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Thoreaulite

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Formula:
(Sn
2+
 
,Pb)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
System:MonoclinicColour:Brown to yellow
Lustre:Adamantine, ResinousHardness:5½ - 6
Name:
Named after Jacques Thoreau (1886-1973), Professor of Mineralogy, Université Catholique de Louvain-UCL (Belgium).
Isostructural with:Foordite

Classification of Thoreaulite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/D.29-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.DG.15

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
G : With large (+- medium-sized) cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 7th edition ID:8.3.10.1
Dana 8th edition ID:8.3.10.1

8 : MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
3 : AB2O6
Hey's CIM Ref.:18.1.21

18 : Niobates and Tantalates
1 : Niobates and tantalates containing neither rare earths nor U
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Type Occurrence of Thoreaulite

Type Locality:Manono Mine, Katanga (Shaba), Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
Year of Discovery:1933

Physical Properties of Thoreaulite

Lustre:Adamantine, Resinous
Colour:Brown to yellow
Streak:Yellow or greenish
Hardness (Mohs):5½ - 6
Cleavage:Perfect
On {100}; on {011} imperfect.
Density (measured):7.6 - 7.9 g/cm3

Crystallography of Thoreaulite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:a = 17.14Å, b = 4.86Å, c = 5.54Å
β = 91°
Ratio:a:b:c = 3.527 : 1 : 1.14
Unit Cell Volume:V 461.41 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystals rough, prismatic [001].
Twinning:Lamellar twins, with composition face {010}.

Optical Data of Thoreaulite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 2.390 nβ = 2.420 nγ = 2.520
2V:Measured: 25° to 35°, Calculated: 60°
Birefringence:On {100} cleavages = 0.039.
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.130

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:r < v

Chemical Properties of Thoreaulite

Formula:
(Sn
2+
 
,Pb)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
Simplified for copy/paste:(Sn2+,Pb)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Idealised Formula:
Sn
2+
 
Ta
 
2
O
 
6
Essential elements:O, Sn, Ta
All elements listed in formula:Nb, O, Pb, Sn, Ta

Relationship of Thoreaulite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Foordite (see here)
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.DG.05Euxenite-(Y)
(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ti,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DG.05Fersmite
(Ca,Y)(Nb,Ta,Ti)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
4.DG.05Kobeite-(Y)
(Y,Zr)
 
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
7
4.DG.05Loranskite-(Y)
(Y,Ce,Ca)ZrTaO
 
6
(?)
4.DG.05Polycrase-(Y)
(Y,U)(Ti,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DG.05Tanteuxenite-(Y)
(Y,Ce,Ca)(Ta,Nb,Ti)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
4.DG.05Uranopolycrase
(U
4+
 
,Y)(Ti,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DG.05Yttrocrasite-(Y)
(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
4.DG.10β-Fergusonite-(Y)
YNbO
 
4
4.DG.10β-Fergusonite-(Nd)
(Nd,Ce)NbO
 
4
4.DG.10β-Fergusonite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Nd)NbO
 
4
4.DG.10Yttrotantalite-(Y)
(Y,Ca,U
4+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DG.10Beta-Fergusonite-(Nd)
4.DG.15Foordite
(Sn,Pb)(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DG.20Raspite
Pb(WO
 
4
)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
18.1.1Lithiotantite
Li(Ta,Nb)
 
3
O
 
8
18.1.2Lueshite
NaNbO
 
3
18.1.3Natroniobite
NaNbO
 
3
18.1.4Franconite
Na
 
2
Nb
 
4
O
 
11
· 9H
 
2
O
18.1.5Natrotantite
Na
 
2
Ta
 
4
O
 
11
18.1.6Irtyshite
Na
 
2
(Ta,Nb)
 
4
O
 
11
18.1.7Rankamaite
(Na,K)
 
3
(Ta,Nb,Al)
 
11
(O,OH)
 
31
18.1.8Hydropyrochlore
(H
 
2
O,□)
 
2
Nb
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
(H
 
2
O)
18.1.9Calciotantite
CaTa
 
4
O
 
11
18.1.10Rynersonite
Ca(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
18.1.11Microlite Group
18.1.12Belyankinite
Ca
 
1-2
(Ti,Nb)
 
5
O
 
12
· 9H
 
2
O (?)
18.1.13Latrappite
(Ca,Na)(Nb,Ti,Fe)O
 
3
18.1.14Hochelagaite
(Ca,Na,Sr)(Nb,Ti,Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
11
· 8H
 
2
O
18.1.15Bariomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.16Parabariomicrolite
BaTa
 
4
O
 
10
(OH)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
18.1.17Bariopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.18Alumotantite
AlTaO
 
4
18.1.19Simpsonite
Al
 
4
(Ta,Nb)
 
3
O
 
13
(OH,F)
18.1.20Sosedkoite
(K,Na)
 
5
Al
 
2
(Ta,Nb)
 
22
O
 
60
18.1.22Stannomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.23Foordite
(Sn,Pb)(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
18.1.24Changbaiite
PbNb
 
2
O
 
6
18.1.25Plumbopyrochlore (of Skorobogatova et al.)
18.1.26Plumbomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.27Stibiocolumbite
Sb(Nb,Ta)O
 
4
18.1.28Stibiotantalite
Sb(Ta,Nb)O
 
4
18.1.29Natrobistantite
18.1.30Cesplumtantite
(Cs,Na)
 
2
(Pb,Sb
3+
 
)
 
3
Ta
 
8
O
 
24
18.1.31Stibiomicrolite (of Groat et al.)
18.1.32Cesstibtantite
18.1.34Bismutotantalite
Bi(Ta,Nb)O
 
4
18.1.35Bismutomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.36Tantalite-(Mn)
MnTa
 
2
O
 
6
18.1.37Gerasimovskite
(Mn,Ca)(Nb,Ti)
 
5
O
 
12
· 9H
 
2
O
18.1.38Tapiolite-(Mn)
(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
18.1.39Columbite-(Mn)
(Mn,Fe)(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
18.1.40Wodginite
Mn(Sn,Ta)Ta
 
2
O
 
8
18.1.41Ixiolite
(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)
 
4
O
 
8
18.1.42Columbite-(Fe)
FeNb
 
2
O
 
6
18.1.43Tantalite-(Fe)
FeTa
 
2
O
 
6
18.1.44Columbite
(Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
18.1.45Tantalite
(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
18.1.46Tapiolite
(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
18.1.47Tapiolite-(Fe)
(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
18.1.48Columbite-(Mg)
(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
18.1.50Strüverite
(Ti,Ta,Fe)O
 
2
18.1.51 Staringite
(Fe,Mn)
 
x
(Ta,Nb)
 
2x
Sn
 
6-3x
O
 
12

Other Names for Thoreaulite

Synonyms:
Thorolite
Other Languages:
German:Thoreaulit
Thorolit
Russian:Торолит
Simplified Chinese:钽锡矿
Spanish:Thoreaulita
Thorolita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Thoreaulite

Reference List:

- +
Buttgenbach, H.(1933): La thoreaulite, nouvelle espéce minérale. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. 56: 327-328

American Mineralogist (1934): 19: 236.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 802.

American Mineralogist (1970): 55: 367-377.

American Mineralogist (1974): 59: 1026-1039.

Canadian Mineralogist (1988): 26: 899-903. (structure {Foordite}).

Internet Links for Thoreaulite

Search Engines:
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  • Look for Thoreaulite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Thoreaulite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Find Thoreaulite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
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  • Localities for Thoreaulite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • Jequitinhonha valley
        • Itinga
          • Monte Belo
    [MinRec 12:74]
    China
     
    • Heilongjiang Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Hegang Prefecture
        • Luobei Co.
    Deshi Lu (1993): Geology and Prospecting 29(6), 8-12
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    • Katanga (Shaba)
    Buttgenbach, H.(1933): La thoreaulite, nouvelle espéce minérale. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. 56: 327-328
    • Maniema
    Henri Buttgenbach (1947) Les minéraux de Belgique et du Congo belge
    Uher, P., Cerny, P., & Chapman, R. (2008). Foordite-thoreaulite, Sn2+ Nb2O6Sn2+ Ta2O6: compositional variations and alteration products. European Journal of Mineralogy, 20(4), 501-516.
    • Nord-Kivu
    Vik Vanrusselt photo & specimen (Ex Rik Dillen specimen)
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Eastern Kazakhstan Province (Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
      • Kalba Range
        • Irtysh River
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Voloshin, A.V., Pakomovskii, Ya.A., Stepanov, V.I., Tyusheva, F.N. (1983): Lithiotantite, Li,(Ta,Nb)3O8, a new mineral from granite pegmatites of Eastern Kazakhstan. Mineralogiceskij Zhurnal, 5(1), 91-95. Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Rwanda
     
    • Western Province
      • Gatumba District
    Bertossa, A., 1967. Inventaire des minéraux du Rwanda. Bulletin du Service Géologique de Rwanda 4, 25-45.
      • Kabaya District
    Ann. Soc. Geol. Belgique, Vol. 73, No. 8, p. 213-218, 1950.
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