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Tilasite

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Formula:
CaMg(AsO4)F
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Light gray, violet-gray, ...
Hardness:
5
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1895 by Stens Anders Hjalmar Sjögren in honor of Daniel Tilas [March 2, 1712 Gammelbo, Ramsbergs parish, Västmanland, Sweden - October 27, 1772 Stockholm, Sweden], polymath, geologist, mining engineer, vicar of Hammar, director of mines, and regional governor. He was the vice commissioner of the Sweden-Norway Boundary Commission. In 1742, Tilas anticipated aspects of later glacial theories by suggesting that drifting sea ice could be responsible for the distribution of erratic boulders on land. Tilas' grandfather was Urban Hjärne who was a physician and noted chemist and who was also director of the Swedish Chemical Laboratory, president of the Collegium Medicum (medical college), and president of the Board of Mines.
Isostructural with:

Classification of Tilasite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8.BH.10

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
H : With medium-sized and large cations, (OH,etc.):RO4 = 1:1
41.5.6.1

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
5 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq
22.1.29

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
1 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with fluoride
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Type Occurrence of Tilasite

General Appearance of Type Material:
Grains or veinlets in dolomitic limestone bearing Hausmannite.

Physical Properties of Tilasite

Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Colour:
Light gray, violet-gray, pinkish red (Långban); olive-green, apple-green (India); colourless or pale green in transmitted light.
Hardness (Mohs):
5
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {101}, good.
Parting:
On {133}, {102}, and on {011}.
Density:
3.75 - 3.79 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.78 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Tilasite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
m - Domatic
Space Group:
Bb
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.681(2) Å, b = 8.950(2) Å, c = 7.573(2) Å
β = 121.14(2)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.746 : 1 : 0.846
Unit Cell Volume:
V 387.58 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals elongated [100] and also flattened on {010} at times; occasionally aggregate into sub-parallel groups. Massive.
Twinning:
On {001}, common as symmetrical contact twins.
Comment:
Non-standard unit-cell (standard cell, with beta <120°: 6.681, 8.950, 7.046 A, 113.10°).
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.09 (40)
4.83 (60)
4.49 (60)
3.70 (60)
3.49 (60)
3.26 (100)
3.07 (100)
2.86 (70)
2.69 (100)
2.63 (70)
2.34 (70)
2.27 (80)
1.74 (90)
1.69 (90)
Comments:
ICDD 2-485

Optical Data of Tilasite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.640 nβ = 1.660 nγ = 1.675
2V:
Measured: 83°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.035
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r < v relatively weak

Chemical Properties of Tilasite

Formula:
CaMg(AsO4)F
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Tilasite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Durangite (see here)
Forms a series with Maxwellite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
DurangiteNaAl(AsO4)F
IsokiteCaMg(PO4)F
KononoviteNaMg(SO4)F
LacroixiteNaAl(PO4)F
MaxwelliteNaFe3+(AsO4)F
PanasqueiraiteCaMg(PO4)(OH,F)
8.BH.05ThadeuiteCa(Mg,Fe2+)3(PO4)2(OH,F)2
8.BH.10DurangiteNaAl(AsO4)F
8.BH.10IsokiteCaMg(PO4)F
8.BH.10LacroixiteNaAl(PO4)F
8.BH.10MaxwelliteNaFe3+(AsO4)F
8.BH.10PanasqueiraiteCaMg(PO4)(OH,F)
8.BH.15DrugmanitePb2(Fe3+,Al)(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)2
8.BH.20Bjarebyite(Ba,Sr)(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)2Al2(PO4)3(OH)3
8.BH.20CirroliteCa3Al2(PO4)3(OH)3 (?)
8.BH.20KulaniteBa(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)2(Al,Fe3+)2(PO4)3(OH)3
8.BH.20PenikisiteBa(Mg,Fe2+,Ca)2Al2(PO4)3(OH)3
8.BH.20PerloffiteBa(Mn2+,Fe2+)2Fe23+(PO4)3(OH)3
8.BH.20JohntomaiteBaFe22+Fe23+(PO4)3(OH)3
8.BH.25Bertossaite(Li,Na)2(Ca,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al4(PO4)4(OH,F)4
8.BH.25Palermoite(Li,Na)2(Sr,Ca)Al4(PO4)4(OH)4
8.BH.30CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
8.BH.30SewarditeCaFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
8.BH.35AdeliteCaMg(AsO4)(OH)
8.BH.35ArsendescloizitePbZn(AsO4)(OH)
8.BH.35AustiniteCaZn(AsO4)(OH)
8.BH.35CobaltaustiniteCaCo(AsO4)(OH)
8.BH.35ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
8.BH.35DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
8.BH.35GabrielsonitePbFe(AsO4)(OH)
8.BH.35NickelaustiniteCaNi(AsO4)(OH)
8.BH.35TangeiteCaCu(VO4)(OH)
8.BH.35GottlobiteCaMg(VO4,AsO4)(OH)
8.BH.35HermannroseiteCaCu(PO4)(OH)
8.BH.40ČechitePbFe2+(VO4)(OH)
8.BH.40DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
8.BH.40MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
8.BH.40PyrobelonitePbMn2+(VO4)(OH)
8.BH.45BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
8.BH.45VésigniéiteBaCu3(VO4)2(OH)2
8.BH.50PaganoiteNiBi(AsO4)O
8.BH.55JagoweriteBaAl2(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BH.60Attakolite(Ca,Sr)Mn(Al,Fe)4(HPO4,PO4)3(SiO4,PO4)(OH)4
8.BH.65LeningraditePbCu3(VO4)2Cl
22.1.1AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
22.1.2LacroixiteNaAl(PO4)F
22.1.3NatrophosphateNa7(PO4)2F · 19H2O
22.1.5NacaphiteNa2Ca(PO4)F
22.1.6ArctiteNa2Ca4(PO4)3F
22.1.7NefedoviteNa5Ca4(PO4)4F
22.1.9FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
22.1.10HerderiteCaBePO4(F,OH)
22.1.11IsokiteCaMg(PO4)F
22.1.12PanasqueiraiteCaMg(PO4)(OH,F)
22.1.13BabefphiteBaBePO4(F,OH)
22.1.14FluelliteAl2(PO4)F2(OH) · 7H2O
22.1.15MinyuliteKAl2(PO4)2(OH,F) · 4H2O
22.1.16MoriniteNaCa2Al2(PO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2O
22.1.17BøggilditeNa2Sr2Al2PO4F9
22.1.18FluorstrophiteSrCaSr3(PO4)3F
22.1.19ViitaniemiiteNa(Ca,Mn2+)Al(PO4)(F,OH)3
22.1.20VäyryneniteMn2+Be(PO4)(OH,F)
22.1.21MaxwelliteNaFe3+(AsO4)F
22.1.22Wagnerite(Mg,Fe2+)2(PO4)F
22.1.23Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
22.1.24Magniotriplite(Mg,Fe2+,Mn2+)2PO4F
22.1.25Zwieselite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)F
22.1.26McauslaniteFe3Al2(PO4)3(PO3OH)F · 18H2O
22.1.27RichelliteCaFe23+(PO4)2(OH,F)2
22.1.28SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3F
22.1.30Johnbaumite-MCa5(AsO4)3OH
22.1.31DurangiteNaAl(AsO4)F

Other Names for Tilasite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Tilasit
Simplified Chinese:氟砷钙镁石
Spanish:Tilasita
Traditional Chinese:氟砷鈣鎂石

Other Information

Other Information:
Easily soluble in HCl or HNo3.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Tilasite

Reference List:
Sjögren, H. (1895): Preliminära meddelanden om några undersökningar på svenska mineral. 4. Tilasit eller fluor-adelit från Långban. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 17, 291-294 (Described as Fluor-adelite and given the name Tilasite in this paper).

Smith and Prior (1911) Mineralogical Magazine: 16: 84.

Aminoff (1923) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 45: 144.

Aminoff (1933) Kungl. Svenska Vetenskap. Handl.: 11, no. 4: 28.

Strunz (1937) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 96: 7.

Kokkoros (1938) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 99: 38.

Strunz (1938) Zentralblatt Mineralien: 59.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 827.

American Mineralogist (1972): 57: 1880-1884.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1994): 289-294.

Internet Links for Tilasite

Localities for Tilasite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Algeria
 
  • Skikda Province
    • Azzaba area
Heflik W., 1989: Symplectic intergrowths in vulcanites from the Djebel Guettara manganese deposit (Northern Algeria). Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 20(2), 11-28
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Leigh Creek
          • Puttapa
Elliott, P. (1991): Minerals from the Beltana mine, Puttapa, South Australia. Mineralogical Record 22, 449-456.
Austria
 
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Sill valley (Wipp valley)
        • Navis valley
          • Navis
BRANDSTÄTTER, F., GRILL, J., NIEDERMAYR, G. & WALTER, F. (2015): 1927) Bementit, Bixbyit, Kutnohorit, Manganberzeliit, Tilasit, Tiragalloit, Todorokit und andere Mineralien von Navis, Tirol. Pp. 232-234 in NIEDERMAYR, G. et al. (2015): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LIX. Carinthia II, 205./125., 207-280.
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Spessart
        • Hösbach
          • Sailauf
            • Hartkoppe
No reference listed
India
 
  • Madhya Pradesh
    • Jhabua District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 829.
Italy
 
  • Aosta Valley
    • Nus
      • Saint-Barthélemy
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
  • Liguria
    • La Spezia Province
      • Rocchetta Vara
Balestra, C., Kolitsch, U., Blass, G., Callegari, A.M., Boiocchi, M., Armellino, G., Ciriotti, M.E., Ambrino, P., Bracco, R. (2009): Mineralogia ligure 2007-2008: novità caratterizzate dal Servizio UK dell’AMI. Micro (UK report), 1/2009, 78-99.
  • Piedmont
    • Cuneo Province
      • Corsaglia Valley
        • Montaldo di Mondovì
          • Borgata Oberti
            • Frazze and Rocconi localities
Kolitsch, U., Ciriotti, M.E., Cadoni, M., Armellino, G., Piccoli, G.C., Ambrino, P., Blass, G., Odicino, G., Ciuffardi, M. (2011): Montaldo di Mondovì Minerali della miniera di manganese e ferro. Micro, 9, 4-21.
      • Maira Valley
        • Canosio
          • Vallone della Valletta
Cámara, F., Ciriotti, M.E., Bittarello, E., Nestola, F., Massimi, F., Radica, F., Costa, E., Benna, P., Piccoli, G.C. (2014) Arsenic-bearing new mineral species from Valletta mine, Maira Valley, Piedmont, Italy: I. Grandaite, Sr2Al(AsO4)2(OH), description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 3, 757-774.; Cámara, F., Ciriotti, M.E., Bittarello, E., Nestola, F., Massimi, F., Radica, F., Costa, E., Benna, P., Piccoli, G.C. (2014) Arsenic-bearing new mineral species from Valletta mine, Maira Valley, Piedmont, Italy: I. Grandaite, Sr2Al(AsO4)2(OH), description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 757-774.
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Ossola Valley
        • Antigorio Valley
          • Devero Valley
            • Baceno
              • Devero Alp
Graeser S, Rggiani A. G., 1978 - Tilasite del Pizzo Cervandone (Valle devero-Ossola) una specie minerale nuova per l'Italia - Rendiconti S.I.M.P., Milano, vol. 34, (I), pp. 51-53 and Boscardin. M - Informazioni di mineralogia Italiana - 76) Tilasite del M. Cervandone (Ossola) - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Milano, Vol. 9, fasc. 4, pag. 87 - 1978 and http://www.webmineralshop.com/ Cervandone article& personal collection
Albertini C. (1991): L'Alpe Devero ed i suoi minerali. Edizioni Grafica P.G.A., Dormelletto (Novara), 299 pp.; Piccoli G.C., Maletto G., Bosio P., Lombardo B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.; Appiani R., Guastoni A. (2009): Monte Cervandone. Galleria fotografica. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 33, 1 (1-2009), 50-55.
Namibia
 
  • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
    • Tsumeb
NHM (London) Collections, analysis by XRD and EDX - M.Rumsey 2006
Republic of Macedonia
 
  • Veles
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1994), 289-94; Canadian Mineralogist (1996): 34: 1287-1297.
      • Jakupica Mts
        • Babuna Valley
Chukanov, Nikita V., Jančev, Simeon., Pekov, Igor V. (2015): The association of Oxygen-bearing minerals of the chalcophile elements in the orogenetic zone related to the “mixed series” complex near Nežilovo, Republic of Macedonia. Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 115–124
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
      • Tolbachik volcano
        • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
          • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
            • Second scoria cone
Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Belakovskiy, D.I., Lykova, I.S., Vigasina, M.F., Sidorov, E.G., Pushcharovsky, D.Yu. (2014): New arsenate minerals from the Arsenatnaya fumarole, Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. I. Yurmarinite, Na7(Fe3+,Mg,Cu)4(AsO4)6. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 905-917
  • Western-Siberian Region
    • Altai Republic (Gorno-Altayskaya Autonomous Oblast')
      • Ust'-Koksa district
Vera N. Smol'yaninova data
Sweden (TL)
 
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
Sjögren, H. (1895): Preliminära meddelanden om några undersökningar på svenska mineral. 4. Tilasit eller fluor-adelit från Långban. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 17, 291-294; Rocks & Min.: 60:243; Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
      • Nordmark district
        • Jakobsberg ore field
K.Gatedal
      • Nordmark Odal Field (Nordmarksberg)
Mineralogical Magazine (1998) 62 (3), 395-407; Mineralogical Magazine (1998) 62 (3), 395-407
      • Persberg district
        • Pajsberg
Nysten, P. (2004): Harstigen ett mineralogisk eldorado i Bergslagen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 28: 5-13
  • Västmanland
    • Hällefors
      • Grythyttan
Holtstam, D. (2001): W and V mineralization in Långban-type Fe-Mn deposits: Epigenetic or Syngenetic? Geologiske Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 123: 29-33
Switzerland
 
  • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
    • Albula Valley
      • Oberhalbstein (Surses; Sursass)
        • Tinizong (Tinzen)
Mineralogical Record: 32: 211.; Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 360.
    • Hinterrhein Valley
      • Ferrera Valley
        • Starlera Valley
Brugger et al (2002), Canadian Mineralogist: 40(6): 1597-1608.
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Binn Valley
      • Kriegalp Valley (Chriegalp Valley)
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 403.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.:69
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 312.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 188, 396; Williams, S.A. (1970b), Tilasite from Bisbee, AZ, Min.Rec.: 1: 68-69; Bladh, K.W., et al (1972), The crystal structure of tilasite, Am.Min.: 57: 1880-1884.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Parker, F. J. (1978): Mineralogical Record: 9: 385-386; Dunn, Pete J. (1995): Franklin and Sterling Hill New Jersey: the world’s most magnificent mineral deposits, part: 5 : 683.
  • New Mexico
    • Sierra Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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