD.30Görgeyite
K
 
2
Ca
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
· H
 
2
O
7.CD.35Koktaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
7.CD.40Gypsum
CaSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CD.45Bassanite
CaSO
 
4
· 0.5H
 
2
O
7.CD.50Zircosulfate
(Zr,Ti)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CD.55Schieffelinite
Pb
 
8
(TeO
 
4
)
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 8H
 
2
O
7.CD.60Montanite
Bi
 
2
(TeO
 
6
) · 2H
 
2
O
7.CD.65Omongwaite
Na
 
2
Ca
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
· 3H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.4.1Anhydrite
CaSO
 
4
25.4.2Bassanite
CaSO
 
4
· 0.5H
 
2
O
25.4.3Gypsum
CaSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.4Glauberite
Na
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.4.5Cesanite
Na
 
3
Ca
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
25.4.6Eugsterite
Na
 
4
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.7Hydroglauberite
Na
 
10
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
8
· 6H
 
2
O
25.4.9Görgeyite
K
 
2
Ca
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
· H
 
2
O
25.4.10Polyhalite
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.11Koktaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
25.4.12Ye'elimite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
6
(SO
 
4
)O
 
12
25.4.13Ettringite
Ca
 
6
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
25.4.14Bentorite
Ca
 
6
(Cr
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
25.4.15Celestine
SrSO
 
4
25.4.16Kalistrontite
K
 
2
Sr(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.4.17Baryte
BaSO
 
4

Other Names for Syngenite

Synonyms:
KalusziteKaluszyt
Other Languages:
German:Kaluszit
Kaluzit
Syngenit
Italian:Singenite
Russian:Сингенит
Simplified Chinese:钾石膏
Spanish:Kaluzita
Syngenita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Syngenite

Reference List:

- +
Rumpf (1872) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 2: 117 (as Kaluszite).

Zepharovich (1872) Lotos: 22: 137.

Mügge (1895) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 266.

Schreiber (1914) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart, Beil.-Bd.: 37: 247.

Goldschmidt, V. (1922) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 8: 111.

Buttenbach (1926) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales: 49: 176.

Laszkiewicz (1928) Arch. Min. Soc. Warsaw: 3: 61.

Laszkiewicz (1936) Arch. Min. Soc. Warsaw: 12: 8.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 442-444.

Soviet Physics – Crystallography (1975): 20: 773.

Soviet Physics – Crystallography (1978): 23: 271.

Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 3.

Kristallografiya: 23: 257-260.

Internet Links for Syngenite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Syngenite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Syngenite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Western Australia
      • Dundas Shire
        • Cocklebiddy Roadhouse
    Caves: processes, development, and management By David S. Gillieson
        • Madura Roadhouse
    Mineralogical Magazine (1974): 39: 889.-890.
    Mineralogical Magazine (1977): 41: 33-35.
    Austria
     
    • Upper Austria
      • Gmunden
        • Hallstatt
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    Botswana
     
    • North-West District
      • Ngamiland West District
    [AmMin 84:194]
    China
     
    • Hubei Province
      • Wuhan Prefecture
        • Jianghan District
    Anthony, J.W. et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy
    • Sichuan Province
      • Guang'an Prefecture
        • Linshui Co.
    Yaoting Lin and Jinquan He (2004): Geology of Chemical Minerals 26(3), 145-149
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.; Xiaohong Sun, Chenglin Liu, and Zhiqiang Xuan (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 631-639
    France
     
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Aveyron
    Eytier J.R. & Ch., Favreau G., Devouard B., Vigier J. (2004), Minéraux de pyrométamorphisme de Lapanouse-de Sévérac (Aveyron), Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°85, pp: 3-58
    Germany
     
    • Hesse
      • Werra valley
        • Heringen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Phillippsthal
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Celle
        • Hänigsen
    Bode "Mineralien und Fundstellen BRD" from 1989 ISBN 3-925094-24-5 Pg.9
        • Wathlingen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Hanover
        • Lehrte
        • Wunstorf
          • Bokeloh
    Andreas Gerstenberg collection
      • Lüneburg
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Aachen
        • Stolberg
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Stassfurt Potash deposit
        • Egeln
          • Tarthun
    No reference listed
    • Thuringia
      • Gera
        • Ronneburg U deposit
    T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
      • Sondershausen
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 444.
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 444.; Russo, M., 2006: I minerali di formazione fumarolica della grande eruzione vesuviana del 1906
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
      • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
    Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
    Romania
     
    • Bistrița-Năsăud Co.
      • Rodna Mtn (Rodnei Mtn)
    Mineralogical Magazine: 65(1): 1-7.
    Russia
     
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
        • Tolbachik volcano
          • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
            • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
    Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2011)
    Ukraine
     
    • Ivano-Frankivs'k Oblast' (Ivanovo-Frankovsk Oblast')
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 443; Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 23 (1978), 271; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • L'viv Oblast' (Lviv Oblast'; Lwiw Oblast')
      • Drohobych
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 443.
    USA
     
    • Hawaii
      • Maui Co.
        • Maui
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 444.
    • Nevada
      • Esmeralda Co.
    NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Mexico
      • Eddy and Lea Counties
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
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