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Ulexite

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Formula:
NaCa[B
 
5
O
 
6
(OH)
 
6
] · 5H
 
2
O
System:TriclinicColour:Colourless, white, grey ...
Lustre:Vitreous, SilkyHardness:
Name:Named after George Ludwig Ulex (1811-1883), German chemist, who first correctly analyzed the species.


Called the "TV" rock or "television stone" for its ability to transmit images through natural fibers. This habit is a natural fiber optic.

Typically occurs in arid regions.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Ulexite. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Ulexite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/H.14-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:6.EA.25

6 : BORATES
E : Pentaborates
A : Neso-pentaborates
Dana 8th edition ID:26.5.11.1

26 : HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
5 : Pentaborates
Hey's CIM Ref.:9.3.21

9 : Borates
3 : Borates of Ca and Sr
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-4085.html
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Type Occurrence of Ulexite

Type Locality:Iquique Province, Tarapacá Region, Chile
Year of Discovery:1850
Geological Setting of type material:Playas in a desert region.
Associated Minerals at type locality:
PickeringiteNitratineHaliteGlauberite

Occurrences of Ulexite

Geological Setting:Arid regions. In salt playas and desiccated saline lakes.

Physical Properties of Ulexite

Lustre:Vitreous, Silky
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colourless, white, grey with included clays.
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {010}; on {110} good; on {110} poor.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Comment:Fracture uneven across fibers.
Density (measured):1.955 g/cm3
Density (calculated):1.955 g/cm3

Crystallography of Ulexite

Crystal System:Triclinic
Class (H-M):1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:P1
Cell Parameters:a = 8.816(3) Å, b = 12.87Å, c = 6.678(1) Å
α = 90.25°, β = 109.12°, γ = 105.1°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.685 : 1 : 0.519
Unit Cell Volume:V 687.83 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Small nodular, rounded, or lens-like masses; loose at times (termed "cotton balls"), comprised of acicular crystals. Fibers may be radially arranged or randomly oriented towards the centers of the masses and arranged in parallel position at the periphery. Botryoidal crusts or randomly oriented fibers. Compact veins with a parallel fibrous structure. Distinct crystals rare, greatly elongated [001] (Palache et al (1951) Dana's System of Min.: 345).
Twinning:Polysynthetic, common in massive aggregates and crushed fragments. Several twin laws apply: 1. Polysynthetic on {010} and {100}; 2. {340} or {230} less certain, and others of a more complex nature.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Ulexite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.491 - 1.496 nβ = 1.504 - 1.506 nγ = 1.519 - 1.520
2V:Measured: 73° to 78°, Calculated: 68°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.028

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:none

Chemical Properties of Ulexite

Formula:
NaCa[B
 
5
O
 
6
(OH)
 
6
] · 5H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:NaCa[B5O6(OH)6]·5H2O
Essential elements:B, Ca, H, Na, O
All elements listed in formula:B, Ca, H, Na, O

Relationship of Ulexite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
6.EA.05Sborgite
Na[B
 
5
O
 
6
(OH)
 
4
] · 3H
 
2
O
6.EA.05Leucostaurite
Pb
 
2
[B
 
5
O
 
9
]Cl · 0.5H
 
2
O
6.EA.10Santite
K[B
 
5
O
 
6
(OH)
 
4
] · 2H
 
2
O
6.EA.10Ramanite-(Rb)
Rb[B
 
5
O
 
6
(OH)
 
4
] · 2H
 
2
O
6.EA.10Ramanite-(Cs)
Cs[B
 
5
O
 
6
(OH)
 
4
] · 2H
 
2
O
6.EA.15Ammonioborite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
[B
 
5
O
 
6
(OH)
 
4
]
 
2
· H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
9.3.1Calciborite
Ca(B
 
2
O
 
4
)
9.3.2Sibirskite
Ca
 
2
(HB
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
9.3.3Fabianite
CaB
 
3
O
 
5
OH
9.3.4Uralborite
Ca
 
2
[B
 
3
O
 
3
(OH)
 
5
· OB(OH)
 
3
]
9.3.5Vimsite
CaB
 
2
O
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.3.6Olshanskyite
Ca
 
3
[B(OH)
 
4
]
 
4
(OH)
 
2
9.3.7Frolovite
Ca[B(OH)
 
4
]
 
2
9.3.8Korzhinskite
Ca(B
 
2
O
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
9.3.9Tyretskite
Ca
 
2
B
 
5
O
 
9
OH · H
 
2
O
9.3.10Nifontovite
Ca
 
3
B
 
6
O
 
6
(OH)
 
12
(H
 
2
O)
 
2
9.3.12Inyoite
Ca(H
 
4
B
 
3
O
 
7
)(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
9.3.13Gowerite
Ca[B
 
5
O
 
8
(OH)][B(OH)
 
3
] · 3H
 
2
O
9.3.14Colemanite
Ca[B
 
3
O
 
4
(OH)
 
3
] · H
 
2
O
9.3.15Pentahydroborite
CaB
 
2
O(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
9.3.16Hexahydroborite
Ca[B(OH)
 
4
]
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
9.3.17Meyerhofferite
Ca
 
2
(H
 
3
B
 
3
O
 
7
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
9.3.18Priceite
Ca
 
2
B
 
5
O
 
7
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
9.3.19Ginorite
Ca
 
2
B
 
14
O
 
23
· 8H
 
2
O
9.3.20Probertite
NaCaB
 
5
O
 
7
(OH)
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
9.3.22Hydroboracite
CaMg[B
 
3
O
 
4
(OH)
 
3
]
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
9.3.23Inderborite
CaMg(H
 
3
B
 
3
O
 
7
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
9.3.24Wardsmithite
Ca
 
5
Mg[B
 
4
O
 
7
]
 
6
· 30H
 
2
O
9.3.25Henmilite
Ca
 
2
Cu[B(OH)
 
4
]
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.3.26Strontioborite
SrB
 
8
O
 
11
(OH)
 
4
9.3.27Veatchite
Sr
 
2
B
 
11
O
 
16
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
9.3.28Veatchite-A
Sr
 
2
B
 
11
O
 
16
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
9.3.29 P-Veatchite
9.3.30 Balavinskite
Sr
 
2
B
 
6
O
 
11
· 4H
 
2
O
9.3.31Tunellite
SrB
 
6
O
 
9
(OH)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
9.3.32Strontioginorite
(Sr,Ca)
 
2
B
 
14
O
 
23
· 8H
 
2
O

Other Names for Ulexite

Synonyms:
Boronatro-calciteCotton-ball BoraxCryptomorphite (of How)FranklanditeHayesine (of Forbes)
HayesiteNatroborocalciteNatronborocalciteRaphiteStiberite
Television StoneTV stone
Other Languages:
Catalan:Ulexita
Dutch:Ulexiet
Finnish:Uleksiitti
French:Ulexite
German:Ulexit
Boronatrocalcit
Fernsehstein
Franklandit
Hayesit
Natroborocalcit
Natronkalk-borat
Raphit
Stiberit
Tinkalzit
Italian:Ulexite
Japanese:ウレキサイト
電視石
Polish:Uleksyt
Russian:Улексит
Simplified Chinese:硼钠钙石
Spanish:Ulexita
Boronatrocalcita
Franklandita
Hayesita
Natroborocalcita
Raphita
Stiberita
Tiza
Swedish:Ulexit
Traditional Chinese:硼鈉鈣石
Turkish:Üleksit

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Yellow, greenish yellow, cream, white.
Other Information:Slightly decomposed in cold water and more so in hot water, with the loss of Na to the solution.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Ulexite

Reference List:

- +
Hayes (1844) American Journal of Science: 46: 377 (as Hydrous borate of lime).

Hayes (1844) American Journal of Science: 47: 215.

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition, vol. 2, in two parts: 1429 (as Hydroborocalcite)

Ulex (1849) Ann. Chem. Pharm.: 70: 49 (as Boronatro-calcite).

Dana, J.D. (1850) System of Mineralogy, 3rd. Edition, New York: 217 (as Hayesine), 695.

Kletzinsky (1859) Polyt. Centr.: 1384 (as Tinkalzit).

How (1861) American Journal of Science: 32: 9 (as Cryptomorphite).

Des Cloizeaux, A. (1874) Manuel de minéralogie. 2 volumes and Atlas, Paris, volume 2, 1 Fasc., 208pp.: 10.

How (1877) Mineralogical Magazine: 1: 257.

Reynolds (1877) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 3: 284 (as Franklandite).

Buttgenbach (1900-1901) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales, 28, Mem. 99.

de Schulten (1901) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 132: 1576.

van't Hoff (1907) Preuss. Ak. Wiss., Sitzber.: 303.

Foshag (1918) American Mineralogist: 3: 35.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 148.

Walker (1921) University of Toronto Stud., Geology series, no. 12: 54.

Mellor, J.W. (1924) A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry. 16 volumes, London: 5: 94.

Hintze, Carl (1933) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1, [4A]: 156.

Boky (1937) Bulletin de l'Académie des sciences de l'Union des Républiques Soviétiques Socialistes, Cl. sc. mat. nat., Ser. chim.: 871.

Godlevsky (1937) Mineralogicheskoe Obshchestvo, Leningrad, Zapiski: 66(2): 315 (Min. Abs. (1938): 7: 122).

Murdoch, Joseph (1940), The crystallography of ulexite: Am. Min.: 25: 754-762 (abstract): American Mineralogist: 25: 210-211.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 345-348.

Clark, J.R. & C.L. Christ (1959), Studies of borate minerals, V: Reinvestigation of the X-ray crystallography of ulexite and probertite: American Mineralogist: 44: 712-719.

Weichel-Moore, E.J. and Potter, R.J. (1963) Fibre optical properties of ulexite. Nature: 200: 1163-1165.

Papezik, V.S. and Fong, C.C.K. (1975) Howlite and ulexite from the Carboniferous gypsum and anhydrite beds in western Newfoundland. Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 370-376.

Ghose, S., C. Wan & J.R. Clark (1978), Ulexite, NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5H2O: structure refinement, polyanion configuration, hydrogen bonding and fiber optics: American Mineralogist: 63: 160-171.

Canadian Mineralogist (1981): 19: 291.

Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 722.

Best Localities for Ulexite

Best of Species:Ulexite

Internet Links for Ulexite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Ulexite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Ulexite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Catamarca
      • Antofagasta de la Sierra Department
    Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
    Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
    Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
    Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
    Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
    Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
    Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
    Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
    Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
    Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
    Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
    Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
    Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
    Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
    Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
    • Jujuy
    Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.
      • Rinconada Department
    Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
      • Susques Department
        • Coranzuli
    Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.
        • Salar de Cauchari
          • El Porvenir
    Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
    Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
      • Tumbaya Department
    Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
    No reference listed
    Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
    Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
    • Salta
    VINANTE, D. y ALONSO, R.N.. Evapofacies del Salar Hombre Muerto, Puna argentina: distribucion y genesis. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2006, vol.61, n.2, pp. 286-297
    Am Min 58:308-313; Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.
      • Sijes
    Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.
    Alfredo Petrov specimen
    Garrett, D.E. (1998): Borates - Handbook of Deposits, Processing, Properties and Use. Academic Press (San Diego, London), 475 pp.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 347.
    Bolivia
     
    • Potosí Department
      • Nor Lípez Province
    Federico Ahlfeld y Jorge Munoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia. (Banco Minero de Bolivia)
      • Sud Lípez Province
    USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 254 (1992)
    Canada
     
    • New Brunswick
      • Kings Co.
        • Cardwell Parish
          • Penobsquis
    Canadian Mineralogist (1981): 19: 291-301.
        • Hammond Parish
          • Salt Springs evaporite deposit
    BURNS, P.C., HAWTHORNE, F.C. & STIRLING, J.A.R. (1992): Trembathite, (Mg,Fe)3B7O13Cl, a new borate mineral from the Salt Springs potash deposit, Sussex, New Brunswick. Canadian Mineralogist 30, 445-448.
    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      • Newfoundland
    Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 13, pp. 370-376 (1975)
    • Nova Scotia
      • Hants Co.
    Papezik, V. S., and Fong, C. C. K., "Howlite and Ulexite from Carboniferous Gypsum and Anhydrite Beds in Western Newfoundland", Canadian Mineralogist, 13, 370-376, 1975.
        • West Hants
          • Martock
            • Brookville farm
    No reference listed
        • Windsor
    Henry How, "On the Occurrence of Natro-Boro-Calcite with Glauber Salt in the Gypsum of Nova Scotia", The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, Vol 6, pg. 54-60, Jul-Oct 1857.
      • Victoria Co.
        • Dingwall
    Sabina (1965)
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • El Loa Province
        • Calama
          • Chuquicamata District
    R.B. Cook: "Famous mineal locality; Chuquicamata, Chile": Mineralogical Record, sept.-oct. 1973
    Rodgers, K. A., Greatrex, R., Hyland, M., Simmons, S. F., & Browne, P. R. L. (2002). A modern, evaporitic occurrence of teruggite, Ca4MgB12As2O28. 18H2O, and nobleite, CaB6O10. 4H2O, from the El Tatio geothermal field, Antofagasta Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine, 66(2), 253-259.
        • Ollagüe
    Am Min 63:814-823
      • Tocopilla Province
        • Oficina Maria Elena
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 646.
    • Arica and Parinacota Region
      • Arica Province
        • Surire
    Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.
    • Coquimbo Region
    USGS Bulletin 491
    • Tarapacá Region
      • El Tamarugal Province
    American Mineralogist: 79: 1003-1008.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 347; American Mineralogist (1959): 44: 712.
    China
     
    • Qinghai Province
      • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
        • Da Qaidam Co. (Dachaidan Co.)
    Garrett, D.E. (1998): Borates: Handbook of deposits, processing, properties, and use. Academic Press (San Diego, London), 491 pp.
    Dapeng Sun (1991): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 12(4), 57-65; Garrett, D.E. (1998): Borates: Handbook of deposits, processing, properties, and use. Academic Press (San Diego, London), 491 pp.
        • Dulan Co.
    Anthony, J.W. et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Ngari Prefecture
        • Gê'gyai Co. (Geji Co.)
    Mienping Zheng and Wengao Liu (1982): Geological Review 28(3), 263-266
    Germany
     
    • Hesse
      • Alheim
    Natural History Museum Vienna collection
    • Saarland
      • Saarlouis
        • Rammelfangen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Thuringia
      • Harz
        • Ellrich
          • Appenrode
    http://www.mffb.de/MFFB_Exkursionsberichte/Harz/Harz.htm
        • Nordhausen
          • Niedersachswerfen
    Siemroth, J. (2008): Das Vorkommen von Boratmineralien im Werra-Anhydrit des Steinbruchs Kohnstein bei Niedersachswerfen am Südharz, Der Aufschluss, Vol. 59, 353-366
    Iran
     
    • Zanjan Province
      • Dandy District
    Vachik Hairapetian collection
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
      • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
    World of Stones #1; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30; Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Peru
     
    • Arequipa Department
      • Arequipa Province
        • Arequipa
    Hyrsl & Rosales (2003), Min. Record 34:251
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
        • Irkutskaya Oblast'
          • Lena-Angara salt Basin
    Dimitri Belakovski
    Serbia
     
    • Raška District
      • Raška
        • Jarandol Basin
          • Baljevac na Ibru
    S. V. Malinko et al.: New Data on Minerals 39:26-31 (2004)
    Turkey
     
    • Aegean Region
      • Kütahya Province
        • Emet
          • Doğanlar village
    J. García-Veigas, L. Rosell, X. Alcobé, I. Subias, F. Ortí, I. Gündogan and C. Helvaci (2010) Fontarnauite, a New Sulphate-Borate Mineral from the Emet Borate District (Turkey). Macla 13, 97-98.
          • Emet Borate deposit
    J.W. Anthony, R.A. Bideaux, K.W. Bladh, M.C. Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. V (2003); American Mineralogist; April 1979; v. 64; no. 3-4; p. 362-366
    CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27; American Mineralogist; April 1979; v. 64; no. 3-4; p. 362-366
    • Central Anatolia Region
      • Eskişehir Province
        • Kirka
    CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27; http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/T%FCrkei/Eskisehir/Kirka/Sarikaya; Baysal, O. (1972) : A mineralogical study and genesis of Sarıkaya (Kırka) borate deposits. Hacettepe University, Ankara.
    • Marmara Region
      • Balikesir Province
        • Bigadiç
    CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
          • Iskeleköy (Iskele)
    Meixner, H. (1953): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 3(6), 445-455.
      • Bursa Province
        • Mustafa Kemalpafla
    CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
    Turkmenistan
     
    • Lebap Province
      • Chardzhou
    Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
    USA
     
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
        • Amargosa Range
          • Black Mts
            • Monte Blanco
    Foshag, William Frederick (1924), The world’s biggest borax deposits (California and Nevada): Engineering & Mining Journal: 118: 420; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 376.
        • Death Valley
    Hanks, Henry Garber (1884), Fourth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 4, 410 pp. (includes catalog of minerals of California pp. 63-410), and miscellaneous observations on mineral products): 394; Bodewig, C. & G. vom Rath (1885), Colmanit aus Californien: Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 10: 181; Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 45; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 376.
    Econ Geol (1996) 91:622-635
    Hanks, Henry Garber (1884), Fourth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 4, 410 pp.: 394; Bodewig, C. & G. vom Rath (1885), Colmanit aus Californien: Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 10: 181; Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 45, 46; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 376.
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 256.
        • Death Valley National Park
    Hardie, L.A. (1968) The origin of the Recent nonmarine evaporate deposit of Saline Valley, Inyo County, California. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 32: 1287; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 256; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 347.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District; Death Valley Area Borate Deposits; Ryan area)
          • Ryan
    Foshag, William Frederick (1931b), Probertite from Ryan, California: American Mineralogist: 16: 338-341; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 376.
    Foshag, William Frederick (1931b), Probertite from Ryan, California: American Mineralogist: 16: 338-341; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 295.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Anonymous (1963), California Division of Mines and Geology, Mineral Information Service: California Mineral Production 1962: 16(1): 9; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154, 377.
    www.mineralsocal.org; American Mineralogist (1961): 46: 560-571.
    www.mineralsocal.org; Am Min (1959) 44:911-919; Am Min 64:3-4 pp 369-375; Am Min 64:3-4 pp 369-375; American Mineralogist: 55: 349-357; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375.
            • Mouth of Corkscrew Canyon area
    Foshag, William Frederick (1939), New Mineral names – priceite: American Mineralogist: 24: 728; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 295.
    Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and A.C. Vlisidis (1970) Wardsmithite 5CaO • MgO •12B2O3 •30H2O, a new borate mineral from the Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 55: 349-357.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Foshag, William Frederick (1931b), Probertite from Ryan, California: American Mineralogist: 16: 338-341; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 256.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
          • Twenty Mule Team Canyon
    American Mineralogist (1979): 64(3-4): 369-375.; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375.
    Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister & H. Almond (1959), Gowerite, a new hydrous calcium borate from Death Valley, California: American Mineralogist: 44: 911-919.
    Am Min 64:3-4 pp 369-375; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375.
        • Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District)
          • Greenwater Range
            • Ryan
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 377.
        • Resting Spring Range
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1926b), Note on a colemanite deposit near Shoshone, California, with a sketch of the geology of a part of Amargosa Valley: USGS Bulletin 785: 63, 72; Nolan, Thomas Brennan (1964), Geological Survey Research 1963, Summary of investigations: USGS PP 475-A: 11; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 249, 256.
        • Saratoga District (Tecopa Mountain District; Shoshone District ?)
          • Dublin Hills
            • Shoshone
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 63, 72; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 153, 376.; Nolan, Thomas Brennan (1964), Geological Survey Research 1963, Summary of investigations: USGS PP 475-A: 11. Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 153.
    Nolan, Thomas Brennan (1964), Geological Survey Research 1963, Summary of investigations: USGS PP 475-A: A-11; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 295, 377.
      • Kern Co.
        • Cane Spring
    Silliman, Benjamin, Jr. (1873b), Mineralogical notes on Utah, California, and Nevada, with a description of priceite a new borate of lime: American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 6: 130; Phillips, John Arthur (1877), The alkaline and boracic lakes of California: Living AGE: 133: 637; Blake, Wm. P. (1881), Contributions to the geology of California: Mining and Scientific Press: 42: 323; Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 50.
        • Cantil
          • Koehn Lake (Kane Springs; Desert Springs)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
            • Southwest edge of Koehn Lake
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 258.
        • China Lake [town]
          • China Lake
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 258.
        • El Paso Mts
          • Ricardo
    No reference listed
        • Kramer District
    www.mineralsocal.org
    Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 146; Carnahan, V. (1970), Notes on some minerals from Boron: Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California, November: 10; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 51, 213, 256.
              • Baker Mine
    Am Min (1958) 43:169-170
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 246; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 64, 311.
            • West Baker
    Murdoch, Joseph (1940), The crystallography of ulexite: American Mineralogist: 25: 754; Baur, Gretta S. & Leonard B. Sand (1957), X-ray powder data for ulexite and halotrichite: American Mineralogist: 42: 676-678; Baur, Gretta S., Willard N. Larsen & Leonard B. Sand (1957), Image projection by fibrous minerals: American Mineralogist: 42: 697-699; Dietz, Ralph W. (1957), Television ulexite: Gems & Minerals, No. 232: 16-17, Jan. 1957.
      • Lake Co.
        • Sulphur Creek District (Sulfur Creek District; Wilbur Springs District)
          • Clear Lake
    Hanks, Henry Garber (1883), Report on borax deposits: California Mining Bureau. Report 3, part 2, 111 pp.: 38; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 377.
          • Clear Lake Oaks
    Korbel & Novak (1999), Mineral Encylopaedia: 133.
      • Los Angeles Co.
    Foshag, William Frederick (1918), Ulexite from Lang, California: American Mineralogist: 3: 35; Foshag, William Frederick (1921), The origin of the colemanite deposits of California: Economic Geology: 16: 199-214; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 377.
          • Tick Canyon
            • Tick Canyon Borate deposit
    Foshag, William Frederick (1918), Ulexite from Lang, California: American Mineralogist: 3: 35; Foshag, William Frederick (1921), The origin of the colemanite deposits of California: Economic Geology: 16: 199-214; Masimer, G.E. (1966) Tick Canyon revisited. Gems and Minerals: 347: 20-23; Pemberton, H. Earl (1968) The minerals of the Sterling borax mine, Los Angeles County, California. Mineral Explorer 3, No. 1, 10 pp.: 5; Murdoch, Joseph (1945), Probertite from Los Angeles County, California: American Mineralogist: 30: 719; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 258.
      • Riverside Co.
        • San Bernardino Mts
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 54; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 377.
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Amargosa River
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62; Cloudman, H.C., F.J.H. Merrill & E. Huguenin (1919), San Bernardino County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 855; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 377.
        • Barstow
          • Lead Mountain
    Field trip information, Bob Housley.
        • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
          • Calico District (Daggett District)
            • Borate
    [Murdoch, J & Webb, R (1966) Minerals of California, California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 189]
    Foshag, William Frederick (1922), Calico Hills, San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 7: 208-209; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 258.
    Hanks, Henry Garber (1883), Report on borax deposits: California Mining Bureau. Report 3, part 2, 111 pp.: 28; Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62; Cloudman, H.C., F.J.H. Merrill & E. Huguenin (1919), San Bernardino County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 855; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 377.
    Korbel & Novak (1999) Min. Encylopaedia, p.133.
    • Nevada
      • Churchill Co.
    USBM Inf Circ 7093 (1939)
    J.V. Tingley and J. Quade (1987) Mineral resource inventory - U.S. Navy master land withdrawal area, Churchill County, Nevada:. Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology OFR 87-2
    USBM Inf Circ 7093 (1939)
      • Clark Co.
        • Muddy Mts
          • Muddy Mountains District
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 352.
    Stephen B. Castor (1990) Borates in the Muddy Mountains, Clark County NBMG Nevada Geolog
    Stephen B. Castor (1990) Borates in the Muddy Mountains, Clark County NBMG Nevada Geolog
    Korbel & Novak, 1999. Min.Encylopaedia, p.133.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 347; Rocks & Minerals, Nov. 1999; Nevada Bureau of Mines & Geology (1983), "A Mineral Inventory of the Esmeralda-Stateline Resource Area, Las Vegas District, Nevada," NBMG Open File Report 83-11
    NBMG Bull 78 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Esmeralda County, Nevada
    American Mineralogist 19:268-274
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 347; Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols, Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 5.
      • Mineral Co.
        • Marietta District
    NBMG Bull 58 Geology and Mineral Resources of Mineral County, Nevada
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 347; Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Special Publication 31, Minerals of Nevada.
      • Nye Co.
        • Spalding Marsh District
    NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Washoe Co.
    NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Oklahoma
      • Blaine Co.
        • Southard
    Rocks & Minerals 72:4 pp 252-264
      • Custer Co.
    Rocks & Minerals: 72(4): 252-264.
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