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Thoreaulite

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Jacques Thoreau (1885-1973)
Formula:
(Sn2+,Pb)(Ta,Nb)2O6
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Brown to yellow
Lustre:
Adamantine, Resinous
Hardness:
5½ - 6
Name:
Named in 1933 by Henri Buttgenbach in honor of Jacques Thoreau [September 27, 1886 Brussels, Belgium - January 11, 1973 Kessel-Lo, Belgium], Professor of Mineralogy, Université Catholique de Leuvain-UCL, Belgium.
Isostructural with:

Classification of Thoreaulite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
4.DG.15

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
G : With large (+- medium-sized) cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 7th ed.:
8.3.10.1
8.3.10.1

8 : MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
3 : AB2O6
18.1.21

18 : Niobates and Tantalates
1 : Niobates and tantalates containing neither rare earths nor U
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First Recorded Occurrence of Thoreaulite

Year of Discovery:
1933

Physical Properties of Thoreaulite

Adamantine, Resinous
Colour:
Brown to yellow
Streak:
Yellow or greenish
Hardness (Mohs):
5½ - 6
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {100}; on {011} imperfect.
Density:
7.6 - 7.9 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Crystallography of Thoreaulite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 17.14Å, b = 4.86Å, c = 5.54Å
β = 91°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 3.527 : 1 : 1.14
Unit Cell Volume:
V 461.41 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals rough, prismatic [001].
Twinning:
Lamellar twins, with composition face {010}.

Optical Data of Thoreaulite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 2.390 nβ = 2.420 nγ = 2.520
2V:
Measured: 25° to 35°, Calculated: 60°
Birefringence:
On {100} cleavages = 0.039.
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.130
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r < v

Chemical Properties of Thoreaulite

Formula:
(Sn2+,Pb)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Idealised Formula:
Sn2+Ta2O6
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Thoreaulite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Foordite (see here)
4.DG.05Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ti,Ta)2O6
4.DG.05Fersmite(Ca,Y)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2(O,OH)6
4.DG.05Kobeite-(Y)(Y,Zr)2(Ti,Fe3+)2(O,OH)7
4.DG.05Loranskite-(Y)(Y,Ce,Ca)ZrTaO6 (?)
4.DG.05Polycrase-(Y)(Y,U)(Ti,Nb)2O6
4.DG.05Tanteuxenite-(Y)(Y,Ce,Ca)(Ta,Nb,Ti)2(O,OH)6
4.DG.05Uranopolycrase(U4+,Y)(Ti,Nb)2O6
4.DG.05Yttrocrasite-(Y)(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)2(O,OH)6
4.DG.10Fergusonite-(Y)-βYNbO4
4.DG.10Fergusonite-(Nd)-β(Nd,Ce)NbO4
4.DG.10Fergusonite-(Ce)-β(Ce,La,Nd)NbO4
4.DG.10Yttrotantalite-(Y)(Y,Ca,U4+,Fe2+)2(Ta,Nb)2O8
4.DG.10Beta-Fergusonite-(Nd)
4.DG.15Foordite(Sn,Pb)(Nb,Ta)2O6
4.DG.20RaspitePb(WO4)
18.1.1LithiotantiteLi(Ta,Nb)3O8
18.1.2LueshiteNaNbO3
18.1.3NatroniobiteNaNbO3
18.1.4FranconiteNa2Nb4O11 · 9H2O
18.1.5NatrotantiteNa2Ta4O11
18.1.6IrtyshiteNa2(Ta,Nb)4O11
18.1.7Rankamaite(Na,K)3(Ta,Nb,Al)11(O,OH)31
18.1.8Hydropyrochlore(H2O,□)2Nb2(O,OH)6(H2O)
18.1.9CalciotantiteCaTa4O11
18.1.10RynersoniteCa(Ta,Nb)2O6
18.1.11Microlite Group
18.1.12BelyankiniteCa1-2(Ti,Nb)5O12 · 9H2O (?)
18.1.13Latrappite(Ca,Na)(Nb,Ti,Fe)O3
18.1.14Hochelagaite(Ca,Na,Sr)(Nb,Ti,Si,Al)4O11 · 8H2O
18.1.15Bariomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.16ParabariomicroliteBaTa4O10(OH)2 · 2H2O
18.1.17Bariopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.18AlumotantiteAlTaO4
18.1.19SimpsoniteAl4(Ta,Nb)3O13(OH,F)
18.1.20Sosedkoite(K,Na)5Al2(Ta,Nb)22O60
18.1.22Stannomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.23Foordite(Sn,Pb)(Nb,Ta)2O6
18.1.24ChangbaiitePbNb2O6
18.1.25Plumbopyrochlore (of Skorobogatova et al.)
18.1.26Plumbomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.27StibiocolumbiteSb(Nb,Ta)O4
18.1.28StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
18.1.29Natrobistantite
18.1.30Cesplumtantite(Cs,Na)2(Pb,Sb3+)3Ta8O24
18.1.31Stibiomicrolite (of Groat et al.)
18.1.32Cesstibtantite
18.1.34BismutotantaliteBi(Ta,Nb)O4
18.1.35Bismutomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.36Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6
18.1.37Gerasimovskite(Mn,Ca)(Nb,Ti)5O12 · 9H2O
18.1.38Tapiolite-(Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
18.1.39Columbite-(Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Nb,Ta)2O6
18.1.40WodginiteMn(Sn,Ta)Ta2O8
18.1.41Ixiolite(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
18.1.42Columbite-(Fe)FeNb2O6
18.1.43Tantalite-(Fe)FeTa2O6
18.1.44Columbite(Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6
18.1.45Tantalite(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
18.1.46Tapiolite(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
18.1.47Tapiolite-(Fe)(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
18.1.48Columbite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6
18.1.50Strüverite(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
18.1.51 Staringite(Fe,Mn)x(Ta,Nb)2xSn6-3xO12

Other Names for Thoreaulite

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:钽锡矿

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Thoreaulite

Reference List:
Buttgenbach, H.(1933): La thoreaulite, nouvelle espéce minérale. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. 56: 327-328

American Mineralogist (1934): 19: 236.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 802.

American Mineralogist (1970): 55: 367-377.

American Mineralogist (1974): 59: 1026-1039.

Canadian Mineralogist (1988): 26: 899-903. (structure {Foordite}).

Internet Links for Thoreaulite

Localities for Thoreaulite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Jequitinhonha valley
      • Itinga
        • Monte Belo
[MinRec 12:74]
China
 
  • Heilongjiang Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Hegang Prefecture
      • Luobei Co.
Deshi Lu (1993): Geology and Prospecting 29(6), 8-12
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
 
  • Katanga (Shaba)
Buttgenbach, H.(1933): La thoreaulite, nouvelle espéce minérale. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. 56: 327-328
  • Maniema
Henri Buttgenbach (1947) Les minéraux de Belgique et du Congo belge
Uher, P., Cerny, P., & Chapman, R. (2008). Foordite-thoreaulite, Sn2+ Nb2O6Sn2+ Ta2O6: compositional variations and alteration products. European Journal of Mineralogy, 20(4), 501-516.
  • Nord-Kivu
Vik Vanrusselt photo & specimen (Ex Rik Dillen specimen)
Kazakhstan
 
  • Eastern Kazakhstan Province (Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
    • Kalba Range
      • Irtysh River
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Voloshin, A.V., Pakomovskii, Ya.A., Stepanov, V.I., Tyusheva, F.N. (1983): Lithiotantite, Li,(Ta,Nb)3O8, a new mineral from granite pegmatites of Eastern Kazakhstan. Mineralogiceskij Zhurnal, 5(1), 91-95. Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Rwanda
 
  • Western Province
    • Gatumba District
Bertossa, A., 1967. Inventaire des minéraux du Rwanda. Bulletin du Service Géologique de Rwanda 4, 25-45.
    • Kabaya District
Ann. Soc. Geol. Belgique, Vol. 73, No. 8, p. 213-218, 1950.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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