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Syngenite

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Formula:
K2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colourless, white, light ...
Hardness:
Name:
Named from the Greek 'συγγευής', related, for its chemical resemblance to Polyhalite.
This page provides mineralogical data about Syngenite.

Classification of Syngenite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7.CD.35

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
D : With only large cations
29.3.1.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
3 : A2B(XO4)2·xH2O
25.4.8

25 : Sulphates
4 : Sulphates of Ca, Sr and Ba
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Type Occurrence of Syngenite

General Appearance of Type Material:
Druses in halite.
Year of Discovery:
1872
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Occurrences of Syngenite

Geological Setting:
Oceanic salt deposits; volcanic activity.

Physical Properties of Syngenite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless, white, light yellow; colourless in transmitted light
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {110} and {100} perfect; on {010} distinct.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
2.579 - 2.603 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.597 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Syngenite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.77Å, b = 7.14Å, c = 6.25Å
β = 104.01°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.368 : 1 : 0.875
Unit Cell Volume:
V 423.02 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystalline crusts; lamellar aggregates. Crystals tabular {100} to prismatic [001], often exhibiting a variety of forms. Faces in the zone [001] striated vertically.
Twinning:
On {100} contact twinning common.

Optical Data of Syngenite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.501 nβ = 1.517 nγ = 1.518
2V:
Measured: 28° , Calculated: 28°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.017
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
relatively strong

Chemical Properties of Syngenite

Formula:
K2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Syngenite to other Species

7.CD.05MatteucciteNaHSO4 · H2O
7.CD.10MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2O
7.CD.15Lecontite(NH4,K)NaSO4 · 2H2O
7.CD.20HydroglauberiteNa10Ca3(SO4)8 · 6H2O
7.CD.25EugsteriteNa4Ca(SO4)3 · 2H2O
7.CD.30GörgeyiteK2Ca5(SO4)6 · H2O
7.CD.35Koktaite(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
7.CD.40GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
7.CD.45BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
7.CD.50Zircosulfate(Zr,Ti)(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CD.55SchieffelinitePb8(TeO4)5(SO4)3 · 8H2O
7.CD.60MontaniteBi2(TeO6) · 2H2O
7.CD.65OmongwaiteNa2Ca5(SO4)6 · 3H2O
25.4.1AnhydriteCaSO4
25.4.2BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
25.4.3GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
25.4.4GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2
25.4.5CesaniteNa3Ca2(SO4)3(OH)
25.4.6EugsteriteNa4Ca(SO4)3 · 2H2O
25.4.7HydroglauberiteNa10Ca3(SO4)8 · 6H2O
25.4.9GörgeyiteK2Ca5(SO4)6 · H2O
25.4.10PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
25.4.11Koktaite(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
25.4.12Ye'elimiteCa4Al6(SO4)O12
25.4.13EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
25.4.14BentoriteCa6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
25.4.15CelestineSrSO4
25.4.16KalistrontiteK2Sr(SO4)2
25.4.17BaryteBaSO4

Other Names for Syngenite

Name in Other Languages:
Italian:Singenite
Simplified Chinese:钾石膏
Traditional Chinese:鉀石膏

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Syngenite

Reference List:
Rumpf (1872) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 2: 117 (as Kaluszite).

Zepharovich (1872) Lotos: 22: 137.

Mügge (1895) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 266.

Schreiber (1914) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart, Beil.-Bd.: 37: 247.

Goldschmidt, V. (1922) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 8: 111.

Buttenbach (1926) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales: 49: 176.

Laszkiewicz (1928) Arch. Min. Soc. Warsaw: 3: 61.

Laszkiewicz (1936) Arch. Min. Soc. Warsaw: 12: 8.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 442-444.

Soviet Physics – Crystallography (1975): 20: 773.

Soviet Physics – Crystallography (1978): 23: 271.

Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 3.

Kristallografiya: 23: 257-260.

Internet Links for Syngenite

Localities for Syngenite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Dundas Shire
      • Cocklebiddy Roadhouse
Caves: processes, development, and management By David S. Gillieson
      • Madura Roadhouse
Mineralogical Magazine (1974): 39: 889.-890.
Mineralogical Magazine (1977): 41: 33-35.
Austria
 
  • Upper Austria
    • Gmunden
      • Hallstatt
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Botswana
 
  • North-West District
    • Ngamiland West District
[AmMin 84:194]
China
 
  • Hubei Province
    • Wuhan Prefecture
      • Jianghan District
Anthony, J.W. et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Golmud Co. (Ge'ermu Co.)
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
      • Mangnai Co. (Mangya Co.)
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
  • Sichuan Province
    • Guang'an Prefecture
      • Linshui Co.
Yaoting Lin and Jinquan He (2004): Geology of Chemical Minerals 26(3), 145-149
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Ngari Prefecture
      • Gê'gyai Co. (Geji Co.)
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.; Xiaohong Sun, Chenglin Liu, and Zhiqiang Xuan (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 631-639
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Tulufan Co. (Turfan Co.; Turpan Co.)
        • Turfan basin (Turpan basin)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
France
 
  • Midi-Pyrénées
    • Aveyron
Eytier J.R. & Ch., Favreau G., Devouard B., Vigier J. (2004), Minéraux de pyrométamorphisme de Lapanouse-de Sévérac (Aveyron), Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°85, pp: 3-58
Germany
 
  • Hesse
    • Werra valley
      • Heringen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Phillippsthal
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Celle
      • Hänigsen
Bode "Mineralien und Fundstellen BRD" from 1989 ISBN 3-925094-24-5 Pg.9
      • Wathlingen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Hanover
      • Lehrte
      • Wunstorf
        • Bokeloh
Andreas Gerstenberg collection
    • Lüneburg
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Stolberg
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Stassfurt Potash deposit
      • Egeln
        • Tarthun
No reference listed
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    • Sondershausen
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 444.
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 444.; Russo, M., 2006: I minerali di formazione fumarolica della grande eruzione vesuviana del 1906
Kazakhstan
 
  • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
    • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
Romania
 
  • Bistrița-Năsăud Co.
    • Rodna Mtn (Rodnei Mtn)
Mineralogical Magazine: 65(1): 1-7.
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
      • Tolbachik volcano
        • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
          • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2011)
Ukraine (TL)
 
  • Ivano-Frankivs'k Oblast' (Ivanovo-Frankovsk Oblast')
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 443; Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 23 (1978), 271; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • L'viv Oblast' (Lviv Oblast'; Lwiw Oblast')
    • Drohobych
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 443.
USA
 
  • Hawaii
    • Maui Co.
      • Maui
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 444.
  • Nevada
    • Esmeralda Co.
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Eddy and Lea Counties
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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