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Uvarovite

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Formula:
Ca
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
System:IsometricColour:Green, emerald-green, ...
Lustre:VitreousHardness:6½ - 7
Member of:Garnet Structural Group
Name:
Named after Count Sergey Semeonovich Uvarov (1786-1855), Russian statesman and scholar, President of the Academy of St Petersburg (1818-1855).


Garnet Group. Grossular-Uvarovite Series.

Uvarovite is the name given to the green calcium chromium garnet end member.
The name has frequently been misused in the past to refer to other green and/or chromium-bearing garnets, many so-called 'Uvarovites' are actually chromian Grossular, chromian Pyrope, green Andradite (the so-called Iranian 'uvarovite') or even the rare Knorringite (magnesium chromium garnet).

Note: some uvarovites show Al-Cr cation ordering, resulting in orthorhombic, monoclinic or triclinic symmetries (while still being strongly pseudocubic), see articles by Andrut & Wildner (2001, 2002).

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Uvarovite. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Uvarovite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/A.08-130
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.AD.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination
Dana 8th edition ID:51.4.3b.3

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.15.5

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
15 : Silicates of Cr
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Type Occurrence of Uvarovite

Type Locality:Saranovskii Mine (Saranovskoe), Saranovskaya Village (Sarany), Gornozavodskii area, Permskaya Oblast', Middle Urals, Urals Region, Russia
Year of Discovery:1832

Occurrences of Uvarovite

Geological Setting:Hydrothermal alteration of chromite-bearing serpentinite, metamorphosed limestones and skarns.

Physical Properties of Uvarovite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Green, emerald-green, green-black
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):6½ - 7
Tenacity:Brittle
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.77 - 3.81 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.848 g/cm3

Crystallography of Uvarovite

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:Ia3d
Cell Parameters:a = 11.99Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,723.68 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:8
Morphology:Dodecahedra, trapezohedra.

Optical Data of Uvarovite

Type:Isotropic
RI values: n = 1.865
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:Very High
Comments:May be weakly anisotropic due to strain or symmetry reduction (triclinic and orthorhombic varieties are known).

Chemical Properties of Uvarovite

Formula:
Ca
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3
Essential elements:Ca, Cr, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Ca, Cr, O, Si
Common Impurities:Al,Fe,Mg

Relationship of Uvarovite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Grossular (see here)
Member of:Garnet Structural Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Almandine
Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Andradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Berzeliite
NaCa
 
2
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Bitikleite
Ca
 
3
SbSn(AlO
 
4
)
 
3
Blythite
Mn
2+
3
Mn
3+
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
3
Calderite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Dzhuluite
Ca
 
3
SbSnFe
3+
3
O
 
12
Elbrusite
Ca
 
3
U
6+
 
ZrFe
3+
2
Fe
2+
 
O
 
12
Goldmanite
Ca
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Grossular
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Henritermierite
Ca
 
3
(Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
Hutcheonite
Ca
 
3
Ti
 
2
(SiAl
 
2
)O
 
12
Irinarassite
Ca
 
3
Sn
 
2
Al
 
2
SiO
 
12
Katoite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
Kerimasite
Ca
 
3
Zr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
Khoharite
Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Kimzeyite
Ca
 
3
(Zr,Ti)
 
2
((Si,Al,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
Knorringite
Mg
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Majorite
Mg
 
3
(Fe
2+
 
,Si,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Menzerite-(Y)
{(Y,REE),(Ca,Fe
2+
 
)}
 
3
{(Mg,Fe
2+
 
),(Fe
3+
 
,Al)}
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
3
Momoiite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Morimotoite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
Palenzonaite
(Ca,Na)
 
3
CaMn
2+
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Pyrope
Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Schäferite
Ca
 
2
NaMg
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Schorlomite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
Skiagite
Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
3
Spessartine
Mn
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Toturite
Ca
 
3
Sn
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
Usturite
Ca
 
3
SbZr(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
3
Yafsoanite
Ca
 
3
Zn
 
3
(TeO
 
6
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.AD.05Larnite
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
9.AD.10Calcio-Olivine
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
9.AD.15Merwinite
Ca
 
3
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.20Bredigite
Ca
 
7
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
9.AD.25Andradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Almandine
Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Calderite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Goldmanite
Ca
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Grossular
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Henritermierite
Ca
 
3
(Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.AD.25Hibschite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Hydroandradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Katoite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Kimzeyite
Ca
 
3
(Zr,Ti)
 
2
((Si,Al,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Knorringite
Mg
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Majorite
Mg
 
3
(Fe
2+
 
,Si,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Morimotoite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Pyrope
Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Schorlomite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Spessartine
Mn
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Wadalite
(Ca,Mg)
 
6
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
4
((Si,Al)O
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
4
Cl
 
3
9.AD.25Holtstamite
Ca
 
3
(Al,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.AD.25Kerimasite
Ca
 
3
Zr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.25Toturite
Ca
 
3
Sn
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.25Momoiite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Eltyubyuite
Ca
 
12
Fe
3+
10
Si
 
4
O
 
32
Cl
 
6
9.AD.25Hutcheonite
Ca
 
3
Ti
 
2
(SiAl
 
2
)O
 
12
9.AD.30Coffinite
(U
4+
 
,Th)(SiO
 
4
)
 
1-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.30Hafnon
HfSiO
 
4
9.AD.30Thorite
(Th,U)SiO
 
4
9.AD.30Zircon
ZrSiO
 
4
9.AD.30Stetindite
Ce
4+
 
SiO
 
4
9.AD.35Huttonite
ThSiO
 
4
9.AD.35Tombarthite-(Y)
Y
 
4
(Si,H
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
12-x
(OH)
 
4+2x
9.AD.40Eulytine
Bi
 
4
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.45Reidite
ZrSiO
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.15.1Kosmochlor
NaCrSi
 
2
O
 
6
14.15.2Natalyite
Na(V
3+
 
,Cr)Si
 
2
O
 
6
14.15.3Knorringite
Mg
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
14.15.4Krinovite
Na
 
2
Mg
 
4
Cr
3+
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)O
 
2

Other Names for Uvarovite

Synonyms:
Chrome GarnetOuvaroviteUvarovite Garnet
Other Languages:
Dutch:Uvaroviet
Finnish:Uvaroviitti
French:Uvarovite
German:Uwarowit
Chromgranat
Hungarian:Uvarovit
Italian:Uvarovite
Lithuanian:Uvarovitas
Polish:Uwarowit
Russian:Уваровит
Simplified Chinese:钙铬榴石
Slovak:Uvarovit
Spanish:Uvarovita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Gemstone.

References for Uvarovite

Reference List:

- +
Ann. Phys. Chem. (1832), 24, 388.

Canadian Mineralogist (1989): 27: 565.

Andrut, M. & Wildner, M. (2001): The crystal chemistry of birefringent natural uvarovites: Part I. Optical investigations and UV-VIS-IR absorption spectroscopy. Am. Mineral. 86, 1219-1230.

Andrut, M. & Wildner, M. (2001): The crystal chemistry of birefringent natural uvarovites: Part II. Single-crystal X-ray structures. Am. Mineral. 86, 1231-1251.

Andrut, M., Wildner, M. (2002): The crystal chemistry of birefringent natural uvarovites. Part III. Application of the Superposition Model of crystal fields with a characterization of synthetic uvarovite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 29: 595-608.

Andrut, M., Wildner, M., and Beran, A. (2002): The crystal chemistry of birefringent natural uvarovites. Part IV. OH defect mechanisms in non-cubic garnet derived from polarized IR spectroscopy. European Journal of Mineralogy: 14: 1019-1026.

Internet Links for Uvarovite

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    Localities for Uvarovite

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