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Tremolite

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Formula:
☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
White, brown, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Silky
Hardness:
5 - 6
Name:
Named in 1789 by Johann Georg Albrecht Höpfner for the Tremola Valley (Val Tremola), Central St Gotthard Massif, Tessin, Switzerland, where the type material supposedly came from, according to the dealer from whom he had acquired the specimens. However, modern investigations of what is considered the type material, conserved at Geneva, revealed that the true type locality is Campolungo, Tessin. (Val Tremola which lies north of the isograd delineating the first appearance of tremolite). This mineral was earlier (1782) called Säulenspath and Sternspath by Johann Ehrenreich von Fichtel for material from Sebeşu de Jos, Transsylvania, Romania (Roth, 2006).

Classification of Tremolite

Approved
9.DE.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
E : Inosilicates with 2-periodic double chains, Si4O11; Clinoamphiboles
66.1.3a.1

66 : INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
1 : Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
14.6.13

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
6 : Silicates of Ca with alkali or Mg or both
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First Recorded Occurrence of Tremolite

Year of Discovery:
1789

Occurrences of Tremolite

Geological Setting:
Contact metamorphism of Ca-Mg siliceous sediments, regional greenschist metamorphism of ultramafic rocks or magnesium carbonate rocks.

Physical Properties of Tremolite

Vitreous, Silky
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
White, brown, colourless, grey, light green, light yellow, pink-violet
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 6
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
on {110}
Parting:
on {010} {100}
Density:
2.99 - 3.03 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.964 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Tremolite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.84Å, b = 18.02Å, c = 5.27Å
β = 104.95°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.546 : 1 : 0.292
Unit Cell Volume:
V 902.83 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Elongated, stout prismatic, bladed crystals, fibrous, granular, columnar aggregates.
Twinning:
Simple or multiple: common parallel to {100}, rarely parallel to {001}
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Tremolite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.599 - 1.612 nβ = 1.613 - 1.626 nγ = 1.625 - 1.637
2V:
Measured: 88° to 80°, Calculated: 82° to 84°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.026
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r < v weak

Chemical Properties of Tremolite

Formula:
☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ti,Mn,Al,Na,K,F,Cl,H2O

Relationship of Tremolite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Actinolite (see here)
Forms a series with Ferro-actinolite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ferro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ferro-fluoro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe5}(Si8O22)F2
Fluoro-tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.05Anthophyllite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Clino-holmquistite Root Name☐{Li2}{Z32+Z23+}(Si8O22)(OH,F,Cl)2
9.DE.05Grunerite☐{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Manganocummingtonite☐{Mn22+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Manganogrunerite☐{Mn22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Permanganogrunerite☐{Mn22+}{Mn52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Ferro-fluoro-pedrizite{Na}{Li2}{Fe2Al2Li}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.05Ferri-fluoro-leakeite{Na}{Na2}{Mg2Fe23+Li}(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.10Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferri-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Fe32+Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Joesmithite{Pb}{Ca2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Be2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Tschermakite☐(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10CannilloiteCa(Ca2)(Mg4Al)(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Fluoro-cannilloite{Ca}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al3Si5O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.10Parvo-manganotremolite☐{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Fluoro-tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.10Potassic-fluoro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.15Edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Ferro-edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe52+}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Ferro-kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe32+AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
9.DE.15Ferro-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
9.DE.15Magnesio-hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Sadanagaite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Fluoro-edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-ferri-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Mg3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Fe32+Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Fluoro-magnesio-hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.15Potassic-fluoro-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Fluoro-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.15Parvo-mangano-edenite{Na}{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-chloro-edenite{K}{Ca2}{Fe52+}(AlSi7O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-magnesio-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Chromio-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Cr3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Fe32+Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Barroisite☐{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-barroisite☐(CaNa)(Fe32+Fe23+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-winchite☐[CaNa][Fe42+(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-barroisite☐(CaNa)(Mg3Fe23+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Fe32+Fe23+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-katophoriteNaCaNaFe42+(Fe3+)[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-barroisite☐{CaNa}{Fe32+Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-winchite ☐{CaNa}{Fe42+Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Fe42+Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Mg3Fe23+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Magnesiotaramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3AlFe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Winchite☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Fluoro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.20Katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
9.DE.20Potassic-fluoro-richterite{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.20Potassic-richteriteK[CaNa][Mg5]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-ghoseite☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-winchite☐[CaNa][Mg4(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Fluoro-taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.25Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-eckermanniteNaNa2(Fe2+,4Al)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-glaucophane◻[Na2][Fe32+Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangano-ferri-eckermannite[Na][Na2][Mn42+(Fe3+)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-leakeite[Na][Na2][Mg2Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-riebeckite◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25NybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangano-mangani-ungarettiiteNaNa2(Mn22+Mn33+)(Si8O22)O2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-nybøiteNaNa2[(Fe32+,Mg)Fe23+](AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Clino-ferro-ferri-holmquistite◻{Li2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Fe23+](AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-leakeite[Na][Na2][Fe22+Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-fluoro-leakeiteNa(Na2)(Fe22+Fe23+Li)(Si8O22)(F)2
9.DE.25Sodic-ferri-clinoferroholmquistiteNa0.5{Li2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22](F,OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-pedrizite[Na][Li2][Mg2Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-ferri-leakeite[K][Na2][Mg2Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Fluoro-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.25Mangani-dellaventuraite{Na}{Na2}{MgMn23+LiTi4+}Si8O22O2
9.DE.25Fluoro-pedriziteNaLi2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.25Potassic-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangani-obertiiteNa(Na2)(Mg3Mn3+Ti)(Si8O22)O2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-pedrizite[Na][Li2][Fe22+Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-arfvedsonite[K][Na2][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25PedriziteNaLi2(LiMg2Al2)(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-pedriziteNaLi2(Fe22+Al2Li)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Fluoro-leakeiteNaNa2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-obertiiteNaNa2(Fe32+Fe3+Ti)Si8O22O2
14.6.1CombeiteNa2Ca2(Si6O18)0.5
14.6.2PectoliteNaCa2(HSi3O9)
14.6.3Pectolite-M2abcNaCa2[HSi3O9]
14.6.4DenisoviteCa2(K,Na)Si3O8(F,OH)2
14.6.5TokkoiteK2Ca4Si7O17(O,OH,F)4
14.6.6MountainiteKNa2Ca2[Si8O19(OH)] · 6H2O
14.6.7RhodesiteKHCa2Si8O19 · 5H2O
14.6.8MiseriteK1.5-x(Ca,Y,REE)5(Si6O15)(Si2O7)(OH,F)2 · yH2O
14.6.9ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
14.6.10MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
14.6.11MerwiniteCa3Mg(SiO4)2
14.6.12DiopsideCaMgSi2O6

Other Names for Tremolite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Tremolite

Reference List:
Höpfner, J.G.A. (1789): I. “Ueber die Klassifikation der Fossilien in einem Schreiben des Herausgebers an Herrn Dr. Karsten in Halle. II. “Versuch einer neuen Classifikationsmethode der Stein- und Erdarten, nach den neuesten chemischen Erfahrungen". Magazin für die Naturkunde Helvetiens, 4, 255-332.

Mineralogical Record: 29: 169-174.

American Mineralogist (1968): 53: 763-765.

Hawthorne, F.C. and Grundy, H.D. (1976) The crystal chemistry of the amphiboles; IV, X-ray and neutron refinements of the crystal structure of tremolite. Canadian Mineralogist: 14: 334-345.

Hawthorne, F.C., Della Ventura, G., and Robert, J.-L. (1996) Short-range order of (Na,K) and Al in tremolite: An infrared study. American Mineralogist: 81: 782-784.

Roth, P (2006) The early history of tremolite. Axis: 2, issue 3: 1-10. http://www.minrec.org/pdfs/TREMOLITE%20Edited.pdf

Ishida, K. Hawthorne, F.C., and Ando, Y. (2002) Fine structure of infrared OH-stretching bands in natural and heat-treated amphiboles of the tremolite-ferroactinolite series. American Mineralogist: 87: 891-898.

Hawthorne, F. C. and Oberti, R. (2006): On the classification of amphiboles. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 1-21.

Internet Links for Tremolite

Specimens:
The following Tremolite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Tremolite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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