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Taranakite

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Formula:
(K,NH
 
4
)Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH) · 9H
 
2
O
System:TrigonalColour:Yellow, gray, white; ...
Name:Named after its discovery locality, Sugar Loaves, Taranaki peninsula, New Zealand.


A secondary mineral formed from the interaction of phosphatic solutions derived from bird or bat guano on clays or aluminous rocks under perenially damp conditions in caves and along sea coasts.

Classification of Taranakite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/C.21-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.CH.25

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
H : With large and medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O < 1:1
Dana 8th edition ID:39.3.6.1

39 : HYDRATED ACID PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
3 : Miscellaneous
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.8.7

19 : Phosphates
8 : Phosphates of Al and other metals
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Type Occurrence of Taranakite

Type Locality:Sugar Loaves Islands, New Plymouth, Taranaki, North Island, New Zealand
Year of Discovery:1865

Physical Properties of Taranakite

Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Yellow, gray, white; colourless in transmitted light
Tenacity:Malleable
Density (measured):2.12 - 2.15 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.12 g/cm3

Crystallography of Taranakite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:R3c
Cell Parameters:a = 8.7025Å, c = 95.05Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 10.922
Unit Cell Volume:V 6,234.06 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:6
Morphology:Crystals pseudohexagonal, platy; minute, lath-like and commonly in compact nodular aggregates, pulverulent, flour-like to claylike; massive.
Comment:Space group determined from synthetic material.

Optical Data of Taranakite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.506 - 1.510 nε = 1.500 - 1.503
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.006 - 0.007

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low

Chemical Properties of Taranakite

Formula:
(K,NH
 
4
)Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH) · 9H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH)·9H2O
Essential elements:Al, H, K, O, P
All elements listed in formula:Al, H, K, N, O, P

Relationship of Taranakite to other Species

Common Associates:
VivianiteVashegyiteVashegyiteVarisciteStrengite
MinyuliteFrancoanelliteBrushiteArdealite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.CH.05Walentaite
H(Ca,Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)Fe
3+
3
(AsO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
8.CH.10Anapaite
Ca
 
2
Fe
2+
 
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CH.15Picropharmacolite
Ca
 
4
Mg(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O
8.CH.20Dittmarite
(NH
 
4
)Mg(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
8.CH.20Niahite
(NH
 
4
)(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
8.CH.25Francoanellite
K
 
3
Al
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)
 
3
· 12H
 
2
O
8.CH.30Schertelite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
MgH
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CH.35Hannayite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Mg
 
3
H
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CH.40Struvite
(NH
 
4
)Mg(PO
 
4
) · 6H
 
2
O
8.CH.40Struvite-(K)
KMg(PO
 
4
)·6H
 
2
O
8.CH.40Hazenite
KNaMg
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 14H
 
2
O
8.CH.45Rimkorolgite
(Mg,Mn)
 
5
(Ba,Sr,Ca)(PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CH.50Bakhchisaraitsevite
Na
 
2
Mg
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
8.CH.55Fahleite
Zn
 
5
CaFe
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
6
· 14H
 
2
O
8.CH.55Smolyaninovite
(Co,Ni,Mg,Ca)
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
· 11H
 
2
O
8.CH.60Barahonaite-(Al)
(Ca,Cu,Na,Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
12
Al
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
8
(OH,Cl)
 
x
· nH
 
2
O
8.CH.60Barahonaite-(Fe)
(Ca,Cu,Na,Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
12
Fe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
8
(OH,Cl)
 
x
· nH
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.8.1Montebrasite
LiAl(PO
 
4
)(OH)
19.8.2Brazilianite
NaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
19.8.3Wardite
NaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
19.8.4Tancoite
LiNa
 
2
Al(PO
 
4
)(HPO
 
4
)(OH)
19.8.5Bertossaite
(Li,Na)
 
2
(Ca,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Al
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH,F)
 
4
19.8.6Tinsleyite
KAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
19.8.8Francoanellite
K
 
3
Al
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)
 
3
· 12H
 
2
O
19.8.9Gordonite
MgAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.8.10Aldermanite
Mg
 
5
Al
 
12
(PO
 
4
)
 
8
(OH)
 
22
· 32H
 
2
O
19.8.11Overite
CaMgAl(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
19.8.12Montgomeryite
Ca
 
4
MgAl
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)
 
4
· 12H
 
2
O
19.8.14Foggite
CaAl(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.8.15Gatumbaite
CaAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.8.16Crandallite
CaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
19.8.17Matulaite
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)Al
 
7
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(PO
 
3
OH)
 
2
(OH)
 
8
(H
 
2
O)
 
8
· 8H
 
2
O
19.8.19Lehiite
19.8.20Millisite
(Na,K)CaAl
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
9
· 3H
 
2
O
19.8.21Englishite
K
 
3
Na
 
2
Ca
 
10
Al
 
15
(PO
 
4
)
 
21
(OH)
 
7
· 26H
 
2
O
19.8.22Kleemanite
ZnAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
19.8.23Mantienneite
KMg
 
2
Al
 
2
Ti(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
· 15H
 
2
O
19.8.24Paulkerrite
K(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Al,Ti,Mg)
 
2
Ti(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
· 15H
 
2
O

Other Names for Taranakite

Synonyms:
MinervitePalmerite
Other Languages:
German:Minervit
Taranakit
Spanish:Minervita
Taranakita

Other Information

Other Information:Readily soluble in acids.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Taranakite

Reference List:

- +
Hector and Skey (1865) Reports of the Jurors, New Zealand Expedition: 423.

Cox (1882) Transactions of the New Zealand Institute: 15: 385.

Gautier (1893) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 116: 928, 102, 1171, 1271 (as Minervite).

Gautier (1894) Annales des mines: 5: 23 (as Minervite).

CArnot (1895) Annales des mines: 8: 319.

Casorio (1904) Acc. Georgofili, Att.: 1: July 3, 1904 (as Palmerite).

Lacroix (1910) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 33: 36.

Barth and Berman (1912) Chemie der Erde, Jena: 5: 114.

Lacroix (1912) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 35: 114.

Bannister and Hutchinson (1947) Mineralogical Magazine: 28: 31.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 999-1000.

American Mineralogist (1956): 41: 616-626.

Smith, J.P. and W.E. Brown (1959) X-ray studies of aluminum and iron phosphates containing potassium or ammonium. American Mineralogist (1959): 44: 138-142.

Balenzano, F., L. Dell’Anna, and M. Di Pierro (1974) Ricerche mineralogische su alcuni fosfati rinvenuti nelle grotte di Castellana (Bari): strengite alluminifera, vivianite, taranakite, brushite e idrossiapatite. Rend. Soc. Ital. Mineral. Petrol., 30, 543–573 (in Italian).

Sakae, T. and T. Sudo (1975) Taranakite from the Onino-Iwaya Limestone Cave at Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan: a new occurrence. American Mineralogist, 60, 331–334.

Fiore, S. and R. Laviano (1991) Brushite, hydroxylapatite, and taranakite from Apulian caves (southern Italy): new mineralogical data. American Mineralogist, 76, 1722–1727.

Dick, S., U. Gossner, A. Weiss, C. Robl, G. Grossman, G. Ohms, and T. Zeiske (1998) Taranakite – the mineral with the longest crystallographic axis. Inorganic Chimica Acta 269, 47-57.

Internet Links for Taranakite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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  • Taranakite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Taranakite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Algeria
     
    • Oran Province
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1000.; A. Carnot, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 1895, vol. 121, p. 153
    Antarctica
     
    • Western Antarctica
      • Antarctic Peninsula
        • South Shetland Islands
          • King George Island
    Proc. NIPR Symp. Polar Biol., 3,133-150(1990)
    Argentina
     
    • Patagonia
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1000.; L. R. Catalano, Argentina Direc. Minas y Geol. Pub., 1933, no. 100, p. 1.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Westmoreland Co.
        • Oberon
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1000.
    • Victoria
      • Bacchus Marsh
    Birch, W.D. & Henry, D.J., 1993, Phosphate Minerals of Victoria, The Mineralogical Society of Victoria, Special Publication No. 3
      • Corangamite Shire
        • Skipton
          • Mt. Widderin (Anderson's Hill)
    Webb, J. A., Joyce, E. B., & Stevens, N. C. (1982). Lava caves of Australia. In Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology. International Speleological Foundation, Seattle. p74-85.
    • Western Australia
      • Dandaragan Shire
        • Jurien Bay
    Helictite 13:19-33
      • Moora Shire
    Sampleite from Jingemia Cave, Western Australia; PJ Bridge, MW Clarke, MB Costello; Mineralogical Magazine 42, pp 369-371, 1978.
    China
     
    • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    Xunyi Wang (1982): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 2(2), 154-156
    France
     
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Hérault
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1000.; F. A. Bannister and Miss Hilda Bennett (1947) Whitlockite from Sebdou, Oran, Algeria. Mineralogical Magazine 28:29-30
    Germany
     
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Eifel
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Thuringia
      • Gera
        • Ronneburg U deposit
    EDX and XRD confirmed by Dr. Th. Witzke, ex Rüger-collection
    Greece
     
    • Macedonia Department
      • Serres Prefecture
        • Alistrati
    Natural History Museum Vienna collection (collected by Robert Seemann in 2006, PXRD-analysed by Christian L. Lengauer, University of Vienna)
    Hungary
     
    • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
      • Aggteleki Mtns
        • Aggtelek
      • Borsodi Mtns
        • Parasznya
    Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2006
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Salerno Province
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1000.
    • Puglia
      • Bari Province
    Balenzano, F., Dell'Ann,a L. & Di Pierro, M. (1974a): Ricerche mineralogiche su alcuni fosfati rinvenuti nelle Grotte di Castellana (Bari): strengite alluminifera, vivianite, taranakite, brushite e idrossiapatite. Rendiconti della Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrologia, 30(2), 543-573.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chugoku region
        • Hiroshima prefecture
    Sakae and Sudo (1975) Am. Min. 60, 331-334; Aizawa and Fuji (1993) Journ. Speleol. Soc. Japan, 18, 11-16.
    • Kyushu Region
      • Kumamoto Prefecture
    Nobuhide Sawamura & Hitoshi Momoi: “Cave minerals and the guano from Kyusendo cave in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan”, Journal of the Speleological Society of Japan; N. Kashiima: “The phosphate minerals from Kyusen-do cave, southern Kyushu”, Journal of the Speleological Society of Japan.)
    Kenya
     
    • Rift Valley Province
      • Suswa Volcano
    Forti, P., E. Galli & A. Rossi (2004):"Minerogenesis of volcanic caves of Kenya" , Int. J. Speleol. 32, 3-18
    Kyrgyzstan
     
    • Aravan
    V.I. Stepanov data
    Malaysia
     
    • Borneo Island
      • Sarawak
    Mineralogical Magazine (1983): 47: 79-80.
    Mexico
     
    • Coahuila
      • Mun. de Cuatrociénegas
        • Cuatro Ciénegas (Cuatrociénegas de Carranza; Venustiano Carranza)
          • Limestone caves
    Forti, P. et al. (2006): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79–98.
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
      • Taranaki
        • New Plymouth
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1000; American Mineralogist (1991): 76: 1722; Inorg. Chem. 269 (1998), 269
    • South Island
      • Otago
    J. Thornton in Micro-Scope, April 1995
    Réunion Island
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1000.
    Romania
     
    • Bistrița-Năsăud Co.
      • Rodna Mtn (Rodnei Mtn)
    al României, I. G. (2003) The 5 Th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp11-12
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Cerna valley
    Onac, B. P. (2009): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 38/1, 27-39
      • Hunedoara
        • Boșorod
    Am Min 90:1203-1208 (2005); D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
    • Maramureș Co.
      • Chioarului District
        • Chioarului Hills
    Neacșu Antonela, Cioacă Mihaela (2007) Gemological occurrences in Romania. PROIECT ROMANIT, Raport 2b. Geologie, p.29-30
    • Sălaj Co.
      • Boiului Plateau
    Tudor Tămaș, Răzvan Ungureanu (2010)-Mineralogy of Speleothems from four caves in the Purcăreț-Boiu Mare Plateau and the Baia Mare Depression (NW Romania). Studia Universitatis Babeș-Boyai, Geologia, 55 (2), 43-49.
    Slovakia
     
    • Košice Region
      • Rožňava Co.
        • Kečovo
    Sejkora, J., Duda, R., Cejka, J., Ederova, J. & Novotna, M. (2004): Taranakite (K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH).9H2O formed from the decomposition of bat guano in the Domica cave (Slovak Republic). Mineralia Slovaca 36, 343-348. (in Czech.)
    South Africa
    Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995), Minerals of South Africa.
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Ehlanzeni District
        • Nelspruit
    Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997), "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997)
    Spain
     
    • Balearic Islands
    B. Onac et al (2009) Mineral Diversity in Caves from Mallorca Island, Spain. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 325
    USA
     
    • California
      • San Francisco Co.
        • Farallon Islands
    Hanna, G. Dallas (1951), Geology of the Farallon Islands: California Division Mines Bulletin 154: 301-310; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 314.
    • Virginia
      • Bath Co.
    NSS Bulletin 44:90-97 (1982)
      • Giles Co.
    Murray, J. W. & Dietrich, R. V. (1956): Brushite and taranakite from Pig Hole Cave, Giles County, Virginia. American Mineralogist 41, 616-626.
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
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