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Triphylite

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Formula:
LiFe
2+
 
PO
 
4
System:OrthorhombicColour:Brown-green, light ...
Hardness:4
Member of:Triphylite Group
Name:From Greek τοίς, "tria", for threefold, plus φυλή "phylon", family, because it was thought to contain three cations (Fe, Li, Mn).
Isostructural with:Olivine

Classification of Triphylite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/A.02-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.AB.10

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
A : Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
B : With medium-sized cations
Dana 7th edition ID:38.1.1.1
Dana 8th edition ID:38.1.1.1

38 : ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
1 : ABXO4
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.1.13

19 : Phosphates
1 : Phosphates of the alkali metals
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Type Occurrence of Triphylite

Type Locality:Hühnerkobel Mine (Hennenkobel Mine), Rabenstein, Zwiesel, Lower Bavaria, Bavaria, Germany
Year of Discovery:1834
Geological Setting of type material:Granite pegmatite.

Occurrences of Triphylite

Geological Setting:Complex zoned granitic pegmatites.

Physical Properties of Triphylite

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:Brown-green, light green-gray, may appear blue-gray; colourless to pale yellow in transmitted light.
Comment:Blue shades may be due to vivianite inclusions.
Streak:Colorless to grayish white.
Hardness (Mohs):4
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Very Good
On {001} nearly perfect; on {010} good; on {011} poor.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):3.42 - 3.58 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.562 g/cm3
Comment:Value for Fe end-member. Range 3.53-3.59

Crystallography of Triphylite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:Pmna
Cell Parameters:a = 6.0285(6) Å, b = 10.3586(9) Å, c = 4.7031(3) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.582 : 1 : 0.454
Unit Cell Volume:V 293.69 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals rare; commonly coarse with uneven surfaces; stout prismatic [100]. Massive, rarely granular. May exist in pods over 1 meter across. Commonly replaced by siderite with accompanying secondary phosphate species.
Comment:Pmnb, AC B (1976) 32:2761 structure

Epitaxial Relationships of Triphylite

Epitaxial Minerals:
Graftonite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
Epitaxi Comments:As coarsely laminated intergrowths with Graftonite, both phases mutually oriented with Graftonite {010} [100] parallel to Triphylite {102} [010].
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
5.18 (30)
4.28 (80)
3.92 (30)
3.49 (70)
3.01 (10)
2.78 (30)
2.53 (80)
2.46 (20)
Comments:ICDD 40-1499; also 19-721, 11-456; 29-808 (oxidized and Li-leached)

Optical Data of Triphylite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.689 - 1.705 nβ = 1.685 - 1.710 nγ = 1.685 - 1.720
Birefringence:0.008
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.004

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:r > v or r < v
Optical Extinction:Parallel, may rarely be optically (+), oxidation greatly increases RI, e.g. α 1.790 β 1.805 γ 1.820 biref 0.030 2V = 85°; Mg reduces RI (Am Min 28:90 (1943)).
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic
Comments:Oxidation greatly changes optical properties. Triphylite may look black or contain blue vivianite alteration along cleavages. Sometimes masses are rimmed by blue tourmaline.

Chemical Properties of Triphylite

Formula:
LiFe
2+
 
PO
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:LiFe2+PO4
Essential elements:Fe, Li, O, P
All elements listed in formula:Fe, Li, O, P
Common Impurities:Mn,Mg,Ca

Relationship of Triphylite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Lithiophilite (see here)
Member of:Triphylite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Ferrisicklerite
Li
 
1-x
(Fe
3+
x
Fe
2+
1-x
)PO
 
4
Karenwebberite
Na(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)PO
 
4
Lithiophilite
LiMn
2+
 
PO
 
4
Natrophilite
NaMn
2+
 
PO
 
4
Purpurite
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)PO
 
4
Sicklerite
Li
 
1-x
(Mn
3+
x
Mn
2+
1-x
)PO
 
4
Common Associates:
QuartzMuscoviteAlbite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.AB.05Farringtonite
Mg
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.10Ferrisicklerite
Li
 
1-x
(Fe
3+
x
Fe
2+
1-x
)PO
 
4
8.AB.10Heterosite
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)PO
 
4
8.AB.10Lithiophilite
LiMn
2+
 
PO
 
4
8.AB.10Natrophilite
NaMn
2+
 
PO
 
4
8.AB.10Purpurite
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)PO
 
4
8.AB.10Sicklerite
Li
 
1-x
(Mn
3+
x
Mn
2+
1-x
)PO
 
4
8.AB.10Simferite
Li(Mg,Fe
3+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.10Karenwebberite
Na(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)PO
 
4
8.AB.15Sarcopside
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.15Chopinite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.20Beusite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Ca,Mg)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.20Graftonite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.25Xanthiosite
Ni
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.30Lammerite
Cu
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.30Lammerite-β
Cu
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.35Mcbirneyite
Cu
 
3
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.35Stranskiite
Zn
 
2
Cu(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.35Pseudolyonsite
Cu
 
3
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.40Lyonsite
Cu
 
3
Fe
 
4
(VO
 
4
)
 
6
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.1.1Lithiophosphate
Li
 
3
PO
 
4
19.1.2Olympite
Na
 
5
Li(PO
 
4
)
 
2
19.1.3Nahpoite
Na
 
2
HPO
 
4
19.1.4Dorfmanite
Na
 
2
HPO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
19.1.5Nalipoite
NaLi
 
2
PO
 
4
19.1.6Stercorite
Na(NH
 
4
)HPO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
19.1.7Archerite
(K,NH
 
4
)(H
 
2
PO
 
4
)
19.1.8Biphosphammite
(NH
 
4
,K)(H
 
2
PO
 
4
)
19.1.9Phosphammite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)
19.1.10Lithiophilite
LiMn
2+
 
PO
 
4
19.1.11Sicklerite
Li
 
1-x
(Mn
3+
x
Mn
2+
1-x
)PO
 
4
19.1.12Ferrisicklerite
Li
 
1-x
(Fe
3+
x
Fe
2+
1-x
)PO
 
4
19.1.14Tavorite
LiFe
3+
 
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
19.1.15Marićite
NaFe
2+
 
(PO
 
4
)
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
38.1.1.2Lithiophilite
LiMn
2+
 
PO
 
4
38.1.1.3Natrophilite
NaMn
2+
 
PO
 
4

Other Names for Triphylite

Synonyms:
Lithio-Ferro-Triphylite
Other Languages:
German:Triphylin
Russian:Трифилин
Spanish:Triphylita
Swedish:Perowskyn
Tetraphylin

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent.
Other Information:Soluble in acids.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements from:
Utö Mines, Utö, Södermanland, SwedenAs core in brownish black masses of ferrisicklerite
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Triphylite

Reference List:

- +
Fuchs (1834) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 3: 98 (as Triphylin).

Fuchs (1835) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 5: 319 (as Triphylin).

Nordenskiöld (1835) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 36: 473 (as Perowskyn).

Berzelius (1836) Jahresber.: 15: 211 (as Tetraphylin).

Tschermak (1863) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 47: 282.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 756.

Penfield and Pratt (1895) American Journal of Science: 50: 387.

Mäkinen (1913) Bull. Comm.. geol.. Finlande, no. 35: 96.

LAubmann and Steinmetz (1920) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 55: 561.

Hintze, Carl (1922) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 226.

Goldschmidt, V. (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text. Heidelberg: vol. 9: 6.

Oswald in: WAlker (1931) University of Toronto Studies, Geology Series, no. 30: 10.

Gossner and Strunz (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 83: 415.

Björling and Westgren (1938) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 60: 67.

Switzer (1938) American Mineralogist: 23: 811.

Mason (1941) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 63: 117.

Mason (1942) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 64: 335.

Chapman (1943) American Mineralogist: 28: 90.

Eriksson (1946) Arkiv för Kemi, Mineralogi och Geologi, Stockholm: 23, no. 8.

Lindberg (1950) American Mineralogist: 35: 59.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 665-669.

King, Vandall T. and Pope, David C. (1990), Constant Composition Triphylite within a Pegmatite Zone, Newry, Maine [abstract], Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, Program and Abstracts: 17: 10 (also in Rocks and Minerals: 66: 42-43).

Acta Crystallographica (1993): B49, 147-153.

Fehr, K.T., Hochleitner, R., Schmidbauer E., Schneider J. (2007): Mineralogy, mössbauer spectra and electrical conductivity of triphylite. Phys. Chem. Minerals 34, 485–494.

S. Hamelet, M. Casas-Cabanas, L. Dupont, C. Davoisne, J. M. Tarascon, and C. Masquelier: Existence of Superstructures Due to Large Amounts of Fe Vacancies in the LiFePO4-Type Framework. Chem. Mater., Article ASAP [2010]

E. Libowitzky, A. Beran, A. Wieczorek, R. Wirth (2011): Defects in natural gem-quality triphylite. Joint Meeting of the DGK, DMG and ÖMG, Salzburg, Austria, September 20-24, 2011; Abstracts Volume, p. 135. [sarcopside lamellae]

Internet Links for Triphylite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project[Link Broken?]
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Triphylite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Triphylite

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