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Tobermorite

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Formula:
Ca
 
4+x
(H
 
2-2x
Si
 
6
O
 
17
) · 5H
 
2
O
(0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5)
System:OrthorhombicColour:White, light pink
Hardness:
Member of:Tobermorite Group
Name:
Named after its discovery locality, Tobermory, Isle of Mull, Scotland.


There are three structural variants known: Tobermorite-9 Å (= Riversideite), Tobermorite-11 Å (= Tobermorite sensu stricto) and Tobermorite-14 Å (= Plombièrite).
"Tobermorite-10 Å" is Oyelite.

Some specimens of Tobermorite-11 Å shrink on dehydration and are called "normal tobermorite", while others do not shrink and are therefore called "anomalous".

The structure contains composite layers consisting of infinite sheets of (CaO7) polyhedra, to both sides of which wollastonite-type dreier single chains of (SiO4) tetrahedra are attached, running along the b-axis. Those layers are stacked along the c axis and linked by Si-O-Si bonds between the single chains in adjacent layers, forming dreier double chains whose individual strands belong to different layers. The open channels running along the b axis between the layers are occupied either by water molecules, resulting in the formula Ca4(H2Si6O17)·5H2O (anomalous tobermorite) or by both water molecules and Ca2+ ions, resulting in the formula Ca4.5(HSi6O17)·5H2O (normal tobermorite). Upon heating, the water molecules are lost, and the structure is rearranged in order to fulfill the coordination requirements of the interlayer calcium ions. The structure of Clinotobermorite, which also shrinks upon heating, is very closely related to that of normal tobermorite (Merlino et al., 2001).

May appear visually similar to Tacharanite.

The CSH-phases (calcium-silicate-hydrate phases) in hardened cement mostly consist of tobermorite-like phases, often poorly crystalline.

Classification of Tobermorite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/F.19-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.DG.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
G : Inosilicates with 3-periodic single and multiple chains
Dana 8th edition ID:72.3.2.1

72 : PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
3 : Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 3-, 4-, or 5-membered rings and 8-membered rings
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.5.23

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
5 : Silicates of Ca
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Type Occurrence of Tobermorite

Type Locality:Tobermory, Isle of Mull, Strathclyde (Argyllshire), Scotland, UK
Year of Discovery:1880

Physical Properties of Tobermorite

Lustre:Silky
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:White, light pink
Hardness (Mohs):

Crystallography of Tobermorite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Cell Parameters:a = 11.17Å, b = 7.38Å, c = 22.94Å
β = 90°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.514 : 1 : 3.108
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,891.05 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
14.0 (100)
5.50 (25)
3.076 (65)
3.001 (45)
2.812 (30)
2.798 (13)
1.835 (35)

Optical Data of Tobermorite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.570 nβ = 1.571 nγ = 1.575
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.005

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:r > v

Chemical Properties of Tobermorite

Formula:
Ca
 
4+x
(H
 
2-2x
Si
 
6
O
 
17
) · 5H
 
2
O


(0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5)
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca4+x(H2-2xSi6O17)·5H2O
Essential elements:Ca, H, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Ca, H, O, Si
Common Impurities:Al,Fe,Mg,Na,K,H2O

Relationship of Tobermorite to other Species

Member of:Tobermorite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Clinotobermorite
Ca
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
) · 5H
 
2
O
Plombièrite
Ca
 
5
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
Riversideite
Ca
 
5
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.DG.05Bustamite
CaMn
2+
 
(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)
9.DG.05Ferrobustamite
Ca(Fe
2+
 
,Ca,Mn
2+
 
)(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)
9.DG.05Pectolite
NaCa
 
2
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
9.DG.05Sérandite
Na(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
2
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
9.DG.05Wollastonite
CaSiO
 
3
9.DG.05Wollastonite-1A
CaSiO
 
3
9.DG.07Cascandite
Ca(Sc,Fe
3+
 
)(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
9.DG.08Plombièrite
Ca
 
5
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
9.DG.10Clinotobermorite
Ca
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
) · 5H
 
2
O
9.DG.10Riversideite
Ca
 
5
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
9.DG.15Foshagite
Ca
 
4
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)(OH)
 
2
9.DG.20Jennite
Ca
 
9
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 8H
 
2
O
9.DG.25Paraumbite
K
 
3
Zr
 
2
H(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
9.DG.25Umbite
K
 
2
(Zr,Ti)Si
 
3
O
 
9
· H
 
2
O
9.DG.30Sørensenite
Na
 
4
SnBe
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
16
(OH)
 
4
9.DG.35Xonotlite
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)(OH)
 
2
9.DG.40Hillebrandite
Ca
 
2
(SiO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
9.DG.45Zorite
Na
 
8
(Ti,Nb)
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)
 
2
(OH,O)
 
5
· 14H
 
2
O
9.DG.45Chivruaiite
Ca
 
4
(Ti,Nb)
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)
 
2
(OH,O)
 
5
· 13-14H
 
2
O
9.DG.50Haineaultite
(Na,Ca)
 
5
Ca(Ti,Nb)
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
8
· 5H
 
2
O
9.DG.55Epididymite
Na
 
2
Be
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
15
· H
 
2
O
9.DG.60Eudidymite
Na
 
2
Be
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
15
· H
 
2
O
9.DG.65Elpidite
Na
 
2
ZrSi
 
6
O
 
15
· 3H
 
2
O
9.DG.70Fenaksite
(K,Na)
 
4
(Fe,Mn)
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
9.DG.70Litidionite
CuNaKSi
 
4
O
 
10
9.DG.70Manaksite
KNaMnSi
 
4
O
 
10
9.DG.75Tinaksite
K
 
2
Na(Ca,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Ti[O|Si
 
7
O
 
18
(OH)]
9.DG.75Tokkoite
K
 
2
Ca
 
4
Si
 
7
O
 
17
(O,OH,F)
 
4
9.DG.75Senkevichite
CsKNaCa
 
2
Ti[O|Si
 
7
O
 
18
(OH)]
9.DG.80Canasite
K
 
2
Na
 
4
Ca
 
5
(Si
 
12
O
 
30
(OH,F)
 
4
9.DG.80Fluorcanasite
K
 
3
Na
 
3
Ca
 
5
Si
 
12
O
 
30
F
 
4
· H
 
2
O
9.DG.85Miserite
K(Ca,Ce)
 
4
Si
 
5
O
 
13
(OH)
 
3
9.DG.90Frankamenite
K
 
3
Na
 
3
Ca
 
5
(Si
 
12
O
 
30
)(F,OH)
 
4
· H
 
2
O
9.DG.92Charoite
(K,Sr)
 
15-16
(Ca,Na)
 
32
[Si
 
6
O
 
11
(O,OH)
 
6
]
 
2
[Si
 
12
O
 
18
(O,OH)
 
12
]
 
2
[Si
 
17
O
 
25
(O,OH)
 
18
]
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4
· ~3H
 
2
O
9.DG.95Yuksporite
(K,Ba)NaCa
 
2
(Si,Ti)
 
4
O
 
11
(F,OH) · H
 
2
O
9.DG.97Eveslogite
(Na,K,Ca,Sr,Ba)
 
48
[(Ti,Nb,Mn,Fe
2+
 
)
 
12
Si
 
48
O
 
144
(OH)
 
12
](F,OH,Cl)
 
14
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.5.1Wollastonite
CaSiO
 
3
14.5.2Wollastonite-7T
14.5.3Wollastonite-2M
CaSiO
 
3
14.5.4Rankinite
Ca
 
3
Si
 
2
O
 
7
14.5.5Kilchoanite
Ca
 
6
(SiO
 
4
)(Si
 
3
O
 
10
)
14.5.6Larnite
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
14.5.7Bredigite
Ca
 
7
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
14.5.8Hatrurite
Ca
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)O
14.5.9Rosenhahnite
HCa
 
3
[Si
 
3
O
 
9
(OH)]
14.5.10Dellaite
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.11Afwillite
Ca
 
3
(HSiO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
14.5.12Xonotlite
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.13Foshagite
Ca
 
4
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.14Hillebrandite
Ca
 
2
(SiO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.15Jaffeite
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(OH)
 
6
14.5.16Suolunite
Ca
 
2
(H
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
7
) · H
 
2
O
14.5.17Killalaite
Ca
 
6.4
(H
 
0.6
Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
14.5.18Okenite
CaSi
 
2
O
 
5
· 2H
 
2
O
14.5.19Riversideite
Ca
 
5
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
14.5.20Trabzonite
Ca
 
4
(Si
 
3
O
 
10
) · 2H
 
2
O
14.5.21Gyrolite
NaCa
 
16
Si
 
23
AlO
 
60
(OH)
 
8
· 14H
 
2
O
14.5.22Foshallasite
Ca
 
3
[Si
 
2
O
 
7
] · 3H
 
2
O(?)
14.5.24Clinotobermorite
Ca
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
) · 5H
 
2
O
14.5.25Nekoite
Ca
 
3
Si
 
6
O
 
15
·7H
 
2
O
14.5.26Plombièrite
Ca
 
5
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
14.5.27Jennite
Ca
 
9
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 8H
 
2
O

Other Names for Tobermorite

Synonyms:
Tobermorite-11Å
Other Languages:
German:Tobermorit
Russian:Тоберморит
Simplified Chinese:雪硅钙石
Spanish:Tobermorita
Traditional Chinese:雪矽鈣石

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Tobermorite

Reference List:

- +
Currie, J. (1905). Note on some new localities for Gyrolite and Tobermorite. Mineralogical Magazine, 14, 93-95.

McConnell, J.D.C. (1954), The hydrated calcium silicates riversideite, tobermorite and plombierite, Mineralogical Magazine: 30: 293-305.

American Mineralogist (1954): 39: 1038.

Megaw, H.D., and Kelsey, C.H. (1956): Crystal Structure of Tobermorite. Nature 177, 390-391.

Hamid, S.A. (1981): The crystal structure of the 11Å natural tobermorite Ca2.25[Si307.5(OH)1.5].1 H20. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 154, 189-198.

American Mineralogist (1999): 84: 1613-1621.

Merlino, S., Bonaccorsi, E., and Armbruster, T. (2001): The real structure of tobermorite-11Å: normal and anomalous forms, OD character and polytypic modifications. European Journal of Mineralogy 13(3), 577-590.

J. Kikuma, M. Tsunashima, T. Ishikawa, S. Matsuno, A. Ogawa, K. Matsui and M. Sato (2009): Hydrothermal formation of tobermorite studied by in situ X-ray diffraction under autoclave condition. J. Synchrotron Rad. 16, 683-686.

Internet Links for Tobermorite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Tobermorite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Tobermorite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Tasmania
      • Cape Grim district
    http://www.crocoite.com/locationbulletins/part1/zeolites.pdf; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, p.49
      • Central Plateau
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
      • Marrawah district
        • Redpa
    http://www.crocoite.com/locationbulletins/part1/zeolites.pdf
      • Moina District (Middlesex District)
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
      • Upper Mersey Valley
    http://www.crocoite.com/mainadit/gadshill.htm
    • Victoria
      • Rural City of Benalla
    Aust.Jour. Earth Sci. 46:251 (1999)
    Austria
     
    • Styria
      • Bad Radkersburg
        • Klöch
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993); Postl, W. et al. (2008)
    Azerbaijan
     
    • Qobustan District (Gobustan; Kobustan)
      • Caspian Sea
    Novgorodova M.I., Mamedov Yu.G.. Native aluminium from mud volcano at the Bulla island (caspian Sea), - Lithology and Mineral Resourses,1996,N4,p. 339-349
    Canada
     
    • Québec
      • Chaudière-Appalaches
        • Les Appalaches RCM
          • Saint-Joseph-de-Coleraine
    Canadian Museum of Nature & Horvath collections
    Chile
     
    • Aisén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Region
      • Aisén Province (Aysén Province)
    Aguirre, L., Dominguez-Bella, S., Morata, D., Wittke, O. (1998) An occurrence of tobermorite in Tertiary basalts from Patagonia, Chile. The Canadian Mineralogist, 36, 1149-1155.
    China
     
    • Hebei Province
      • Baoding Prefecture
        • Laiyuan Co.
    Cao Zhengmin, Bi Yurun, and Wang Peiying (1986): Acta Scientiarium Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis 32(2)
      • Handan Prefecture
        • She Co.
    Cao Zhengmin, Bi Yurun, and Wang Peiying (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(2), 158-163
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Ústí Region
    Z.Dvořák,M.Radoň-Vzácné a nové minerály Českého středohoří (čas. Minerál 2/2009)
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Vysočina Region
        • Havlíčkův Brod (Německý Brod; Deutschbrod)
    Pauliš, P.: Nejzajímavější mineralogická naleziště Čech II. Kutná Hora: Kuttna, 2003, s. 96 - 98.
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Puy-de-Dôme
        • Clermont-Ferrand
          • Ceyrat
    XRD analysis (B. Devouard and E. Médard, Clermont-Ferrand)
        • Saint-Dier-d'Auvergne
          • Saint-Jean-des-Ollières
    Boisson, J.-M. & Leconte, J. (2014): Analyses 2012-2013 MNHN-MICROMONTEURS. La revue de Micromonteurs, 21.
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Aveyron
        • Espalion
    Boutry C., Pelisson P., Pillard F. (1986), Les zéolites d'Espalion, Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°2, pp: 3-7
    • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
    Favreau G., Meisser N., Chiappero P.J. (2004), Saint-Maime (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence): un exemple de pyrométamorphisme en région provençale, n°3, pp: 59-92
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Hegau
        • Immendingen
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990; Tschernich, R. (1992), Zeolites of the World, p.42
    • Bavaria
      • Franconia
        • Maroldsweisach
    Pöllmann, H. (1991): Die Afwillit-Portlandit Paragenese im Basalt des Zeilbergs bei Maroldsweisach/Unterfranken. Aufschluss, 42, 257-266
    • Hesse
      • Odenwald
        • Roßdorf
    Zeolite collection of Volker Betz
      • Vogelsberg
        • Ortenberg
    Kolitsch, U. (1997): Tacharanit vom Gaulsberg bei Ortenberg (Vogelsberg, Hessen). Mineralien-Welt 8 (2), 25-26
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Adenau
          • Hoffeld
    Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1987
        • Daun
          • Üdersdorf
    Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
        • Hillesheim
          • Zilsdorf
    Hentschel, G.,Begleitmineralien des Basaltes vom Arensberg bei Zilsdorf/Eifel, Notizbl. Hess. L.-Amt Bodenforsch., 101, 310-316, 1973
        • Mayen
          • Ettringen
            • Bellerberg volcano
    [Hentschel, G., Seltene Minerale in Calcium-reichen Auswürflingen vom Bellerberg bei Mayen/Eifel, Aufschluß 29, 77-83, 1978] [Lapis, 15 (5), 9-36]
              • Southern lava flow
    Hentschel, G., Dent Glasser, L.S., Lee, C.K. (1983): Jasmundite. Ca22(Si04)8O4S2. a new mineral, N. Jb. Mineral., Mh., 337-342.
    Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise (München), 1983
        • Mendig
          • Bell
    Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
    Hungary
     
    • Veszprém Co.
      • Balaton Uplands
        • Bakony Mtns
          • Sümegprága
    Kónya-MÁFI,2008
        • Bazsi
          • Prága Hill
    Kovács-Pálffy, P. et al. (2005): A Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése, 95-118.
        • Tapolcai Basin
          • Uzsa (Uzsabánya)
    Szakáll & Gatter: Hun. Min. Spec., 1993; Kovács, I. et al. (2009): Guide to the Bakony-Balaton Volcanic Highland, Field Trip 1, 7th September 2009. MinPet2009 field trip booklet, 23 pp.
          • Zalahaláp
    Szakáll & Gatter: Hun. Min.Spec., 1993; Kónya-MÁFI,2008
    Iceland
     
    • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
      • Surtsey Island
    Jacobsson et al (1992) Encrustations from Lava Caves in Surtsey, Iceland. A Preliminary Report: Surtsey Research Progress Report X: 73-78 Reykjevik, Iceland.
    Israel
     
    • Negev
    Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
    Italy
     
    • Latium
      • Rome Province
    Caponera, I., Fiori, S., Pucci, R., & Signoretti, E. (2007). I minerali dei Colli Albani. Un aggiornamento sugli ultimi dieci anni di ricerche. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 31 (2), 74-91.
        • Campagnano di Roma
    • Stoppani, F.S. & Curti, E. (1982): I minerali del Lazio. Editoriale Olimpia, Firenze, 291 pp.
        • Rome
          • Valleranello
    Pucci, R. (2004): Vertumnite e tobermorite in un nodulo termometamorfosato nella leucitite di Vallerano (RM). Il Cercapietre, 1-2/2004, 70-71.
      • Viterbo Province
        • Montalto di Castro
          • Pietra Massa Locality
    Passaglia, E. & Turconi, B. (1982): Silicati ed altri minerali di Montalto di Castro - VT. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1982, 97-110.
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Tiglieto
          • Olbicella
    • Sicily
      • Catania Province
        • Northern Iblean plateau
    Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408
    Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
    • Trentino-Alto Adige
      • Trento Province
        • Mt. Baldo
          • Brentonico
    Gottardi G., Passaglia E. (1965): Tobermorite “non espandibile” di Prà de la Stua (Trento). Period. Mineral. 35 197-204.
        • Pannone
    G. Gottardi, E. Passaglia (1967): Tobermorite "non espandibile" e Gyrolite del Monte Biaena (Trento). Periodico di Mineralogia, XXXVI, pagg. 1079-1083.
    • Umbria
      • Perugia Province
        • Spoleto
    Stoppa F., Scordari F., Mesto E., Sharygin V.V. and Bortolozzi G. - Calcium-aluminium-silicate-hydrate "cement" phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy (2010). Centr.Eur.J.Geosci. 2 (2), pag. 175-187 .
    • Veneto
      • Padova Province
        • Euganei Hills
          • Faedo
    Passaglia E. and Taglavini A. (1995): Erionite from Faedo, Colli Euganei, Italy. N.Jb.Miner.Mh.,4, pagg.185-191.
      • Vicenza Province
        • Altavilla Vicentina
    Antonio Zordan collection
        • Altissimo
          • Del Tesoro Mt.
    Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
        • Astico Valley
    Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
        • Cornedo Vicentino
          • Spagnago
    Lapis, 15 (12), 27-32+50.; Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
        • Crespadoro
          • Chiampo valley
    Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
        • Gambellara
          • S.Marco hill
    "Minerali del Vicentino - La natrolite" M. Boscardin, S. Pegoraro. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana n. 1 / 2000 pp. 4-11
        • Posina
          • Pasubio massif
            • Punta della Lucche
    Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
        • San Vito di Leguzzano-Schio
    Boscardin M., Daleffe A., Rocchetti I., Zordan A. “I minerali nel Vicentino”, Museo “G. Zannato”, Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), 2011.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chugoku Region
        • Okayama Prefecture
          • Takahashi City
            • Bicchu-cho (Bitchu-cho)
              • Fuka
    Henmi, C., & Kusachi, I. (1992). Clinotobermorite, Ca5Si6 (O, OH) 18· 5H2O, a new mineral from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Mineralogical Magazine, 56(3), 353-358.
      • Kanto Region
        • Chiba Prefecture
          • Awa-gun
            • Tawara-mura
    Dr. Kameki Kinoshita collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
          • Minamiboso City
            • Tomiyama-machi
    Masutomi Museum specimen (Kyoto)
        • Kanagawa Prefecture
          • Yamakita
    Dr. Kameki Kinoshita collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
      • Kinki region
        • Mie Prefecture
          • Ise City
    Minakawa, T., Inaba, S., Noto, S. (1986) Oyelite from Suisho-dani, Ise, Mie Prefecture. Ganseki Koubutsu Koushou Gakkaishi, 81, 138-142
          • Toba City
      • Tohoku Region
        • Fukushima Prefecture
    Matsuyama, F. (2001)
    • Shikoku Island
      • Kochi Prefecture
        • Kochi City
          • Rendai
    Mineralogical Journal Vol. 13 (1986) , No. 6 pp368-375
    Mexico
     
    • Zacatecas
      • Mun. de Concepción del Oro
    Specimen in the collection of Miguel Romero [Rock Currier 2010]
      • Mun. de Mazapil
        • Noche Buena
    Panczner (1987): 100-378.
    Namibia
     
    • Khomas Region
      • Windhoek District
        • Aris
    Yakovenchuk et al. (2011) Can. Min. 49, 1165.
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
      • Northland
        • Kaipara
    Baker, C. K. & Black, P. M. (1980): Assimilation and metamorphism at a basalt-limestone contact, Tokatoka, New Zealand. Mineralogical Magazine 43, 797-807.
    Norway
     
    • Telemark
      • Porsgrunn
        • Bjørkedalen
    Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1996): Die Mineralien des Langesundsfjords und des umgebenden Larvikit-Gebietes, Oslo-Region, Norwegen. MineralienWelt 7(4):21-100
    Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp
      • Skien
    Jamtveit B., Dahlgren S. and Austrheim H. (1997): High-grade contact metamorphism of calcareous rocks from the Oslo Rift, Southern Norway. American Mineralogist. 82 : 1241 - 1254
    Romania
     
    • Caraş-Severin Co.
      • Banat Mts
    Marincea, S., Dumitraş. D-G., Ghinet, C, Fransolet, A.-M., Hatert, F. & Rondeaux, M. (2011): Gehlenite from three occurrences of high-temperature skarns, Romania: new mineralogical data. Canadian Mineralogist. 49, 1001-1014
    • Harghita Co.
      • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
        • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
    Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Hunedoara
    Marincea, Ş., Bilal, E., Verkaeren, J., Pascal, M.-L., and Fonteilles, M. (2001) Superposed paragenesis in spurrite-, tilleyite- and gehlenite-bearing skarns from Cornet Hill, Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Canadian Mineralogist: 39: 1435-1453.
    Russia
     
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Khibiny Massif
    Pekov, I.V. & Podlesnyi, A.S. (2004): Kukisvumchorr Deposit: Mineralogy of Alkaline Pegmatites and Hydrotermalites. Mineralogical Almanac, vol. 7, 140 pages + xxiv photo's pages
    • Urals Region
      • Middle Urals
        • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
          • Sysert' District
            • Polevskoi (Polevskoi Zavod)
    Zadov, A. E.; Grabezhev, A. I.; Pertsev, N. N.; Chukanov, N. V.; Pribavkin, S. V. (2006): Tobermorite-plombierite metasomatites of the Gumeshevsk skarn-porphyry copper deposit, Middle Urals. Doklady Earth Sciences 407A, 495-497. ; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 323–333, 2009
    Slovakia
     
    • Prešov Region
      • Vranov nad Topľou Co.
    Ďuďa,R., et al., 1981: Mineralógia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca, Monografia 2, 98s
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Kalahari manganese field
        • Hotazel
    Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (1993): Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogocal Record 24 (5): 365-368; Merlino, S., Bonaccorsi, E., & Armbruster, T. (2001). The real structure of tobermorite 11Å normal and anomalous forms, OD character and polytypic modifications. European Journal of Mineralogy, 13(3), 577-590.
    Spain
     
    • Catalonia
      • Barcelona
        • Maresme
          • Fogars de la Selva
    Bareche, E. (2005) "Els minerals de Catalunya. Segle XX" Grup Mineralògic Català, Barcelona, 269 pages.
    Sweden
     
    • Skåne
      • Hässleholm
        • Häglinge
    The Swedish Museum of Natural History collection # 19930479
    Taiwan
     
    • Taiwan Province
      • Taitung Co.
    Kung-Suan Ho et al (2009) The First occurrence of Suolonite in Taiwan. Coll and Res 22:1-13
    Turkey
     
    • Black Sea Region
      • Rize Province
    Am Min 73:11-12 p 1497; Sarp H, Burri G (1987) Yeni bir mineral, trabzonit, Ca4 Si3 O10 2H2O. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Turkey 30, 57-60
    UK
     
    • Northern Ireland
      • Co. Antrim
        • Glenoe
    Henmi C, Kusachi I, Henmi K, Sabine P A, Young B R (1973) A new mineral bicchulite, the natural analogue of gehlenite hydrate, from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan and Carneal, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, Mineralogical Journal, 7, 243-251
    • Scotland
      • North West Highlands (Inverness-shire)
        • Isle of Skye
    Livingstone, A. (1988): Reyerite, tobermorite, calcian analcime, and bytownite from amygdales in a Skye basalt. Mineralogical Magazine 52, 711-713.
          • Trotternish
    [Specimen in the Natural History Museum, London]
      • Strathclyde (Argyllshire)
        • Isle of Mull
    MM 30 (1954), 293; HB2/2 (1995)
      • Strathclyde (Ayrshire)
        • Kilbirnie
    Webb, A. B. S. T. (1971). Tobermorite from Castle Hill near Kilbirnie, Ayrshire. Mineralogical Magazine, 38, 253.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Gila Co.
        • Dripping Spring Mts
          • Banner District
            • Christmas area
              • Christmas
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 397, 428; Cesbron, F.P. & S.A. Williams (1980), Apachite and gilalite, two new copper silicates from Christmas, AZ, Min.Mag.: 43: 639-641.
    • Arkansas
      • Hot Spring Co.
    Erickson, Ralph Leroy; Blade, Lawrence Vernon (1963) Geochemistry and petrology of the alkalic igneous complex at Magnet Cove, Arkansas. USGS Prof. Paper 425
    • California
      • Fresno Co.
        • Big Creek-Rush Creek District
          • Rush Creek deposit
            • Big Creek
    Bob Walstrom, p.c.
      • Riverside Co.
        • Crestmore
    [[email protected]]; American Mineralogist: 51: 56-74; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 477, 478.
            • Sky Blue Hill
    Woodford, A.O., Crippen, R.A., and Garner, K.B. (1941) Section Across Commercial Quarry, Crestmore, California. American Mineralogist: 26: 352-381.
    • Idaho
      • Adams Co.
    Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
      • Idaho Co.
        • Skookumchuck Creek
    Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
    • Nevada
      • Esmeralda Co.
    NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • North Carolina
      • Durham Co.
        • Durham
    Kenny Gay message 15.09.2005
    • Oregon
      • Grant Co.
        • Ritter
    Micro Probe Volume VII Number 8 Fall 1993
      • Lake Co.
        • Lakeview
    Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology NBMG Open-File Report 96-3 By Stephen B. Castor, Christopher D. Henry, Lisa A. Shevenell
    • Texas
      • Culberson Co.
        • Apache Peak area
    Rocks & Minerals: 66(3): 196-224.; Am Min 51:1766-1774
    • Utah
      • Salt Lake Co.
        • Oquirrh Mts
          • Bingham District (West Mountain District)
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; North, Jerry (2010) Displays of Nature : History, Minerals & Crystals of Utah's Bingham Canyon Copper Mine.
    • Virginia
      • Highland Co.
        • Doe Hill
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich; R. S. Mirchell and W. F. Giannini (1987) Tacharanite in an amygdaloidal basalt, Highland County, Virginia. Mineralogical Magazine 51:467-468
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