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Thermonatrite

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Formula:
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
· H
 
2
O
System:OrthorhombicColour:Colourless to grey or ...
Hardness:1 - 1½
Name:From Greek θερμός, "thermos", heat, plus natron, alluding to its origin by thermal drying of that mineral.


This water-soluble mineral is found primarily in evaporite deposits and in arid climates where it may form as a surface deposit, or in volcanic fumaroles.
May originate as an alteration product of natrite.

Classification of Thermonatrite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/D.02-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:5.CB.05

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
C : Carbonates without additional anions, with H2O
B : With large cations (alkali and alkali-earth carbonates)
Dana 8th edition ID:15.1.1.1

15 : HYDRATED NORMAL CARBONATES
1 : A(XO3)·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:11.1.5

11 : Carbonates
1 : Carbonates of the alkali metals and ammonium
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Occurrences of Thermonatrite

Geological Setting:As efflorescences on soil in arid regions and in saline lakes.

Physical Properties of Thermonatrite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colourless to grey or yellow, white
Hardness (Mohs):1 - 1½
Tenacity:Sectile
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
On {100}, difficult.
Density (measured):2.255 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.259 g/cm3

Crystallography of Thermonatrite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:Pmmm
Cell Parameters:a = 10.72Å, b = 5.24Å, c = 6.46Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 2.046 : 1 : 1.233
Unit Cell Volume:V 362.88 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Forms crusts and efflorescence. Crystals thin-lamellar {001}, also tabular {010}; elongated [100] (artificial material).

Optical Data of Thermonatrite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.420 nβ = 1.506 nγ = 1.524
2V:Measured: 48° , Calculated: 46°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.104

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:relatively strong

Chemical Properties of Thermonatrite

Formula:
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
· H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Na2CO3·H2O
Essential elements:C, H, Na, O
All elements listed in formula:C, H, Na, O

Relationship of Thermonatrite to other Species

Common Associates:
TronaNatron
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
5.CB.10Natron
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
· 10H
 
2
O
5.CB.15Trona
Na
 
3
H(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
5.CB.20Monohydrocalcite
CaCO
 
3
· H
 
2
O
5.CB.25Ikaite
CaCO
 
3
· 6H
 
2
O
5.CB.30Pirssonite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
5.CB.35Gaylussite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
5.CB.40Chalconatronite
Na
 
2
Cu(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
5.CB.45Baylissite
K
 
2
Mg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
5.CB.50Tuliokite
Na
 
6
BaTh(CO
 
3
)
 
6
· 6H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
11.1.1Zabuyelite
Li
 
2
CO
 
3
11.1.2Natrite
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
11.1.3Nahcolite
NaHCO
 
3
11.1.4Wegscheiderite
Na
 
5
H
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
11.1.6Trona
Na
 
3
H(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
11.1.7Natron
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
· 10H
 
2
O
11.1.8Kalicinite
KHCO
 
3
11.1.9Shortite
Na
 
2
Ca
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
11.1.10Nyerereite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.1.11Natrofairchildite
11.1.12Zemkorite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.1.13Pirssonite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
11.1.14Gaylussite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
11.1.15Baylissite
K
 
2
Mg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
11.1.16Fairchildite
K
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.1.17Bütschliite
K
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.1.18Teschemacherite
(NH
 
4
)HCO
 
3

Other Names for Thermonatrite

Other Languages:
French:Soude carbonatée prismatique
German:Natürliches mineralisches Alkali
Prismatisches Natronsalz
Thermonatrit
Thermonitrit
Simplified Chinese:水碱
Spanish:Thermonatrita

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in water.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Thermonatrite

Reference List:

- +
Wallerius, J.G (1747) Mineralogia, eller Mineralriket. Stockholm (as Natron, Alkali orientale impurum terrestre, Jordblandadt, Alkaliskt-salt).

Mohs-Haidinger (1825): 2: 29 (as Prismatisches Natronsalz).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition, vol. 2: 1411 (as Thermonitrit).

Dufrénoy, A. (1856): 2: 220 (as Soude carbonatée prismatique).

Marignac (1857) Annales des mines: 12: 55.

Dufrénoy (1856): 2: 220 (as Soude carbonatée prismatique).

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 143.

Goldschmidt, V. (1922) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 8: 129 (may not refer to thermonatrite).

Hintze, Carl (1930) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3A]: 2776.

Pabst (1930) American Mineralogist: 15: 72.

Merwin in: Winchell, A. (1931) The Microscopic Characters of Artificial Inorganic Solid Substances or Artificial Minerals. Second edition, 403 pp., New York and London.

Colby and Harper (1934) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 89: 191.

Aprodova (1945) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S., n.s.: 48: 274.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 224-225.

Acta Crystallographica (1975): B31: 890.

Internet Links for Thermonatrite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Thermonatrite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Thermonatrite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Inn valley
          • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
            • Brixlegg - Rattenberg
    Schnorrer, G. & Poeverlein, R. (2008): Schwaz-Brixlegger Fundstellen. 6. Die Minerale des Gratlspitz bei Brixlegg in Tirol. Aufschluss 59, 7-28.
    Bolivia
     
    • Potosí Department
      • Nor Lípez Province
        • San Juan
    Ahlfeld & Muñoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia (Banco Minero de Bolivia)
      • Sud Lípez Province
    Fritz Berndt analysis, in: Ahlfeld & Muñoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia (Banco Minero de Bolivia)
    Canada
     
    • Québec
      • Montérégie
        • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
          • Mont Saint-Hilaire
    Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
    China
     
    Jiping Wang, Jianming Zhou, Xiulian Ma, and Qingtang Yang (1999): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 19(3), 315-319
    • Qinghai Province
      • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
        • Da Qaidam Co. (Dachaidan Co.)
    Dapeng Sun, Zhanghong Gao, and Kejun Wang (1984): Acta Sedimentologica Sinica 2(4)
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
        • Nyima Co. (Nima Co.)
    Yuan, H.R., Zheng, M.P., and Si, D.X. (2005): Abstracts of the IX. International Conference on Salt Lake Research, September 26-30, Perth, Australia.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
    Jan Hloušek
    Egypt
     
    • Western Desert
    Marchesini, M. & Barresi, A. (2009): I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.
    Greenland
     
    • Kujalleq
      • Narsaq
    Soerensen, H. (2001): The Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland: status of mineralogical research with new results, Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin 190, GEUS; Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
    Hungary
     
    • Bács-Kiskun Co.
      • Great Hungarian Plain
    Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2006
        • Petőfiszállás
    Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2006
    • Csongrád Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 224.
    • Hajdú-Bihar Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 224.
    • Pest Co.
      • Great Hungarian Plain
    Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2006
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 225; Russo, M., 2006: I minerali di formazione fumarolica della grande eruzione vesuviana del 1906
    Kenya
     
    • Rift Valley Province
      • Gregory Rift
    G. Périnet, J.J. Tiercelin, C.E. Barton : "Présence de kanémite dans les sédiments récents du lac Bogoria, Rift Gregory, Kenya", Bull. Minéral., 1982, 105, 633-639.
      • Suswa Volcano
    Forti, P. et al. (2004), "Minerogenesis of volcanic caves of Kenya". Int. J. Speleol. 32, 3-18
    Libya
     
    • Fezzan
    No reference listed
    Madagascar
     
    • Antananarivo Province
      • Vakinankaratra Region
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    Russia
     
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
        • Tolbachik volcano
          • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Khibiny Massif
            • Koashva Mt
    [AmMin 87:181]
            • Kukisvumchorr Mt
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    P.M. Kartashov data
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
          • Lovozero Massif
    Pekov, I. et al (2003): New Data on Minerals: 38: 20-33.
              • Umbozero mine (Umbozerskii mine; Umba Mine)
    Pekov, I.V. (2000): Lovozero Massif. Moscow, Ocean Pictures Ltd, 480 pp.
    Pekov, I.V. (2000): Lovozero Massif. Moscow, Ocean Pictures Ltd, 480 pp.
    • Urals Region
      • Middle Urals
        • Permskaya Oblast'
          • Verkhne-Chusovskie Gorodki
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 224.
    Switzerland
     
    • Vaud (Waadt)
      • Bex
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 402.
    Tanzania
     
    • Arusha Region
    Manega, Paul C. & Bieda, Sophie (1987): Modern sediments of Lake Natron, Tanzania. Sciences Geologiques, Bulletin 40, 83-95.
    Mitchell, R.H. (2006) Mineralogy of stalactites formed by subaerial weathering of natrocarbonatite hornitos at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine: 70: 437-444
    Turkey
     
    • Central Anatolia Region
      • Ankara Province
    Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
    USA
     
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 225.
        • Deep Springs Valley
    Jones, Blair Francis (1961), Zoning of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 83: BB200; Jones, Blair Francis (1965), The hydrology and mineralogy of Deep Spring Lake, Inyo County, California. USGS Professional Paper 502-A, 56 pp.: 44; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 205.
        • Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District; Death Valley Area Borate Deposits; Ryan area)
          • Ryan
    McAllister, James Franklin (1961), Sborgite in the Furnace Creek area, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 129: B299-B301; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 327-328.
    McAllister, James Franklin (1961), Sborgite in the Furnace Creek area, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 129: 300; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 365.
      • Kern Co.
    Specimen in the collectin of Dwight Weber [Rock Currier 2010]
      • Lake Co.
        • Sulphur Creek District (Sulfur Creek District; Wilbur Springs District)
          • Clear Lake Oaks
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 365; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 205.
    • Michigan
      • Marquette Co.
        • Marquette iron range
          • Palmer
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • Nevada
      • Churchill Co.
        • Soda Lake District
    NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Mexico
      • Colfax Co.
        • Springer
          • Point of Rocks Mesa (Pecks Mesa)
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
      • McKinley Co.
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
          • Ambrosia Lake area
    NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
    • Oregon
      • Lake Co.
    Am.Min.54:1034
    • Utah
      • Duchesne Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Washington
    www.dnr.wa.gov/geology/okanogan.htm.
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