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Abhurite

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Formula:
Sn
 
21
Cl
 
16
(OH)
 
14
O
 
6
System:TrigonalColour:Colourless
Hardness:2
Name:Named after its discovery locality, in the Sharm Abhur Cove, Jiddah (Jeddah), Red Sea, Mintaqat Makkah, Saudi Arabia.


This mineral is formed from the reaction of pure tin with sea water, and has exclusively been associated with tin ingots from shipwrecks. If discovered today it would be unlikely this would be accepted as a true mineral.

Classification of Abhurite

IMA status:Approved 1983
Explanation of status:This would not be recognised as a valid mineral if discovered today.
Strunz 8th edition ID:3/D.05-10
Strunz 9th edition ID:3.DA.30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:3.DA.30

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
A : With Cu, etc., without Pb
Dana 8th edition ID:10.5.9.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
5 : Am(O,OH)pXq
Hey's CIM Ref.:8.8.1

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
8 : Halides of Pb
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Type Occurrence of Abhurite

Type Locality:Sharm Abhur Cove, Jiddah (Jeddah), Mintaqah Makkah, Saudi Arabia
General Appearance of Type Material:blisterlike protuberances
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada
National Museum of National History, Washington, DC, USA
Year of Discovery:1983
Geological Setting of type material:On the surface of a tin ingot recovered from a ship wrecked possibly 100 years ago.

Occurrences of Abhurite

Geological Setting:On tin ingots corroded by sea-water;
From the cargo of a ship wrecked off Hidra, Norway;
From a ship wrecked about 30 km north-northwest of St. Ives, Cornwall, England;
As thin, six-sided crystals, platy to tabular on (0001), showing {0115} and {0001}, to 2 mm;
As cryptocrystalline crusts.

Physical Properties of Abhurite

Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Comment:opalescent
Colour:Colourless
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):2
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Fragile
Cleavage:None Observed
Fracture:Hackly
Density (measured):4.42 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.417 g/cm3

Crystallography of Abhurite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Cell Parameters:a = 10.0175Å, c = 44.014Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 4.394
Unit Cell Volume:V 3,825.08 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:3
Morphology:six-sided crystals, platy to tabular on (0001), showing {0115} and {0001}
Twinning:on {0001}
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
2.5313 (100)
2.8175 (50)
2.8915 (70)
3.244 (35)
3.271 (35)
3.404 (50)
4.139 (50)
Comments:Recorded on type material

Optical Data of Abhurite

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 2.060 nε = 2.110
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.050

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High

Chemical Properties of Abhurite

Formula:
Sn
 
21
Cl
 
16
(OH)
 
14
O
 
6
Simplified for copy/paste:Sn21Cl16(OH)14O6
Essential elements:Cl, H, O, Sn
All elements listed in formula:Cl, H, O, Sn
Analytical Data:Sn content measured by wet chemical analysis, Cl content with an ion-selective electrode, H content with a CHN analyzer, O content by neutron activation analysis
Sn (73.4)
Cl (15.7)
O (11.0)
H (0.4)

sum 100.5 wt.-%

Relationship of Abhurite to other Species

Common Associates:
RomarchiteKutnohoriteAragonite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
3.DA.05Melanothallite
Cu
 
2
Cl
 
2
O
3.DA.10aAtacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10bBotallackite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10bClinoatacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10aHibbingite
Fe
2+
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10aKempite
Mn
2+
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10cParatacamite
Cu
 
3
(Cu,Zn)(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10bBelloite
Cu(OH)Cl
3.DA.10cHerbertsmithite
Cu
 
3
Zn(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10cKapellasite
Cu
 
3
Zn(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10cGillardite
Cu
 
3
Ni(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10cHaydeeite
Cu
 
3
Mg(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10dAnatacamite
Cu
 
2
Cl(OH)
 
3
3.DA.15Claringbullite
Cu
 
4
(OH)
 
7
Cl · nH
 
2
O
3.DA.15Barlowite
Cu
 
4
BrF(OH)
 
6
3.DA.20Simonkolleite
Zn
 
5
Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· H
 
2
O
3.DA.25Buttgenbachite
Cu
 
19
(NO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
32
Cl
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.25Connellite
Cu
 
19
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
32
Cl
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
3.DA.35Ponomarevite
K
 
4
Cu
 
4
Cl
 
10
O
3.DA.40Anthonyite
Cu(OH,Cl)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
3.DA.40Calumetite
Cu(OH,Cl)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.45Khaidarkanite
Na
 
0.34
Cu
 
4
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
14
F
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.50Bobkingite
Cu
 
5
Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.55Avdoninite
K
 
2
Cu
 
5
(OH)
 
4
Cl
 
8
· H
 
2
O
3.DA.60Droninoite
Ni
 
6
Fe
2+
3
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
8.8.2Matlockite
PbFCl
8.8.3Laurelite
Pb
 
7
F
 
12
Cl
 
2
8.8.4Cotunnite
PbCl
 
2
8.8.5Mendipite
Pb
 
3
Cl
 
2
O
 
2
8.8.6Damaraite
Pb
 
3
Cl(OH)O
 
2
8.8.7Laurionite
PbCl(OH)
8.8.8Paralaurionite
PbCl(OH)
8.8.9Penfieldite
Pb
 
2
Cl
 
3
(OH)
8.8.10Fiedlerite
Pb
 
3
FCl
 
4
(OH) · H
 
2
O
8.8.11Blixite
Pb
 
2
(O,OH)
 
2
Cl
8.8.12Pseudocotunnite
K
 
2
PbCl
 
4
8.8.13Diaboleite
Pb
 
2
CuCl
 
2
(OH)
 
4
8.8.14Pseudoboleite
Pb
 
31
Cu
 
24
Cl
 
62
(OH)
 
48
8.8.15Chloroxiphite
Pb
 
3
CuO
 
2
Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.8.17Bideauxite
Pb
 
2
AgCl
 
3
(F,OH)
 
2
8.8.18Boleite
KPb
 
26
Ag
 
9
Cu
 
24
(OH)
 
48
Cl
 
62
8.8.19Aravaipaite
Pb
 
3
F
 
3
[AlF
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
8.8.20Yedlinite
Pb
 
6
Cr
3+
 
Cl
 
6
(O,OH,H
 
2
O)
 
8
8.8.21Kolarite
PbTeCl
 
2
8.8.22Hematophanite
Pb
 
4
Fe
 
3
O
 
8
(OH,Cl)

Other Names for Abhurite

Synonyms:
IMA1983-061
Other Languages:
Dutch:Abhuriet
German:Abhurit
Italian:Abhurite
Latvian:Abhurīts
Portuguese:Abhurite
Russian:Абхурит
Spanish:Abhurita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:none

References for Abhurite

Reference List:

- +
Griffin, W. L., Nilsen, B. & Jensen, B, B (1977): Mineralogiske undersøkelser av tinntallerkener fra Hidra-vraket. Norsk Sjøfartsmuseums Årsberetning . 1976, 111-114

Von Schnering, H. G., Nesper, R. and Pelshenke, H. (1981) Sn21Cl16(OH)14O6, das sogenannte basische Zinn(II)-chlorid. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. 36b, 1551-1560 (in German with English abstract).

Matzko, J. J., Evans, H. T., Jr., Mrose, M. E. and Aruscavage, P. (1985) Abhurite, a new tin hydroxychloride mineral, and a comparative study with a synthetic basic tin chloride. Canadian Mineralogist. 23, 233-240. - American Mineralogist. (1989) 74, 500 (abstract).

Edwards, R., Gillard, R. D. and Williams, P. A. (1992) The stabilities of secondary tin minerals: abhurite and its relationships to Sn(II) and Sn(IV) oxides and oxyhydroxides. Mineralogical Magazine. 56, 221-226. - Abstract in American Mineralogist. (1993) 78, 235-236.

Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 1.

Internet Links for Abhurite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Abhurite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Abhurite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Jamaica
     
    • Kingston Parish
    Dunkle, S. E. (2002): Romarchite and Other Corrosion Phases on Metal Artifacts from the Queen Anne’s Revenge (1718). Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Geological Sciences
    Norway
     
    • Vest-Agder
      • Flekkefjord
        • Hidra (Hitterø)
    J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997); Griffin, W. L., Nilsen, B. & Jensen, B, B (1977): Mineralogiske undersøkelser av tinntallerkener fra Hidra-vraket. Norsk Sjøfartsmuseums Årsberetning 1976, 111-114
    Saudi Arabia
     
    • Mintaqah Makkah
      • Jiddah (Jeddah)
    Matzko, J. J., Evans, H. T., Jr., Mrose, M. E. and Aruscavage, P. (1985) Abhurite, a new tin hydroxychloride mineral, and a comparative study with a synthetic basic tin chloride. Canadian Mineralogist. 23, 233-240
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • St Ives District
    Golley, P. & Williams R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh publications, 108p. (p. 6)
    • Wales
      • Isle of Anglesey (Gwynedd; Anglesey)
    National Museum of Wales collection.
    USA
     
    • Florida
      • Monroe Co.
    Dunkle, S. E. (2002): Romarchite and Other Corrosion Phases on Metal Artifacts from the Queen Anne’s Revenge (1718). Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Geological Sciences
    • North Carolina
      • Carteret Co.
        • Beaufort
    Dunkle, S. E. (2002): Romarchite and Other Corrosion Phases on Metal Artifacts from the Queen Anne’s Revenge (1718). Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Geological Sciences. ; CanMin 41:659-669
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