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Torbernite

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Formula:
Cu(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
System:TetragonalColour:Emerald-green, ...
Lustre:Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, Waxy, PearlyHardness:2 - 2½
Member of:Autunite Group
Name:
Named after Torbern Olof Bergmann (1735-1784), Professor of Chemistry and Physics, University of Uppsala (Sweden).


Autunite Group.

A secondary mineral found in the oxidized zones of some uraniferous copper deposits.
Often dehydrated to metatorbernite (note that also transparent crystals can already be metatorbernite).

Classification of Torbernite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/E.01-70
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.EB.05

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
E : Uranyl phosphates and arsenates
B : UO2:RO4 = 1:1
Dana 8th edition ID:40.2a.13.1

40 : HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
2a : AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.11.10

19 : Phosphates
11 : Phosphates of U
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Type Occurrence of Torbernite

Type Locality:Johanngeorgenstadt, Johanngeorgenstadt District, Erzgebirge, Saxony, Germany
Year of Discovery:1772

Occurrences of Torbernite

Geological Setting:Uncommon mineral in secondary zone of copper bearing uranium deposits.

Physical Properties of Torbernite

Lustre:Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, Waxy, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Comment:Pearly on cleavages, dull when dehydrated.
Colour:Emerald-green, grass-green. leek green, siskin green, apple green
Streak:Pale green
Hardness (Mohs):2 - 2½
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {001} micaceous, indistinct on {100}
Density (measured):3.22 g/cm3

Crystallography of Torbernite

Crystal System:Tetragonal
Class (H-M):4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:I4/mmm {I4/m 2/m 2/m}
Cell Parameters:a = 7.0267(4) Å, c = 20.807(2) Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.961
Unit Cell Volume:V 1027.3 ų
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals thin to thick tabular, square or octagonal, with prominent {001}, {011}, {110}; rarely pyramidal {111}. Commonly forms subparallel aggregates, foliated, micaceous, scaly.
Twinning:Rare on {110}.
Comment:Data for synthetic crystal. Other cell data reported: 7.025, 20.63 A.
Crystal Atlas:
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Torbernite no.25 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Torbernite no.36 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Torbernite no.38 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

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The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Structure
  Reference
Locock A J Burns P C (2003) Crystal structures and synthesis of the copper-dominant members of the autunite and meta-autunite groups: Tobernite, zeunerite, metatorbernite and metazeunerite. The Canadian Mineralogist 41:489-502.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database

Epitaxial Relationships of Torbernite

Epitaxial Minerals:
Zeunerite
Cu(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
Uranospinite
Ca(UO
 
2
)(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
Bassetite
Fe
2+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Autunite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O
Epitaxi Comments:Parallel growths with autunite are common. Parallel growths with Uranospinite, Zeunerite and bassetite are documented.

Optical Data of Torbernite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.590 - 1.592 nε = 1.581 - 1.582
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.009 - 0.010

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:O = Dark green to sky blue
E = Green

Chemical Properties of Torbernite

Formula:
Cu(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2·12H2O
Essential elements:Cu, H, O, P, U
All elements listed in formula:Cu, H, O, P, U
Common Impurities:Ca,Ba,Mg

Relationship of Torbernite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Zeunerite (see here)
Member of:Autunite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Autunite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O
Heinrichite
Ba(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
Kahlerite
Fe(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
Metarauchite
Ni(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Nováčekite-I
Mg(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
Rauchite
Ni(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
Sabugalite
HAl(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 16H
 
2
O
Saléeite
Mg(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
Uranocircite
Ba(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
Uranospinite
Ca(UO
 
2
)(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
Zeunerite
Cu(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
Common Associates:
ZeuneriteUraniniteMetatorberniteLimoniteAutunite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.EB.05Autunite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Heinrichite
Ba(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Kahlerite
Fe(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Nováčekite-I
Mg(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Saléeite
Mg(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Uranocircite
Ba(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Uranospinite
Ca(UO
 
2
)(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Xiangjiangite
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 22H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Zeunerite
Cu(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Metarauchite
Ni(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Rauchite
Ni(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Bassetite
Fe
2+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Lehnerite
Mn
2+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Meta-autunite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6-8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Metasaléeite
Mg(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Metauranocircite
Ba(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Metauranospinite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Metaheinrichite
Ba(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Metakahlerite
Fe
2+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Metakirchheimerite
Co(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Metanováčekite
Mg(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4-8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Metatorbernite
Cu(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Metazeunerite
Cu(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Przhevalskite
Pb
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Meta-lodèvite
8.EB.15Abernathyite
K
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.EB.15Chernikovite
(H
 
3
O)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.EB.15Meta-ankoleite
K
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.EB.15Natrouranospinite
(Na
 
2
,Ca)(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
8.EB.15Trögerite
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O (?)
8.EB.15Uramphite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.EB.15Uramarsite
(NH
 
4
,H
 
3
O)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.EB.20Threadgoldite
Al(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.20Chistyakovaite
Al(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(F,OH) · 6.5H
 
2
O
8.EB.25Arsenuranospathite
HAl(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
· 40H
 
2
O
8.EB.25Uranospathite
(Al,☐)(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
F · 20(H
 
2
O,F)
8.EB.30Vochtenite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Fe
3+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH) · 12-13H
 
2
O
8.EB.35Coconinoite
Fe
3+
2
Al
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· 20H
 
2
O
8.EB.40Ranunculite
HAl(UO
 
2
)(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
· 4H
 
2
O
8.EB.45Triangulite
Al
 
3
(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
5
· 5H
 
2
O
8.EB.50Furongite
Al
 
13
(UO
 
2
)
 
7
(PO
 
4
)
 
13
(OH)
 
14
· 58H
 
2
O
8.EB.55Sabugalite
HAl(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 16H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.11.1Lermontovite
U(PO
 
4
)(OH) · H
 
2
O
19.11.2Metavanmeersscheite
U
6+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
19.11.3Vanmeersscheite
U
6+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 4H
 
2
O
19.11.4Chernikovite
(H
 
3
O)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
19.11.5Vyacheslavite
U(PO
 
4
)(OH) · nH
 
2
O
19.11.6Metanatroautunite
Na(UO
 
2
)(PO
 
4
)(H
 
2
O)
 
3
19.11.7Yingjiangite
K
 
2
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
7
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
6
· 6H
 
2
O
19.11.8Meta-ankoleite
K
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
19.11.9Uramphite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
19.11.11Metatorbernite
Cu(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.11.12Saléeite
Mg(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
19.11.13Ningyoite
CaU(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 1-2H
 
2
O
19.11.14Meta-autunite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6-8H
 
2
O
19.11.15Autunite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O
19.11.16Pseudo-autunite
(H
 
3
O)
 
4
Ca
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
19.11.17Phurcalite
Ca
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
19.11.18Phosphuranylite
(H
 
3
O)
 
3
KCa(UO
 
2
)
 
7
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
4
· 8H
 
2
O
19.11.19Ulrichite
CaCu(UO
 
2
)(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.11.20Bergenite
Ca
 
2
Ba
 
4
(UO
 
2
)
 
9
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
O
 
6
· 16H
 
2
O
19.11.21Metauranocircite
Ba(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
19.11.22Uranocircite
Ba(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
19.11.23Ranunculite
HAl(UO
 
2
)(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
· 4H
 
2
O
19.11.24Triangulite
Al
 
3
(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
5
· 5H
 
2
O
19.11.25Mundite
Al(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
3
· 5.5H
 
2
O
19.11.26Upalite
Al(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
O(OH) · 7H
 
2
O
19.11.27Furongite
Al
 
13
(UO
 
2
)
 
7
(PO
 
4
)
 
13
(OH)
 
14
· 58H
 
2
O
19.11.28Threadgoldite
Al(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 8H
 
2
O
19.11.29Phuralumite
Al
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
· 13H
 
2
O
19.11.30Moreauite
Al
 
3
(UO
 
2
)(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
· 13H
 
2
O
19.11.31Sabugalite
HAl(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 16H
 
2
O
19.11.32Uranospathite
(Al,☐)(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
F · 20(H
 
2
O,F)
19.11.33Althupite
AlTh(UO
 
2
)
 
7
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
5
O
 
2
· 15H
 
2
O
19.11.34Françoisite-(Nd)
(Nd,Ce,Sm)(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
O(OH) · 6H
 
2
O
19.11.35Kivuite
(Th,Ca,Pb)(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(HPO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 7H
 
2
O
19.11.36Parsonsite
Pb
 
2
(UO
 
2
)(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
19.11.37Dewindtite
H
 
2
Pb
 
3
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
4
· 12H
 
2
O
19.11.38Dumontite
Pb
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
19.11.39Przhevalskite
Pb
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
19.11.40Lehnerite
Mn
2+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.11.41Bassetite
Fe
2+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.11.42Vochtenite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Fe
3+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH) · 12-13H
 
2
O

Other Names for Torbernite

Synonyms:
ChalcoliteChalkoliteCopper UraniteCuprouraniteOrthotorbernite
Phosphate of Uranium and CopperPhosphate of Uranium containing Phosphate of CopperTorberiteUraniteUran-mica
Other Languages:
Catalan:Torbernita
Dutch:Torberniet
French:Urane oxydé
German:Torbernit
Chalkolith
Cuprouranit
Grüner Glimmer
Kupferautunit
Kupferphosphoruranit
Kupfer-Uranit
Orthotorbernit
Torberit
Urankalk durch Kupfer gefärbt
Uranphyllit
Italian:Torbernite
Latin:Mica viridis cryst.
Uranites spathosus
Portuguese:Torbernite
Simplified Chinese:铜铀云母
Slovak:Torbernit
Spanish:Orthotorbernita
Torbernita
Traditional Chinese:銅鈾雲母

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent. (Epitaxial intergrowths with other uranyl mica may fluoresce, however.)
Other Information:Radioactive. H2O content varies with relative humidity. Soluble in acids.
Health Warning:Contains uranium - always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when handling or breaking. Never lick or ingest. Avoid prolonged exposure in proximity of the body. Store away from inhabited areas.

References for Torbernite

Reference List:

- +
Born, Ignatz Edler von (1772): Index Fossilium, quae collegit, et in Classes ac Ordines disposuit Ignatius Eques a Born (Lithophylacium Bornianum).- Prag, Wolfgang Gerle, p. 42 (as viridis cryst.).

Werner, A.G. (1780): Axel von Cronstedts Versuch einer Mineralogie. Aufs neue aus dem Schwedischen übersetzt und nächst verschiedenen Anmerkungen vorzüglich mit äussern Beschreibungen der Fossilien vermehrt.- Leipzig, bei Siegfried Leberecht Crusius, p. 217-218 (as Grüner Glimmer).

Klaproth (1789) Schrift. Ges. Nat. Berlin: 9: 273 (as Urankalk durch Kupfer gefärbt).

Werner (1789) Bergmaennisches Journal, Freiberg (Neues Bergmännisches Journal): 376 (as Chalkolith).

Karsten, D.L.G. (1793) Über Herrn Werners Verbesserungen in der Mineralogie auf veranlassung der freimüthigen Gedanken, etc., des Herrn Abbé Estner. 80pp., Berlin: 43 (as Torberit).

Klaproth, M.H. (1797) Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper. vol. 2: 217 (as Uranites spathosus).

Werner (1800) (as Uranglimmer).

Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol.: 4: 319 (as Urane oxydé).

Ludwig, C.F. (1803) Handbuch der Mineralogie nach A.G. Werner. 2 volumes, Leipzig: 1: 55 (as Uranglimmer), 308 (as Torbernit).

Aikin, A. (1814) Manual of Mineralogy, 8 volumes, London, first edition (as Uranite).

Breithaupt, A. (1820) Kurze Charakteristik des Mineral-System’s. 8vo, Freiberg (as Uranphyllit).

Jameson, R. (1820) A System of Mineralogy, third edition, 3 volumes (as Uran-Mica).

Berzelius (1823) Jahresber. (as Phosphate of Uranium and Copper)

Phillips, R. (1823) Annals of philosophy, London: 5: 57 (as Phosphate of Uranium containing Phosphate of Copper).

Brooke, H.J. and Miller, W.H. (1852) Introduction to Mineralogy by Wm. Phillips, London, 1823. New edition by Brooke and Miller. 8vo, London: 517 (as Torberite).

Breithaupt (1865) Berg.- und hüttenmännisches Zeitung, Freiberg, Leipzig (merged into Glückauf): 24: 302 (as Cuprouranit).

Schrauf (1872) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 181.

Winkler (1873) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 7: 10.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 856.

Walker (1898) American Journal of Science: 6: 41.

Rinne (1901) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 618.

Buchholz (1903) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 362.

Millosevich (1912) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, Rend.: 21: 594.

Hallimond (1916) Mineralogical Magazine: 17: 326.

Forjaz (1917) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 164: 102.

Heinrich (1917) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 96: 73.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 101.

Hallimond (1920) Mineralogical Magazine: 19: 43.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 195.

Steinkuhler (1923) Bull. soc. chim. Belgique: 253, 270.

Hintze, Carl (1931) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4B]: 993.

Goldsztaub (1932) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 55: 7.

Meixner (1940) Chemie der Erde, Jena: 12: 433.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 981-984.

US Geological Survey Bulletin (1956), 1036-G, 138.

American Mineralogist (1957): 42: 905-908

Frondel, C. (1958) Systematic mineralogy of uranium and thorium. US Geological Survey Bulletin (1958): 1064: 170-177.

American Mineralogist (1964): 49: 1578-1602.

American Mineralogist (1965): 50: 1-12.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 594.

Locock, A. J. & Burns, P. C. (2003d): Crystal structures and synthesis of the copper-dominant members of the autunite and meta-autunite groups: torbernite, zeunerite, metatorbernite and metazeunerite. Canadian Mineralogist: 41: 489-502.

Burns, P.C. (2005) U 6+ minerals and inorganic compounds: insights into an expanded structural hierarchy of crystal structures. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1839-1894.

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