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Tyrolite

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Formula:
Ca2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Turquoise-blue, ...
Hardness:
1½ - 2
Name:
Named after its discovery locality, Falkenstein near Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria.
A secondary mineral found in the oxidized zones of copper deposits.

Material from the type locality is monoclinic (P2/c; polytype tyrolite-1M); a C-centred monoclinic polytype also exists at the type locality and is called tyrolite-2M (Krivovichev et al., 2006). The status of 'clinotyrolite' (published without IMA approval) is presently not fully clear although the unit cell given for clinotyrolite is close to that of tyrolite-1M.
The presence of polytypes in tyrolite was already inferred from optical properties by Wieser & Zabinski (1986).

Note: Not all "tyrolites" may contain CO3 groups (see also Church, 1895) and some may be identical with the closely related tangdanite (which contains no carbonate but sulphate instead).

Tyrolite may be confused with theisite and claraite.



Classification of Tyrolite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8.DM.10

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
M : With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 > 2:1
42.4.3.1

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
4 : (AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
22.4.5

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
4 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with carbonate
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Type Occurrence of Tyrolite

Physical Properties of Tyrolite

Vitreous, Silky, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Aggregates silky at times; pearly on {001}.
Colour:
Turquoise-blue, blue-green; light bluish green in transmitted light.
Streak:
Paler than unpowdered colour.
Hardness (Mohs):
1½ - 2
Tenacity:
Sectile
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
In [001], well-defined.
Density:
3 - 3.2 g/cm3 (Measured)    
Comment:
3.25 (Tintic material).

Crystallography of Tyrolite

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
Tyrolite-1MTyrolite-2M
  
Monoclinic Monoclinic 
2/m - Prismatic2/m - Prismatic
 B2/m
 C2/m
a = 27.562(3) Å, b = 5.5682(7) Å, c = 10.4662(15) Å
β = 98.074(11)°
a = 54.520(6) Å, b = 5.5638(6) Å, c = 10.4647(10) Å
β = 96.432(9)°
a:b:c = 4.95 : 1 : 1.88a:b:c = 9.799 : 1 : 1.881
V 1590.3 ųV 3,154.36 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
  
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
28.0 (FFF)
14.1 (F)
2.98 (F)
2.70 (F)
4.85 (mF)
4.44 (m)
5.27 (fm)

Optical Data of Tyrolite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.694 nβ = 1.726 nγ = 1.730
2V:
Measured: 33° to 39°, Calculated: 38°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.036
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
relatively strong
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X = b = Pale grass-green
Y = c = Pale yellowish green
Z = a = Pale grass-green

Chemical Properties of Tyrolite

Formula:
Ca2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
As2O5 27.07
CO2 5.05
CuO 46.24
CaO 6.44
H2O 15.68

total 100.48
Common Impurities:
S,O

Relationship of Tyrolite to other Species

8.DM.05MoriniteNaCa2Al2(PO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2O
8.DM.05EsperanzaiteNaCa2Al2(AsO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2O
8.DM.10ClinotyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4,SO4)4(OH,O)10 · 10H2O
8.DM.15Betpakdalite-CaCa[Ca2(H2O)17Ca(H2O)6][Mo86+As25+Fe33+O36(OH)]
8.DM.15Melkovite[Ca2(H2O)15Ca(H2O)6][Mo8P2Fe33+O36(OH)]
8.DM.15Betpakdalite-NaCa[Na2(H2O)17Ca(H2O)6][Mo86+As25+Fe33+O34(OH)3]
8.DM.20Phosphovanadylite-BaBa[V44+P2O8(OH)8]·12H2O
8.DM.20Phosphovanadylite-CaCa[V44+P2O12(OH)4] · 12H2O
8.DM.25YukoniteCa3Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
8.DM.30UdumineliteCa3Al8(PO4)2O12 · 2H2O
8.DM.35DelvauxiteCaFe4(PO4,SO4)2(OH)8 · 4-6H2O not confirmed ·
8.DM.40Santafeite(Na,Ca,Sr)12(Mn2+,Fe3+,Al,Mg)8Mn84+(VO4)16(OH,O)20 · 8H2O
22.4.1BradleyiteNa3Mg(CO3)(PO4)
22.4.2KovdorskiteMg2(PO4)(OH) · 3H2O
22.4.3Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
22.4.4Carbonate-rich FluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
22.4.6HeneuiteCaMg5(CO3)(PO4)3(OH)
22.4.7GirvasiteNaCa2Mg3(PO4)3(CO3)(H2O)6
22.4.8Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
22.4.9GartrellitePb(Cu,Fe3+,Zn)2(AsO4,SO4)2 · 2(H2O,OH)
22.4.10VoggiteNa2Zr(PO4)(CO3)(OH) · 2H2O
22.4.11BonshtedtiteNa3Fe2+(CO3)(PO4)

Other Names for Tyrolite

Other Information

Other Information:
Readily soluble in cold HCl. Soluble in ammonia.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Tyrolite

Reference List:
Werner (as Kupferschaum).

Hoffmann, C.A.S. (1816) Handbuch der Mineralogie volume 3A and 3B: 3: 180 (as Kupferschaum).

Hoffmann, C.A.S. (1817) Handbuch der Mineralogie volume 4A: 19, 50 (as Kupferschaum).

Shepard C.U. (1832) Treatise on Mineralogy. First edition: vol. 1, New Haven: 1: 294 (as Kupaphrite).

Haidinger (1845) Handbuch der Bestimmenden Mineralogie, Vienna: 509 (as Tirolit).

Hermann (1858) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 73: 212 (as Trichalcite).

Hillebrand and Washington (1888) American Journal of Science: 35: 301.

Hillebrand and Dana (1890) American Journal of Science: 39: 273.

Church, A.H. (1895) A chemical study of some native arsenates and phosphates. Mineralogical Magazine, 11, 1-12.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 144, 147.

Hintze, Carl (1931) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4B]: 1078.

Wolfe (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 799.

Berry (1948) American Mineralogist: 33: 193 (abstract).

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 739-740 (as Trichalcite), 925.

Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie (1956): 79: 7.

Wieser, T. & Zabinski, W. (1986): Copper arsenate and sulphate minerals from Miedzianka near Kielce (Poland). Mineralogica Polonica 17 (1), 17-42. [gives detailed optical property data]

Kloprogge, J. T. and Frost, R. L. (2000): Raman microscopy study of tyrolite: a multi-anion arsenate mineral. Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 517-521.

Krivovichev, S. V., Chernyshov, D. Yu., Döbelin, N., Kahlenberg, V., Tessadri, R., Armbruster, T. and Kaltenhauser, G. (2005): The crystal structure of tyrolite, Ca2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8(H2O)10: synchrotron X-ray diffraction study. Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 151, 74.

Krivovichev, S.V., Chernyshov, D. Yu., Dobelin, N., Armbruster, Th., Kahlenberg, V., Kaindl, R., Ferraris, G., Tessadri, R., Kaltenhauser, G. (2006). Crystal chemistry and polytypism of tyrolite. American Mineralogist, 91, 1378-1384.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W. and Nichols, M.C., Eds. Handbook of Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA 20151-1110, USA. http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/ (2016)

Internet Links for Tyrolite

Specimens:
The following Tyrolite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Tyrolite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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