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Thorogummite

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Formula:
(Th,U)(SiO
 
4
)
 
1-x
(OH)
 
4x
System:TetragonalColour:Yellow-brown, ...
Hardness:
Member of:Zircon Group
Name:Named for its thorium content and Latin "gummi", gum, alluding to its gum-like appearance.


Compare thorite.

Classification of Thorogummite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/A.09-50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.AD.30

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination
Dana 8th edition ID:51.5.2.5

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
5 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.16.14

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
16 : Silicates of U
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Type Occurrence of Thorogummite

Type Locality:Baringer Hill (Barringer Hill), Bluffton, Llano Co., Texas, USA
Year of Discovery:1889

Physical Properties of Thorogummite

Lustre:Waxy, Dull
Colour:Yellow-brown, yellow-green, black
Hardness (Mohs):

Crystallography of Thorogummite

Crystal System:Tetragonal
Cell Parameters:a = 7.06Å, c = 6.26Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.887
Unit Cell Volume:V 312.02 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Chemical Properties of Thorogummite

Formula:
(Th,U)(SiO
 
4
)
 
1-x
(OH)
 
4x
Simplified for copy/paste:(Th,U)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x
Essential elements:H, O, Si, Th
All elements listed in formula:H, O, Si, Th, U
Common Impurities:U,Al,Fe,Pb,Mg,Ca,H2O,P,C

Relationship of Thorogummite to other Species

Member of:Zircon Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Hafnon
HfSiO
 
4
Stetindite
Ce
4+
 
SiO
 
4
Thorite
(Th,U)SiO
 
4
Zircon
ZrSiO
 
4
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.AD.05Larnite
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
9.AD.10Calcio-Olivine
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
9.AD.15Merwinite
Ca
 
3
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.20Bredigite
Ca
 
7
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
9.AD.25Andradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Almandine
Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Calderite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Goldmanite
Ca
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Grossular
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Henritermierite
Ca
 
3
(Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.AD.25Hibschite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Hydroandradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Katoite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Kimzeyite
Ca
 
3
(Zr,Ti)
 
2
((Si,Al,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Knorringite
Mg
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Majorite
Mg
 
3
(Fe
2+
 
,Si,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Morimotoite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Pyrope
Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Schorlomite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Spessartine
Mn
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Uvarovite
Ca
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Wadalite
(Ca,Mg)
 
6
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
4
((Si,Al)O
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
4
Cl
 
3
9.AD.25Holtstamite
Ca
 
3
(Al,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.AD.25Kerimasite
Ca
 
3
Zr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.25Toturite
Ca
 
3
Sn
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.25Momoiite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Eltyubyuite
Ca
 
12
Fe
3+
10
Si
 
4
O
 
32
Cl
 
6
9.AD.25Hutcheonite
Ca
 
3
Ti
 
2
(SiAl
 
2
)O
 
12
9.AD.30Coffinite
(U
4+
 
,Th)(SiO
 
4
)
 
1-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.30Hafnon
HfSiO
 
4
9.AD.30Thorite
(Th,U)SiO
 
4
9.AD.30Zircon
ZrSiO
 
4
9.AD.30Stetindite
Ce
4+
 
SiO
 
4
9.AD.35Huttonite
ThSiO
 
4
9.AD.35Tombarthite-(Y)
Y
 
4
(Si,H
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
12-x
(OH)
 
4+2x
9.AD.40Eulytine
Bi
 
4
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.45Reidite
ZrSiO
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.16.1Uranosilite
UO
 
3
· 7SiO
 
2
14.16.2Coffinite
(U
4+
 
,Th)(SiO
 
4
)
 
1-x
(OH)
 
4x
14.16.3Soddyite
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
SiO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
14.16.4Swamboite
UH
 
6
(UO
 
2
)
 
6
(SiO
 
4
)
 
6
· 30H
 
2
O
14.16.5Weeksite
K
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(Si
 
5
O
 
13
) · 4H
 
2
O
14.16.6Boltwoodite
(K,Na)(UO
 
2
)[HSiO
 
4
] · 0.5H
 
2
O
14.16.7Natroboltwoodite
(H
 
3
O)(Na,K)UO
 
2
SiO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
14.16.8Cuprosklodowskite
Cu(UO
 
2
)
 
2
[HSiO
 
4
]
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
14.16.9Sklodowskite
Mg(UO
 
2
)
 
2
[HSiO
 
4
]
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
14.16.10Uranophane
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
[HSiO
 
4
]
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
14.16.11β-Uranophane
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(HSiO
 
4
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
14.16.12Haiweeite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
[Si
 
5
O
 
12
(OH)
 
2
] · 6H
 
2
O
14.16.13Metahaiweeite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
15
· nH
 
2
O
14.16.15Steacyite
(◻,K)(Na,Ca)
 
2
(Th,U)[Si
 
8
O
 
20
]
14.16.16Ekanite
(Ca,Fe
2+
 
,Pb)
 
2
(Th,U)[Si
 
8
O
 
20
]
14.16.17Kasolite
Pb(UO
 
2
)[SiO
 
4
] · H
 
2
O
14.16.18Orlite
Pb
 
3
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
14.16.19Oursinite
(Co,Mg)(UO
 
2
)
 
2
[HSiO
 
4
]
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O

Other Names for Thorogummite

Synonyms:
ChlorothoriteHydrothoriteMackintoshiteMaitlanditeNicolayite
Other Languages:
German:Chlorothorit
Mackintoshit
Maitlandit
Nicolayit
Thorogummit
Simplified Chinese:水钍石
Spanish:Chlorothorita
Mackintoshita
Maitlandita
Nicolayita
Thorogummita

Other Information

Health Warning:Contains thorium and uranium - always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when handling or breaking. Never lick or ingest. Avoid prolonged exposure in proximity of the body. Store away from inhabited areas.

References for Thorogummite

Reference List:

- +
American Journal of Science (1889): 138: 480.

Frondel, C. (1958): Systematic Mineralogy of Uranium and Thorium", GSC. Bull. 1064. [gives R.I. of 1.54-1.64]

American Mineralogist (1953): 38: 1007-1018.

Canadian Mineralogist (1989): 27: 643.

Internet Links for Thorogummite

Search Engines:
  • Look for Thorogummite on Google
  • Look for Thorogummite images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Look for Thorogummite on Webmineral
  • Look for Thorogummite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Thorogummite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Thorogummite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • Buy from McDougall Minerals
  • Mineral Classics - Worldwide Collector Quality Minerals and Gems
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  • Find Thorogummite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Thorogummite specimens
  • The Arkenstone - Fine Minerals
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  • SpiriferMinerals.com - high quality low prices
  • High-end worldwide specimens & outstanding customer service
  • rare and unusual minerals mainly crystallized
  • Buy from David K Joyce minerals
  • Localities for Thorogummite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Jujuy
      • Tilcara Department
    O. Haluska (1975). El Torio en la Naturaleza. Yacimientos de Torio en Argentina. Programa Prioritario de Plantas Químicas. Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    O. Haluska ((1975). El Torio en la naturaleza. Yacimientos de Torio en Argentina. Programa prioritario de Plantas Químicas. Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Buenos Aires, Argentina.
          • Quebrada Tocante
    O. Haluska ((1975). El Torio en la naturaleza. Yacimientos de Torio en Argentina. Programa prioritario de Plantas Químicas. Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    • Salta
      • La Poma Department
    Victorio Angellelli (1958). Los minerales de uranio sus yacimientos y prospección. Departamento de Geología y Minería. Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Argentina.
    Victorio Angellelli (1958). Los minerales de uranio sus yacimientos y prospección. Departamento de Geología y Minería. Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Argentina.
    Victorio Angellelli (1958). Los minerales de uranio sus yacimientos y prospección. Departamento de Geología y Minería. Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Argentina.
    Victorio Angellelli (1958). Los minerales de uranio sus yacimientos y prospección. Departamento de Geología y Minería. Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Argentina.
    Victorio Angellelli (1958). Los minerales de uranio sus yacimientos y prospección. Departamento de Geología y Minería. Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Argentina.
      • Santa Victoria Department
    O. Haluska (1975). El Torio en la naturaleza. Yacimientos de Torio en la Argentina. Programa Prioritario de Plantas Químicas. Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    O. Haluska (1975). El Torio en la naturaleza. Yacimientos de Torio en la Argentina. Programa Prioritario de Plantas Químicas. Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Australia
     
    • Western Australia
      • Mukinbudin Shire
        • Mukinbudin
    P Downes unpub data
      • Port Hedland Shire
    AmMin 13:457
        • Wodgina Mine (Wodgina pegmatite)
    Pegmatites of Western Australia; M Jacobson, M Calderwood, B Grguric; Hesperian Press, Perth, 2007.
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • Poços de Caldas alkaline complex
        • Poços de Caldas
    Baretto & Fujimori (1986)
    Canada
     
    • Ontario
      • Haliburton Co.
        • Cardiff Township
    Ref.: Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 39.
      • Hastings Co.
        • Monteagle Township
    ontariominerals.com
      • Thunder Bay District
        • Walsh Township
    Potter, E. G. and Mitchell, R.H. (2005): Mineralogy of the Deadhorse Creek volcaniclastic breccia complex, northwestern Ontario, Canada. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 150 (2): 212-229
    • Québec
      • Montérégie
        • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
          • Mont Saint-Hilaire
    Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
      • Outaouais
        • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM
          • Val-des-Monts
            • Lac Saint-Pierre (Wakefield Lake)
    Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 41.; Hogarth, D.D., Chao, G.Y., Plant. G.A. & Steacy, H. R. (1974): Caysichite, a new silico-carbonate of yttrium and calcium. Canadian Mineralogist.12: 293-298
    Hogarth, D. et al., 1983, Classic Mineral Collecting Localities in Ontario and Quebec:, p. 29.
    • Yukon Territory
      • Dawson Mining District
    Perrault et al. (1982) Can. Min. 20, 65
    Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 20, pp. 65-75 (1982)
    China
     
    • Jiangxi Province
      • Shangrao Prefecture
        • Yanshan Co. (Qianshan Co.)
    Rengui Wu and Dagan Yu (2000): Uranium Geology 16(4), 204-211
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Ústí Region
        • Šluknov (Schluckenau)
    Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Olomouc Region
        • Prostějov area
    Škoda R., Čopjakova R. 2006: Authigenic REE mineralsfrom greywackes of the Drahany Uplands, Czech Republic and their significance for diagenetic processes. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 28, 208-210
      • South Moravia Region
        • Moravský Krumlov
    Filip, J., Houzar, S., Sulovský, P.: Allanit a produkty jeho přeměny z pegmatitu a ze skarnu u Rešic, západní Morava. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae geologicae, 2002, roč. 87, s. 87 - 101.
    Egypt
     
    • Red Sea Governorate
      • Eastern Desert
    Abd El-Naby, H.H. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 436-446.
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Franconia
        • Spessart
          • Aschaffenburg
            • Dörrmorsbach
    A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
    Greenland
     
    • Sermersooq
      • Arsuk Fjord
        • Ivittuut (Ivigtut)
    Petersen, O. V and K Secher (1993) The Minerals of Greenland. Mineralogical Record 24:36
    Italy
     
    • Tuscany
      • Massa-Carrara Province
        • Apuan Alps
    Orlandi P., Franzini M., 1994. I minerali del marmo di Carrara. Amilcare Pizzi S.p.A., Milano.
    Orlandi P., Franzini M., 1994. I minerali del marmo di Carrara. Amilcare Pizzi S.p.A., Milano.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chugoku Region
        • Hiroshima Prefecture
          • Hiroshima City
    alfredo petrov specimens
      • Kinki region
        • Kyoto prefecture
          • Ohmiya town
            • Kobe
    Dr. Yohachiro Okamoto collection (curated at Geological Survey museum, Japan)
      • Tohoku Region
        • Fukushima Prefecture
    Introduction to Japanese Minerals (Geological Survey of Japan, 1970)
          • Kawamata
            • Iizaka Village (Iisaka)
    Madagascar
     
    • Antananarivo Province
      • Itasy Region
        • Soavinandriana District
          • Mahavelona Commune
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Geologique A. 1871
    • Tuléar Province (Toliara)
      • Anosy Region (Fort Dauphin Region)
        • Amboasary District
          • Maromby Commune
            • Belafa area
    Besairie, H. (1966): Les Gites Minéraux de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar, Tananarive, 34.
    Besairie, H. (1966): Les Gites Minéraux de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar, Tananarive, 34.
    Besairie, H. (1966): Les Gites Minéraux de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar, Tananarive, 34.
          • Tranomaro Commune
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p 72
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    Mozambique
     
    • Zambezia Province
      • Alto Ligonha District
    Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
    Norway
     
    • Aust-Agder
      • Evje og Hornnes
        • Flatebygd
    Åmli, R. (1969): Secondary uranium and thorium minerals from Einerkilen granite pegmatite in Evje, Southern Norway. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse 258 [Årbok 1968]: 124-130 + Neumann (1985, p. 140).
        • Landsverk
    Info. board at the mine, 2005.
      • Gjerstad
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 100
    • Nord-Trøndelag
    Grønli, A. and Hembre, O.S. (1984): Ny malmgeologisk provins i Nord-Trøndelag? Abstr. BVLI symp. Trondheim, okt.1984 (cited in Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68 p.115
      • Levanger
    Grønli, A. and Hembre, O.S. (1984): Ny malmgeologisk provins i Nord-Trøndelag? Abstr. BVLI symp. Trondheim, okt.1984 (cited in Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68 p.140 )
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
          • Ermakovskoe Be Deposit
            • Zunshibir' valley
    Mironov A.G. and Gofman A.F, (1979) Barian betafite in pegmatites of Transbaikalien, - Minerals and Minerals Paragenesisa of Rocks and Ores, Leningrad, Nauka, p.127-132 (in Russian).
    Slovakia
     
    • Košice Region
      • Rožňava Co.
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
        • Rožňava (Rosenau; Rozsnyó)
          • Čučma
    Peterec D., Ďuďa R., 2003 : Zriedkavé minerály Mn – ložiska pri Čučme. Natura Carpatica (Košice), 44, s.229-236
    Spain
     
    • Galicia
      • Lugo
        • Sarria
    Kilias, S.P., Pozo, M., Bustillo, M., Stamatakis, M.G., and Calvo, J.P. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 713-733.
    Sweden
     
    • Jämtland
      • Krokom
    • Lappland
      • Jokkmokk
    No reference listed
    • Småland
      • Växjö
        • Asa
    See above.
      • Vetlanda
        • Alseda
          • Slättåkra
    J.Langhof: REE-mineralogy in Mo-granite pegmatites in Vetlanda-area, Småland,Sweden. 1991
    H.-J.Wilke: Die Mineralien und Fundstellen von Schweden.1997
    H.-J.Wilke: Die Mineralien und Fundstellen von Schweden.1997
    Switzerland
     
    • Ticino (Tessin)
      • Riviera
        • Lodrino
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 402.
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Binn Valley
        • Fäld (Imfeld; Im Feld; Feld)
    Graeser, et al. (2008) Faszination Lengenbach. KristalloGrafik-Verl., Achberg
      • Les Bagnes Valley
        • Entremont Valley
          • Ferret Valley
            • La Fouly
    Cuchet, S., Schnyder, C. & Meisser, N. (2003): Les minéraux de L'A Neuve. Schweizer Strahler / Le Cristallier Suisse, Nr. 3, 28-37.; Cuchet, S., Schnyder, C. & Meisser, N. (2003): Les minéraux de L'A Neuve. Schweizer Strahler / Le Cristallier Suisse, Nr. 3, 28-37.
    UK
     
    • Scotland
      • Outer Hebrides
        • Isle of Harris
    O. von Knorring and R. Dearnley (1960) The Lewisian Pegmatites of South Harris, Outer Hebrides. Mineralogical Magazine 32:366-378
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Mohave Co.
        • Cerbat Mts (Cerbat Range)
          • Wallapai District
            • Kingman area
    Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:236-237; Brown, TJ, "Geology & Geochemistry of the Kingman Feldspar, Rare Metals and Wagon Bow Pegmatites" (2010). University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations. Paper 1280.
    • California
      • Riverside Co.
        • Crestmore
    [[email protected]]
        • Nuevo
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 367; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 462.
    San Diego Natural History Museum
        • Mesa Grande District
          • Gem Hill
    Foord, E. E. (1977), Famous Mineral Localities: the Himalaya Dike System, Mesa Grande District, San Diego County, California. Mineralogical Record 8(6): p. 472.
    • Colorado
      • Boulder Co.
        • Jamestown District
          • Jamestown
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Chaffee Co.
        • Buena Vista
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Custer Co.
        • Wet Mountains Area
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • El Paso Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Fremont Co.
    "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 16, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
      • Gunnison Co.
        • White Earth District (Powderhorn District)
    "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
        • Willow Creek District
    The Williamson Southern Group
      • Jefferson Co.
        • South Platte Pegmatite District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    Rare-Earth Pegmatites of the South Platte District, Colorado CGS Res Ser 11
    • Connecticut
      • Fairfield Co.
        • Danbury
    Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut: 192-201.
      • Middlesex Co.
        • Haddam
          • Haddam Neck
    Collections of Fred E Davis, Harold Moritz
        • Portland
    Specimen in collection of Andrew Kruegel
    • Maine
      • Sagadahoc Co.
        • Topsham
    King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1.
    • Massachusetts
      • Middlesex Co.
        • Woburn
    P. Cristofono collection
    • Nevada
      • Mineral Co.
        • Fitting District
    NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Mexico
      • Sierra Co.
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
    USGS Open File report 2010-5220
      • Taos Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    Pratt,J.H.,1905, The Mining Industry in North Carolina during 1904,North Carolina Geological Survey,Economic Paper#9 pg.50
    Kenny Gay - North Carolina Geological Survey
    Kenny Gay -North Carolina Geological Survey
    • Pennsylvania
      • Northampton Co.
        • Forks Township
          • Easton
    Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
    Rocks & Min.: 17:344.; Am.Min.: 45: 39-52
    Rocks & Min.: 11:90.
    • Texas
      • Llano Co.
        • Bluffton
    AM 38 (1953), 1007
        • Kingsland Granite Company Quarry (Petrick Quarry)
    Self-collected by Franklin Roberts.
        • Llano
    R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
    R&M 66:3 pp 196-224; Economic Geology; November 1964; v. 59; no. 7; American Mineralogist 50:284
    • Virginia
      • Amherst Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Bedford Co.
        • Moneta-Forest
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Rappahannock Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Roanoke Co.
    Am Min (1964) 49:1136-1139
        • Roanoke area
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Wisconsin
      • Marathon Co.
    Rocks & Min.: 62: 190-193.
        • Wausau pluton
    R&M 73:11-12 pp 378-399 Wisconsin Mineral Locality Index
      • Wood Co.
        • Vesper
    Min.News 15(5):1, 5 - 6
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