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Abhurite

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Formula:
Sn21Cl16(OH)14O6
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Colourless
Hardness:
2
Name:
Named after its discovery locality, in the Sharm Abhur Cove, Jiddah (Jeddah), Red Sea, Mintaqat Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
This mineral is formed from the reaction of pure tin with sea water, and has exclusively been associated with tin ingots from shipwrecks. If discovered today it would be unlikely this would be accepted as a true mineral.

Classification of Abhurite

Approved 1983
Explanation of status:
This would not be recognised as a valid mineral if discovered today.
3.DA.30

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
A : With Cu, etc., without Pb
10.5.9.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
5 : Am(O,OH)pXq
8.8.1

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
8 : Halides of Pb
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Type Occurrence of Abhurite

General Appearance of Type Material:
blisterlike protuberances
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada
National Museum of National History, Washington, DC, USA
Year of Discovery:
1983
Geological Setting of Type Material:
On the surface of a tin ingot recovered from a ship wrecked possibly 100 years ago.

Occurrences of Abhurite

Geological Setting:
On tin ingots corroded by sea-water;
From the cargo of a ship wrecked off Hidra, Norway;
From a ship wrecked about 30 km north-northwest of St. Ives, Cornwall, England;
As thin, six-sided crystals, platy to tabular on (0001), showing {0115} and {0001}, to 2 mm;
As cryptocrystalline crusts.

Physical Properties of Abhurite

Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Comment:
opalescent
Colour:
Colourless
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
2
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Fragile
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Hackly
Density:
4.42 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.417 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Abhurite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.0175Å, c = 44.014Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 4.394
Unit Cell Volume:
V 3,825.08 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
3
Morphology:
six-sided crystals, platy to tabular on (0001), showing {0115} and {0001}
Twinning:
on {0001}
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.5313 (100)
2.8175 (50)
2.8915 (70)
3.244 (35)
3.271 (35)
3.404 (50)
4.139 (50)
Comments:
Recorded on type material

Optical Data of Abhurite

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 2.060 nε = 2.110
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.050
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High

Chemical Properties of Abhurite

Formula:
Sn21Cl16(OH)14O6
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Sn content measured by wet chemical analysis, Cl content with an ion-selective electrode, H content with a CHN analyzer, O content by neutron activation analysis
Sn (73.4)
Cl (15.7)
O (11.0)
H (0.4)

sum 100.5 wt.-%

Relationship of Abhurite to other Species

3.DA.05MelanothalliteCu2Cl2O
3.DA.10aAtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10bBotallackiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10bClinoatacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10aHibbingiteFe22+(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10aKempiteMn22+(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10cParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10bBelloiteCu(OH)Cl
3.DA.10cHerbertsmithiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10cKapellasiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10cGillarditeCu3Ni(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10cHaydeeiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10dAnatacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.15ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6
3.DA.15BarlowiteCu4BrF(OH)6
3.DA.20SimonkolleiteZn5Cl2(OH)8 · H2O
3.DA.25ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
3.DA.25ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
3.DA.35PonomareviteK4Cu4Cl10O
3.DA.40AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
3.DA.40CalumetiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
3.DA.45KhaidarkaniteNa0.34Cu4Al3(OH)14F3 · 2H2O
3.DA.50BobkingiteCu5Cl2(OH)8 · 2H2O
3.DA.55AvdoniniteK2Cu5(OH)4Cl8 · H2O
3.DA.60DroninoiteNi6Fe32+(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O
8.8.2MatlockitePbFCl
8.8.3LaurelitePb7F12Cl2
8.8.4CotunnitePbCl2
8.8.5MendipitePb3Cl2O2
8.8.6DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2
8.8.7LaurionitePbCl(OH)
8.8.8ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
8.8.9PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)
8.8.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
8.8.11BlixitePb2(O,OH)2Cl
8.8.12PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4
8.8.13DiaboleitePb2CuCl2(OH)4
8.8.14PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48
8.8.15ChloroxiphitePb3CuO2Cl2(OH)2
8.8.17BideauxitePb2AgCl3(F,OH)2
8.8.18BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
8.8.19AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2O
8.8.20YedlinitePb6Cr3+Cl6(O,OH,H2O)8
8.8.21KolaritePbTeCl2
8.8.22HematophanitePb4Fe3O8(OH,Cl)

Other Names for Abhurite

Name in Other Languages:
Dutch:Abhuriet
German:Abhurit
Italian:Abhurite
Latvian:Abhurīts
Portuguese:Abhurite
Spanish:Abhurita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
none

References for Abhurite

Reference List:
Griffin, W. L., Nilsen, B. & Jensen, B, B (1977): Mineralogiske undersøkelser av tinntallerkener fra Hidra-vraket. Norsk Sjøfartsmuseums Årsberetning . 1976, 111-114

Von Schnering, H. G., Nesper, R. and Pelshenke, H. (1981) Sn21Cl16(OH)14O6, das sogenannte basische Zinn(II)-chlorid. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. 36b, 1551-1560 (in German with English abstract).

Matzko, J. J., Evans, H. T., Jr., Mrose, M. E. and Aruscavage, P. (1985) Abhurite, a new tin hydroxychloride mineral, and a comparative study with a synthetic basic tin chloride. Canadian Mineralogist. 23, 233-240. - American Mineralogist. (1989) 74, 500 (abstract).

Edwards, R., Gillard, R. D. and Williams, P. A. (1992) The stabilities of secondary tin minerals: abhurite and its relationships to Sn(II) and Sn(IV) oxides and oxyhydroxides. Mineralogical Magazine. 56, 221-226. - Abstract in American Mineralogist. (1993) 78, 235-236.

Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 1.

Internet Links for Abhurite

Localities for Abhurite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Jamaica
 
  • Kingston Parish
Dunkle, S. E. (2002): Romarchite and Other Corrosion Phases on Metal Artifacts from the Queen Anne’s Revenge (1718). Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Geological Sciences
Norway
 
  • Vest-Agder
    • Flekkefjord
      • Hidra (Hitterø)
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997); Griffin, W. L., Nilsen, B. & Jensen, B, B (1977): Mineralogiske undersøkelser av tinntallerkener fra Hidra-vraket. Norsk Sjøfartsmuseums Årsberetning 1976, 111-114
Saudi Arabia (TL)
 
  • Mintaqah Makkah
    • Jiddah (Jeddah)
Matzko, J. J., Evans, H. T., Jr., Mrose, M. E. and Aruscavage, P. (1985) Abhurite, a new tin hydroxychloride mineral, and a comparative study with a synthetic basic tin chloride. Canadian Mineralogist. 23, 233-240
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Ives District
Golley, P. & Williams R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh publications, 108p. (p. 6)
  • Wales
    • Isle of Anglesey
National Museum of Wales collection.
USA
 
  • Florida
    • Monroe Co.
Dunkle, S. E. (2002): Romarchite and Other Corrosion Phases on Metal Artifacts from the Queen Anne’s Revenge (1718). Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Geological Sciences
  • North Carolina
    • Carteret Co.
      • Beaufort
Dunkle, S. E. (2002): Romarchite and Other Corrosion Phases on Metal Artifacts from the Queen Anne’s Revenge (1718). Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Geological Sciences. ; CanMin 41:659-669
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