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Triploidite

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Formula:
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
System:MonoclinicColour:Red-brown, light pink, ...
Hardness:4½ - 5
Member of:Wagnerite Group
Name:From TRIPLite and the Greek "eidos", like, alluding to its resemblance to triplite in habit and chemical composition.
Isostructural with:Sarkinite, Wolfeite

Classification of Triploidite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/B.03-60
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.BB.15

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 about 1:1
Dana 8th edition ID:41.6.3.2

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
6 : A2(XO4)Zq
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.12.13

19 : Phosphates
12 : Phosphates of Mn
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Type Occurrence of Triploidite

Type Locality:Fillow Quarry (Branchville Quarry; Branchville Mica Mine; Smith Mine), Branchville, Ridgefield, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA
Year of Discovery:1878
Geological Setting of type material:Granitic pegmatite
Associated Minerals at type locality:
RhodochrositeLithiophiliteEosphoriteDickinsonite-(KMnNa)

Occurrences of Triploidite

Geological Setting:Granitic pegmatites.

Physical Properties of Triploidite

Lustre:Adamantine, Vitreous, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Red-brown, light pink, yellow-brown; light pink to light brown in transmitted light.
Streak:White, off-white.
Hardness (Mohs):4½ - 5
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
On {010}, good; on {120}, fair; on {110}, very poor.
Comment:3.66 - estimated value for pure Mn2+ end-member material.

Crystallography of Triploidite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b
Cell Parameters:a = 12.36Å, b = 13.27Å, c = 9.94Å
β = 108.23°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.931 : 1 : 0.749
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,548.50 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystals prismatic [001], with the prism zone striated vertically. Parallel-fibrous to columnar aggregates common; also divergent or randomly oriented; fibrous; granular - rare.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Triploidite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.725 nβ = 1.726 nγ = 1.730
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.005

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:r > v weak
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:Pleochroism faint in thick grains with absorption Z > X, Y.
Comments:2V moderate.

Chemical Properties of Triploidite

Formula:
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
Simplified for copy/paste:(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(OH)
Essential elements:H, Mn, O, P
All elements listed in formula:Fe, H, Mn, O, P

Relationship of Triploidite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Wolfeite (see here)
Member of:Wagnerite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Hydroxylwagnerite
Mg
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
Joosteite
Mn
2+
 
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(PO
 
4
)O
Sarkinite
Mn
2+
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
Stanĕkite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Fe
3+
 
(PO
 
4
)O
Wagnerite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)F
Wolfeite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
Common Associates:
TripliteTriphyliteLithiophilite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.BB.05Amblygonite
LiAl(PO
 
4
)F
8.BB.05Montebrasite
LiAl(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.05Tavorite
LiFe
3+
 
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.10Triplite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(F,OH)
8.BB.10Zwieselite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)F
8.BB.15Sarkinite
Mn
2+
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.15Wagnerite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)F
8.BB.15Wolfeite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.15Stanĕkite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Fe
3+
 
(PO
 
4
)O
8.BB.15Joosteite
Mn
2+
 
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(PO
 
4
)O
8.BB.15Hydroxylwagnerite
Mg
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.20Holtedahlite
Mg
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.20Satterlyite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH,O)
8.BB.25Althausite
Mg
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,O)(F,☐)
8.BB.30Adamite
Zn
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.30Eveite
Mn
2+
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.30Libethenite
Cu
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.30Olivenite
Cu
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.30Zincolibethenite
CuZn(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.30Zincolivenite
CuZn(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.30Auriacusite
Fe
3+
 
Cu
2+
 
(AsO
 
4
)O
8.BB.35Paradamite
Zn
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.35Tarbuttite
Zn
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.40Barbosalite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BB.40Hentschelite
CuFe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BB.40Lazulite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BB.40Scorzalite
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BB.40Wilhelmkleinite
ZnFe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BB.45Trolleite
Al
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
8.BB.50Namibite
Cu(BiO)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.55Phosphoellenbergerite
Mg
 
14
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(HPO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
8.BB.60Urusovite
CuAl(AsO
 
4
)O
8.BB.65Theoparacelsite
Cu
 
3
(As
 
2
O
 
7
)(OH)
 
2
8.BB.70Turanite
Cu
 
5
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
8.BB.75Stoiberite
Cu
 
5
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
2
8.BB.80Fingerite
Cu
 
11
(VO
 
4
)
 
6
O
 
2
8.BB.85Averievite
Cu
 
6
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
2
Cl
 
2
8.BB.90Lipscombite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BB.90Richellite
CaFe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
2
8.BB.90Zinclipscombite
ZnFe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.12.1Metaswitzerite
Mn
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.12.2Bermanite
Mn
2+
 
Mn
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.12.3Natrophilite
NaMn
2+
 
PO
 
4
19.12.4Sidorenkite
Na
 
3
Mn
2+
 
(CO
 
3
)(PO
 
4
)
19.12.5Niahite
(NH
 
4
)(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
19.12.6Robertsite
Ca
 
3
Mn
3+
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
19.12.7Pararobertsite
Ca
 
2
Mn
3+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
19.12.8Sinkankasite
H
 
2
Mn
2+
 
Al(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 6H
 
2
O
19.12.9Mangangordonite
Mn
2+
 
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.10Heterosite
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)PO
 
4
19.12.11Purpurite
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)PO
 
4
19.12.12Wolfeite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
19.12.14Lipscombite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
19.12.15Frondelite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
5
19.12.16Rockbridgeite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
5
19.12.17Kryzhanovskite
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,H
 
2
O)
 
3
19.12.18Landesite
Mn
2+
3-x
Fe
3+
x
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
x
· (3-x)H
 
2
O
19.12.19Phosphoferrite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
19.12.20Reddingite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
19.12.21Earlshannonite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.12.22Hureaulite
(Mn,Fe)
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.12.23Switzerite
(Mn,Fe)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
19.12.24Laueite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.25Pseudolaueite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.26Strunzite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
19.12.27Stewartite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.28Alluaudite
(Na,Ca)Mn
2+
 
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.29Ferroalluaudite
(Na,Ca)Fe
2+
 
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.30Fillowite
{Mn
2+
 
}{Na
 
8
}{Ca
 
4
Na
 
4
}{(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
43
}(PO
 
4
)
 
36
19.12.31Johnsomervilleite
Na
 
10
Ca
 
6
Mg
 
18
Fe
 
25
(PO
 
4
)
 
36
19.12.32Wicksite
NaCa
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
4
MgFe
3+
 
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
19.12.33Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)
{KNa}{Mn
2+
 
◻}{Ca}{Na
 
3
}{Mn
2+
13
}{Al}(PO
 
4
)
 
12
(OH)
 
2
19.12.34Sarcopside
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
19.12.35Ludlamite
(Fe,Mn,Mg)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.12.36Graftonite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
19.12.37Wilhelmvierlingite
CaMnFe
3+
 
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
19.12.38Fairfieldite
Ca
 
2
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
19.12.39Beusite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Ca,Mg)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
19.12.40Messelite
Ca
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
19.12.41Jahnsite-(CaMnFe)
{Ca}{Mn
2+
 
}{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
3+
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.42Jahnsite-(CaMnMn)
{Ca}{Mn
2+
 
}{Mn
2+
2
}{Fe
3+
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.43Jahnsite-(CaMnMg)
{Ca}{Mn
2+
 
}{(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
}{Fe
3+
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.44Keckite
CaMn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
(H
 
2
O)
 
7
19.12.45Stanfieldite
Ca
 
7
Ca
 
2
Mg
 
9
(PO
 
4
)
 
12
19.12.46Laubmannite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
Fe
3+
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
12
19.12.47Zodacite
Ca
 
4
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)
 
4
· 12H
 
2
O
19.12.48Hagendorfite
NaCaMn
2+
 
Fe
2+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.49Maghagendorfite
(□,Na,)(Na,Ca,Fe
2+
 
)Mn(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.50Varulite
NaCaMn
2+
 
Mn
2+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.51Griphite
Na
 
4
Li
 
2
Ca
 
6
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
19
Al
 
8
(PO
 
4
)
 
24
(F,OH)
 
8
19.12.52Attakolite
(Ca,Sr)Mn(Al,Fe)
 
4
(HPO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
19.12.53Arrojadite-(KFe)
{KNa}{Fe
2+
 
◻}{Ca}{Na
 
2
◻}{Fe
2+
13
}{Al}(PO
 
4
)
 
11
(HPO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
19.12.54Lun'okite
(Mn,Ca)(Mg,Fe,Mn)Al(PO
 
4
)
 
2
OH · 4H
 
2
O
19.12.55Eosphorite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)Al(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.12.56Ernstite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)Al(PO
 
4
)(OH,O)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.12.57Childrenite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Al(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.12.58Bobfergusonite
Na
 
2
Mn
 
5
FeAl(PO
 
4
)
 
6
19.12.59Qingheiite
NaMn
3+
 
Mg(Al,Fe
3+
 
)(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.60Whiteite-(CaFeMg)
{Ca}{(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)}{Mg
 
2
}{Al
 
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.61Whiteite-(CaMnMg)
{Ca}{Mn
2+
 
}{Mg
 
2
}{Al
 
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.62Whiteite-(MnFeMg)
{(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)}{(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)}{Mg
 
2
}{Al
 
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.63Rittmannite
{(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)}{Mn
2+
 
}{(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
}{(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.64Zanazziite
Ca
 
2
Mg
 
5
Be
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
19.12.65Samuelsonite
(Ca,Ba)Ca
 
8
Fe
2+
2
Mn
2+
2
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
10
(OH)
 
2

Other Names for Triploidite

Other Languages:
German:Triploidit
Russian:Триплоидит
Simplified Chinese:羟磷锰矿
羟磷锰铁矿
Spanish:Triploidita

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in acids.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Triploidite

Reference List:

- +
Brush and Dana (1878) American Journal of Science: 16: 42, 115, 398.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 779.

Kovář and Slavík (1900) Verh. Geol. Reichsanst. Wien: 50: 347 (Herles analysis).

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 145.

Müllbauer (1925) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 61: 318.

Hägele (1938) Zentralblatt Mineralien: 267.

Kokkoros (1938) Zentralblatt Mineralien: 278.

Richmond (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 469.

Frondel, C. (1949) American Mineralogist: 34: 692-698.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1970): 131: 1-20.

Internet Links for Triploidite

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  • Localities for Triploidite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • South Australia
      • Eyre Peninsula
        • Middleback Range
          • Iron Knob
    Pring, A., Francis, G. & Birch, W. D. (1992): Nissonite, namibite, and other additions to the mineral suite from Iron Monarch, South Australia. Australian Mineral. 6, 31-39; www.crocoite.com (Steve Sorrell) and refs therein
      • Olary Province
        • Boolcoomatta Reserve (Boolcoomata Station; Boolcoomatta)
    Brazil
     
    • Rio Grande do Norte
      • Borborema mineral province
        • Parelhas
    [MinRec 29:196]
    Canada
     
    • Manitoba
      • Cross Lake
        • (Gottcha Claim)
    The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 36,pp. 367-376 (1998)
    • Northwest Territories
      • Tungsten
    The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 41, pp. 139-160 (2003)
    • Nova Scotia
      • Lunenburg Co.
        • New Ross
    Grantham, R.G. (1985) "Index of the Nova Scotia Museum Mineral Collection", Curatorial Report Number 51.
    China
     
    • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
      • Hechi Prefecture
        • Nandan Co.
    http://www.geo.arizona.edu/xtal/group/pdf/GG42_183.pdf
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
        • Kutná Hora (Kuttenberg)
    Povondra, P., Pivec, E. (eds.) et al.: Přibyslavice peraluminuous granite. Acta universitatis carolinae, Geologica, 1987, no. 3, s . 183 – 283.
      • Plzeň Region
        • Domažlice (Taus)
    Weber, A.: Fosfáty z pegmatitů jz. Čech. Rozpravy II. třídy České akademie, 1948, roč. 58, č. 1.
    Finland
     
    • Western and Inner Finland Region
      • Alavus
    H-J Wilke (1976) Mineralfundstellen, Band 4, Skandinavien; Haapala, I. (1966): On the granitic pegmatites in the Peräseinäjoki-Alavus area, South Pohjanmaa, Finland. Bulletin de la Commission Geologique de Finlande. 224.
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Upper Palatinate
        • Pleystein
    DILL, H.G., MELCHER, F., GERDES, A. and WEBER, B. (2008): The origin and zoning of hypogene and supergene Fe-Mn-Mg-Sc-U-REE-Zn phosphate mineralization from the newly discovered Trutzhofmühle aplite (Hagendorf pegmatite province, Germany). Canadian Mineralogist 46, 1131-1157.
        • Waidhaus
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Kanto Region
        • Ibaraki Prefecture
          • Kasumigaura City
            • Chiyoda-machi
    Matsubara, S. & Kato, A. (1980) Koubutsugaku Zasshi, 14, 269-286.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Chitinskaya Oblast'
    P.M. Kartashov data
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Primorskiy Kray
    Gonevchuk, V. G., Korostelev, P. G., & Semenyak, B. I. (2005). Genesis of the Tigrinoe tin deposit (Russia). Geology Of Ore Deposits C/C Of Geologiia Rudnykh Mestorozhdenii, 47(3), 223.
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
        • Steinkopf
    Minerals of South Africa
    Sweden
     
    • Östergötland
      • Motala
        • Godegård
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • St Just District
          • St Just
            • Botallack
    Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.; Peter G. Embrey (1978) Fourth Supplementary List of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine 42:169-177
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Yavapai Co.
    AmMin 67: 97-113 (1982)
          • Independence Gulch
    Am Min 67:97-113
    • Connecticut
      • Fairfield Co.
        • Ridgefield
          • Branchville
    Brush and Dana (1878); Shainin (1946): American Mineralogist 31: 329-345; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 671, 855, 938.; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
    • Maine
      • Oxford Co.
        • Newry
    King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1; King, V. (ed), 2000, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 2.
        • Rumford
    Scott Soucey and Tim Blake specimens
    • New Hampshire
      • Cheshire Co.
        • Walpole
    Anna Wilken collection
      • Grafton Co.
        • Groton
    Whitmore & Lawrence, 2004. The Pegmatite Mines Known As Palermo, p.95.; USGS Prof Paper 353
      • Rockingham Co.
        • Raymond
    Harvard Mineralogical Museum no. 125568; Francis, C. A. (1985): Minerals of the Chandler Mine, A Zoned Lithium Rich Pegmatite (Rocks and Minerals, 60:263-264) ; Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
    • North Carolina
      • Cleveland Co.
        • Kings Mountain District
    Rocks and Minerals, (1985) 60:76-82
    • South Dakota
      • Custer Co.
        • Custer District
          • Berne
    R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
          • Fourmile
    W.C. van Laer, 2008
      • Pennington Co.
        • Keystone District
          • Keystone
    R&M 75:3 pp 156-169; USGS Prof Paper 297A
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