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Tritomite-(Ce)

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Formula:
Ce5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,O)
Colour:
Dark brown; reddiah brown
Hardness:
5½ - 6
Name:
From Greek τρί (tri), threefold and τομος (tomos), a cut, because the crystal shows a three-sided cross sections (Weibye 1850). It was later renamed as tritomite-(Ce), with a suffix, -(Ce), in according to the "Levinson modifieres" indicating cerium being the dominant rare-earth element.
First discovered in 1849 by Paul Christian Weibye (1819-1865) on Låven, Langesundsfjorden, Norway and described in a paper the following year (Weibye 1850). The first chemical analysis gave mainly a silicate of cerium and lanthanum. Later Engström (1877) showed it to be a borosilicate.
A mineral in the Britholite Group of the Apatite Supergroup (Pasero et al. 2010). A borosilicate whith REEs strongly prevalent over Ca in the M sites for stoichometric reason (Pasero et al. 2010).

The minerals is metamict amorphous. Recrystallization by heating at 600°-1000° in air or under water gives an XRD pattern of an apatite structure phase and CeO2 phase or a combination of both (Neumann et al. 1957, Neumann 1985). The relationship of tritomite-(Ce) to caryocerite and melanocerite-(Ce) another minerals described from the Langesundsfjord, Norway, has been much discussed. Caryocerite is now considered as a Th-bearing variety of melanocerite-(Ce). Melanocerite-(Ce) has recently been suggested to be to be potentially discredited, once its identity with tritomite-(Ce) is ascertained (Pasero et al. (2010).
It has also been suggested that it is probable that both tritomite-(Ce) and melanocerite-(Ce) have a common crystalline precursor, a boron-rich apatite group mineral (sensu lato) with considerable substitution within the general formula A5C3O12X, where A is (Ca, Na, REE, Th); C is (P, Si, B, C), and X is (F, OH, O). A complicating factor for present day identification is the degree and extent of metamictization, during which elemental leaching and replacement have taken place (Larsen 1996).

Classification of Tritomite-(Ce)

Approved
First Published:
1850
9.AH.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
H : Nesosilicates with CO3, SO4, PO4, etc.
54.2.5.1

54 : NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
2 : Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
17.5.22

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
5 : Borosilicates
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http://www.mindat.org/min-4026.html
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Type Occurrence of Tritomite-(Ce)

Physical Properties of Tritomite-(Ce)

Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Dark brown; reddiah brown
Streak:
Pale brown
Hardness (Mohs):
5½ - 6
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
4.15 - 4.25 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Chemical Properties of Tritomite-(Ce)

Formula:
Ce5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,O)
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Tritomite-(Ce) to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Britholite-(La)Ca2(La,Ce,Ca)3(SiO4,PO4)3(OH,F)
Britholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Calciobritholite(Ca,Y)5(SiO4,PO4)3(OH)
Fluorbritholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3F
Fluorbritholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3F
Fluorcalciobritholite(Ca,REE)5(SiO4,PO4)3F
Tritomite-(Y)Y5(SiO4,BO4)3(O,OH,F)
9.AH.05Iimoriite-(Y)Y2[SiO4][CO3]
9.AH.10Tundrite-(Ce)Na2Ce2Ti(SiO4)(CO3)2O2
9.AH.10Tundrite-(Nd)Na2(Nd,Ce)2Ti(SiO4)(CO3)2O2
9.AH.15SpurriteCa5(SiO4)2(CO3)
9.AH.20TernesiteCa5(SiO4)2(SO4)
9.AH.25Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
9.AH.25Britholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
9.AH.25Ellestadite-(Cl)Ca10(SiO4)3(SO4)3Cl2
9.AH.25Fluorbritholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3F
9.AH.25FluorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
9.AH.25HydroxylellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(OH)
9.AH.25MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
9.AH.25Tritomite-(Y)Y5(SiO4,BO4)3(O,OH,F)
9.AH.25Fluorcalciobritholite(Ca,REE)5(SiO4,PO4)3F
9.AH.25Fluorbritholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3F
17.5.1ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8
17.5.2ReedmergneriteNaBSi3O8
17.5.3SearlesiteNa(H2BSi2O7)
17.5.4OleniteNa(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)
17.5.5ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.6KalborsiteK6Al4BSi6O20(OH)4Cl
17.5.7BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2
17.5.8PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30
17.5.9LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.10DatoliteCa(HBSiO5)
17.5.11DanburiteCaB2Si2O8
17.5.12HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5
17.5.13BakeriteCa4(H5B5Si3O20)
17.5.14OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
17.5.15KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
17.5.16HarkeriteCa12Mg4Al(BO3)3(SiO4)4(CO3)5 · H2O
17.5.17SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
17.5.18Stillwellite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca)BSiO5
17.5.19Tadzhikite-(Ce)(Ca,Ce)4(Ce,Y)2(Ti4+,Fe3+,Al)[B4Si4O22](OH)2
17.5.20Melanocerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,0)
17.5.21Okanoganite-(Y)(Na,Ca)3(Y,Ce)12Si6B2O27F14
17.5.23Tritomite-(Y)Y5(SiO4,BO4)3(O,OH,F)
17.5.24Cappelenite-(Y)Ba(Y,Ce)6Si3B6O24F2
17.5.25Dumortierite(Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3
17.5.26Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25
17.5.27DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.28 Ferridravite
17.5.29Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
17.5.30UviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
17.5.31GarrelsiteBa3NaSi2B7O16(OH)4
17.5.32TienshaniteKNa3Na6Ca2Ba6Mn6(Ti4+,Nb)6B12Si36O114(O,OH,F)11
17.5.33LeucospheniteBaNa4Ti2B2Si10O30
17.5.34TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
17.5.35TitantaramelliteBa4(Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
17.5.36NagashimaliteBa4(V,Ti)4B2Si8O27(O,OH)2Cl
17.5.37Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.38WawayandaiteCa6Mn2BBe9Si6O23(OH,Cl)15
17.5.39Werdingite(Mg,Fe)2Al14Si4B4O37
17.5.40Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
17.5.41Axinite
17.5.42Tinzenite(Ca,Mn2+)2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
17.5.44SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.45Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe33+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
17.5.46FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.47Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
17.5.48HomiliteCa2(Fe2+,Mg)B2Si2O10
17.5.49Grandidierite(Mg,Fe2+)(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)(BO3)O2
17.5.50Hyalotekite(Pb,Ba,K)4(Ca,Y)2(B,Be)2(Si,B)2Si8O28(F,Cl)
17.5.51Hellandite-(Y)(Ca,REE)4Y2Al(Be,Li)2-xB4Si4O22(OH)2

Other Names for Tritomite-(Ce)

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Weakly to strongly radioactive
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Tritomite-(Ce)

Reference List:
Weibye, P. C. (1850): Neue Mineralien aus Norwegen, beschrieben von P.H. [sic!] Weibye; analysirt von N.J. Berlin, K.A. Sjögren und J.B. von Borck (Erster Theil). [1.Tritomit, 2. Katapleiit, 3.Atheriasit, 4. Eudnophit.], Annalen der Physik und Chemie (herausgegeben zu Berlin von J.C. Poggendorff), 79: 299-304

Brøgger, W.C.(1890): Die Mineralien der Syenitpegmatitgänge der südnorwegischen Augit- und Nephelinsyenite. Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie und Mineralogie, 16, 663 pp + 28 plates

Neumann, H., Sverdrup, T. & Sæbø. P.C. (1957): X-ray powder patterns for mineral identification, Ill-silicates. Norske Vidensk. Akad. Oslo, 1., Mat-Naturvit. Klasse 1957, No.6: 1-18

Larsen, A.O. (1996): Rare earths minerals from the syenite pegmatites in the Oslo Region, Norway. in Jones, A.P., Wall, F. & Williams, C.T. (eds): Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits. London ; Melbourne : Chapman & Hall, 1996. 373p. p. 151-165

American Mineralogist (1962): 47: 9-25.

Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, 278 pp. [p.153-154]

Raade, G. (1996) Minerals originally described from Norway. Including notes on type material. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift: 11: 104 pp. + plates 1-7.

Larsen, A.O. (1996): Rare earths minerals from the syenite pegmatites in the Oslo Region, Norway. in Jones, A.P., Wall, F. & Williams, C.T. (eds): Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits. London ; Melbourne : Chapman & Hall, 1996. 373p. p. 151-165

Pasero, M., Kampf, A. R., Ferraris, C., Pekov, I. V., Rakovan, J. and White, T. J. (2010): Nomenclature of the apatite supergroup minerals. European Journal of Mineralogy 22, 163-179.

Internet Links for Tritomite-(Ce)

Localities for Tritomite-(Ce)

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Norway
 
  • Telemark
    • Porsgrunn
      • Langangen
        • Slevolden
Burvald, Ingulv (1993): To forekomster av nefelin-syenitt-pegmatitt i Telemark. STEIN 20 (3), 176-179
      • Mørje
        • Sagåsen
Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1996): Die Mineralien des Langesundsfjords und des umgebenden Larvikit-Gebietes, Oslo-Region, Norwegen. MineralienWelt 7(4):21-100
Larsen, A.O., Åsheim, A. and Gault, R. A. (2005): Minerals of the eudialyte group from the Sagåsen larvikite quarry, Porsgrunn, Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter 30: 58-62
T. Engvoldsen (1990).
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
RRUFF Project Specimen ID: R060046, Mindat-Photo id 311382
Brøgger, W.C. (1890): Die Mineralien der Syenitpegmatitgänge der südnorwegischen Augit-und Nephelinsyenite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Mineralogie 16, 483-489
Brøgger, W.C. (1890): Die Mineralien der Syenitpegmatitgänge der südnorwegischen Augit-und Nephelinsyenite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Mineralogie 16, 483-489
        • Barkevik area
          • Kjeøya
Svein A. Berge observation 1991
Svein A. Berge observation in field 1978
Svein A. Berge collection (find 1975)
Brøgger, W.C. (1890): Die Mineralien der Syenitpegmatitgänge der südnorwegischen Augit-und Nephelinsyenite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Mineral.16. 663 pp
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240p
Weibye, P. C. (1850): Neue Mineralien aus Norwegen, beschrieben von P.H. [sic!] Weibye; analysirt von N.J. Berlin, K.A. Sjögren und J.B. von Borck (Erster Theil). [1.Tritomit, 2. Katapleiit, 3.Atheriasit, 4. Eudnophit.], Annalen der Physik und Chemie (herausgegeben zu Berlin von J.C. Poggendorff), 79: 299-304
        • Stokkøya (Stokø; Stockö; Stocköe)
Brøgger, W.C. (1890): Die Mineralien der Syenitpegmatitgänge der südnorwegischen Augit-und Nephelinsyenite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Mineralogie 16, 483-489
        • Vesle Arøya
Engvoldsen, T., Andersen, F., Berge, S. A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18 (1), 15-71
      • Tjølling
        • Håkestad
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp
      • Tvedalen
K.E.Larsen collection
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp
    • Sandefjord
Berge, S. A. & Hansen, R. (1975): Mineraler fra Sandefjord. NAGS-nytt nr 1, 10-12 (in norwegian)
Romania
 
  • Harghita Co.
Hirtopanu Paulina, Andersen C. Jens, Fairhurst J. Robert and Jakab Gyula (2013) Allanite-(Ce) and its associations, from the Ditrau alkaline intrusive massif. Proc. Rom. Acad., Series B, 2013, 15(1), p. 59–74
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Buriatia (Buryatia)
        • Mama River Basin
          • Maigunda River
Pavel m. kartashov data
Sweden
 
  • Småland
    • Jönköping
      • Gränna
Thulin, H. (1996): Norra Kärr. Litiofilen 13: 17-51 ; Thulin, H. (2000): Norra Kärr-Några nya fynd och undersökningar. Litiofilen, 17 (2): 25-45: RRUFF specimen R060370
Mineral and/or Locality  
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