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Triphylite

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Formula:
LiFe2+PO4
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Brown-green, light ...
Hardness:
4
Name:
From Greek τοίς, "tria", for threefold, plus φυλή "phylon", family, because it was thought to contain three cations (Fe, Li, Mn).
Isostructural with:

Classification of Triphylite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8.AB.10

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
A : Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
B : With medium-sized cations
Dana 7th ed.:
38.1.1.1
38.1.1.1

38 : ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
1 : ABXO4
19.1.13

19 : Phosphates
1 : Phosphates of the alkali metals
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http://www.mindat.org/min-4020.html
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First Recorded Occurrence of Triphylite

Year of Discovery:
1834
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
Granite pegmatite.

Occurrences of Triphylite

Geological Setting:
Complex zoned granitic pegmatites.

Physical Properties of Triphylite

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Colour:
Brown-green, light green-gray, may appear blue-gray; colourless to pale yellow in transmitted light.
Comment:
Blue shades may be due to vivianite inclusions.
Streak:
Colorless to grayish white.
Hardness (Mohs):
4
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Very Good
On {001} nearly perfect; on {010} good; on {011} poor.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
3.42 - 3.58 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.562 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Value for Fe end-member. Range 3.53-3.59

Crystallography of Triphylite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pmna
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.0285(6) Å, b = 10.3586(9) Å, c = 4.7031(3) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.582 : 1 : 0.454
Unit Cell Volume:
V 293.69 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals rare; commonly coarse with uneven surfaces; stout prismatic [100]. Massive, rarely granular. May exist in pods over 1 meter across. Commonly replaced by siderite with accompanying secondary phosphate species.
Comment:
Pmnb, AC B (1976) 32:2761 structure

Epitaxial Relationships of Triphylite

Epitaxial Minerals:
Graftonite(Fe2+,Mn2+,Ca)3(PO4)2
Epitaxi Comments:
As coarsely laminated intergrowths with Graftonite, both phases mutually oriented with Graftonite {010} [100] parallel to Triphylite {102} [010].
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.18 (30)
4.28 (80)
3.92 (30)
3.49 (70)
3.01 (10)
2.78 (30)
2.53 (80)
2.46 (20)
Comments:
ICDD 40-1499; also 19-721, 11-456; 29-808 (oxidized and Li-leached)

Optical Data of Triphylite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.689 - 1.705 nβ = 1.685 - 1.710 nγ = 1.685 - 1.720
Birefringence:
0.008
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.004
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v or r < v
Optical Extinction:
Parallel, may rarely be optically (+), oxidation greatly increases RI, e.g. α 1.790 β 1.805 γ 1.820 biref 0.030 2V = 85°; Mg reduces RI (Am Min 28:90 (1943)).
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic
Comments:
Oxidation greatly changes optical properties. Triphylite may look black or contain blue vivianite alteration along cleavages. Sometimes masses are rimmed by blue tourmaline.

Chemical Properties of Triphylite

Formula:
LiFe2+PO4
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Mn,Mg,Ca

Relationship of Triphylite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Lithiophilite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
FerrisickleriteLi1-x(Fex3+Fe2+1-x)PO4
KarenwebberiteNa(Fe2+,Mn2+)PO4
LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4
Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
Common Associates:
8.AB.05FarringtoniteMg3(PO4)2
8.AB.10FerrisickleriteLi1-x(Fex3+Fe2+1-x)PO4
8.AB.10Heterosite(Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
8.AB.10LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
8.AB.10NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4
8.AB.10Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
8.AB.10SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
8.AB.10SimferiteLi(Mg,Fe3+,Mn3+)2(PO4)2
8.AB.10KarenwebberiteNa(Fe2+,Mn2+)PO4
8.AB.15Sarcopside(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)3(PO4)2
8.AB.15Chopinite(Mg,Fe2+)3(PO4)2
8.AB.20Beusite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2
8.AB.20Graftonite(Fe2+,Mn2+,Ca)3(PO4)2
8.AB.25XanthiositeNi3(AsO4)2
8.AB.30LammeriteCu3(AsO4)2
8.AB.30Lammerite-βCu3(AsO4)2
8.AB.35McbirneyiteCu3(VO4)2
8.AB.35StranskiiteZn2Cu(AsO4)2
8.AB.35PseudolyonsiteCu3(VO4)2
8.AB.40LyonsiteCu3Fe4(VO4)6
19.1.1LithiophosphateLi3PO4
19.1.2OlympiteNa5Li(PO4)2
19.1.3NahpoiteNa2HPO4
19.1.4DorfmaniteNa2HPO4 · 2H2O
19.1.5NalipoiteNaLi2PO4
19.1.6StercoriteNa(NH4)HPO4 · 4H2O
19.1.7Archerite(K,NH4)(H2PO4)
19.1.8Biphosphammite(NH4,K)(H2PO4)
19.1.9Phosphammite(NH4)2(HPO4)
19.1.10LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
19.1.11SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
19.1.12FerrisickleriteLi1-x(Fex3+Fe2+1-x)PO4
19.1.14TavoriteLiFe3+(PO4)(OH)
19.1.15MarićiteNaFe2+(PO4)

Other Names for Triphylite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Triphylite

Reference List:
Fuchs (1834) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 3: 98 (as Triphylin).

Fuchs (1835) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 5: 319 (as Triphylin).

Nordenskiöld (1835) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 36: 473 (as Perowskyn).

Berzelius (1836) Jahresber.: 15: 211 (as Tetraphylin).

Tschermak (1863) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 47: 282.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 756.

Penfield and Pratt (1895) American Journal of Science: 50: 387.

Mäkinen (1913) Bull. Comm.. geol.. Finlande, no. 35: 96.

LAubmann and Steinmetz (1920) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 55: 561.

Hintze, Carl (1922) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 226.

Goldschmidt, V. (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text. Heidelberg: vol. 9: 6.

Oswald in: WAlker (1931) University of Toronto Studies, Geology Series, no. 30: 10.

Gossner and Strunz (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 83: 415.

Björling and Westgren (1938) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 60: 67.

Switzer (1938) American Mineralogist: 23: 811.

Mason (1941) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 63: 117.

Mason (1942) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 64: 335.

Chapman (1943) American Mineralogist: 28: 90.

Eriksson (1946) Arkiv för Kemi, Mineralogi och Geologi, Stockholm: 23, no. 8.

Lindberg (1950) American Mineralogist: 35: 59.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 665-669.

King, Vandall T. and Pope, David C. (1990), Constant Composition Triphylite within a Pegmatite Zone, Newry, Maine [abstract], Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, Program and Abstracts: 17: 10 (also in Rocks and Minerals: 66: 42-43).

Acta Crystallographica (1993): B49, 147-153.

Fehr, K.T., Hochleitner, R., Schmidbauer E., Schneider J. (2007): Mineralogy, mössbauer spectra and electrical conductivity of triphylite. Phys. Chem. Minerals 34, 485–494.

S. Hamelet, M. Casas-Cabanas, L. Dupont, C. Davoisne, J. M. Tarascon, and C. Masquelier: Existence of Superstructures Due to Large Amounts of Fe Vacancies in the LiFePO4-Type Framework. Chem. Mater., Article ASAP [2010]

E. Libowitzky, A. Beran, A. Wieczorek, R. Wirth (2011): Defects in natural gem-quality triphylite. Joint Meeting of the DGK, DMG and ÖMG, Salzburg, Austria, September 20-24, 2011; Abstracts Volume, p. 135. [sarcopside lamellae]

Internet Links for Triphylite

Specimens:
The following Triphylite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Triphylite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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