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Valentinite

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Formula:
Sb2O3
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Colourless, white, light ...
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Name:
Named after Basilius Valentinus (1394?), German chemist and alchemist, who discovered the properties of antimony.
This page provides mineralogical data about Valentinite.

Classification of Valentinite

Approved
4.CB.55

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
B : With medium-sized cations
4.3.11.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
7.13.4

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
13 : Oxides of As, Sb and Bi
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Type Occurrence of Valentinite

Year of Discovery:
1845

Physical Properties of Valentinite

Adamantine, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless, white, light gray, light yellow
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
2½ - 3
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
on {110}, imperfect on {010}
Density:
5.76 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.76 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Valentinite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pccn
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.91Å, b = 12.46Å, c = 5.42Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.394 : 1 : 0.435
Unit Cell Volume:
V 331.59 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Commonly prismatic either [001] or [100]; also tabular {010}. Prism faces often ronded by striations parallel to [001], and the brachydomes are striated [100]. Fan-shaped or stellate aggregates, in bundles and druses and as aggregates of thin plates. Massive, with lamellar, columnar, or granular structure.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.571 (18)
3.494 (25)
3.174 (20)
3.142 (100)
3.118 (75)
2.650 (14)
1.8046 (20)

Optical Data of Valentinite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 2.180 nβ = 2.350 nγ = 2.350
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.170
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
extreme

Chemical Properties of Valentinite

Formula:
Sb2O3
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
As

Relationship of Valentinite to other Species

4.CB.05BrizziiteNaSb5+O3
4.CB.05CorundumAl2O3
4.CB.05Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3
4.CB.05EskolaiteCr2O3
4.CB.05GeikieliteMgTiO3
4.CB.05HematiteFe2O3
4.CB.05IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
4.CB.05KarelianiteV23+O3
4.CB.05MelanostibiteMn2+(Sb5+,Fe3+)O3
4.CB.05PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
4.CB.05Akimotoite(Mg,Fe2+)SiO3
4.CB.05AuroantimonateAuSbO3
4.CB.05Romanite(◻,Pb,Ca)UFe22+(Ti,Fe3+)6Ti12O38
4.CB.05UM1998-11-O-AuHSbAu2+Sb3+O2(OH)
4.CB.05TistariteTi23+O3
4.CB.10AvicenniteTl2O3
4.CB.10BixbyiteMn23+O3
4.CB.15Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
4.CB.15PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N2S[(Zn,Al,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+,Ti)8O15(OH)]2
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N6S[(Zn,Mg)7(Al,Fe3+,Ti)16O31(OH)]2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-6N6S[(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Ti,Fe3+)8O15(OH)]6
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S[(Mg,Fe2+,Zn)4(Al,Ti,Fe3+)10O19(OH)]2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N2S[(Mg,Fe2+)3[Al7(Ti,Fe3+)]O15(OH)]2
4.CB.20Ferrohögbomite-6N12S[(Fe2+,Mg,Zn)5(Al,Ti,Fe3+)12O23(OH)]6
4.CB.25PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9
4.CB.25KleberiteFeTi6O11(OH)5
4.CB.30BerdesinskiiteV23+TiO5
4.CB.30OxyvaniteV23+V4+O5
4.CB.35Olkhonskite(Cr,V)2Ti3O9
4.CB.35SchreyeriteV23+Ti3O9
4.CB.40KamiokiteFe2Mo3O8
4.CB.40Nolanite(V3+,Fe3+,Fe2+,Ti)10O14(OH)2
4.CB.40RinmaniteZn2Sb2Mg2Fe4O14(OH)2
4.CB.40IseiteMn2Mo3O8
4.CB.40MajindeiteMg2Mo3O8
4.CB.45ClaudetiteAs2O3
4.CB.45StibioclaudetiteAsSbO3
4.CB.50ArsenoliteAs2O3
4.CB.50SénarmontiteSb2O3
4.CB.60BismiteBi2O3
4.CB.65SphaerobismoiteBi2O3
4.CB.70SilléniteBi12SiO20
4.CB.75KyzylkumiteTi2V3+O5(OH)
4.CB.80TietaiyangiteFe43+Fe2+TiO9
7.13.1ArsenoliteAs2O3
7.13.2ClaudetiteAs2O3
7.13.3SénarmontiteSb2O3
7.13.5CervantiteSb3+Sb5+O4
7.13.6Stibiconite
7.13.7BahianiteAl5Sb3O14(OH)2
7.13.8Cualstibite-1M(Cu,Al)3(OH)6[Sb5+(OH)6]
7.13.9BismutostibiconiteBi(Sb5+,Fe3+)2O7
7.13.107.13.11StibivaniteSb2VO5
7.13.12BismiteBi2O3
7.13.13SilléniteBi12SiO20

Other Names for Valentinite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Valentinite

Reference List:
Klaproth, M.H. (1802): Chemische Untersuchung des Weiß-Spießglanzerzes, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Dritter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 183-186

Haidinger (1845), Handb. best. Mineral.: 506.

Brezina (1886), Ann Mus. Wien: 1: 145.

Buerger and Hendricks (1937), Zs. Kr.: 98: 1.

Schaller (1937), American Mineralogist: 22: 651.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 547-550.

Acta Crystallographica: B30: 458-461.

Internet Links for Valentinite

Specimens:
The following Valentinite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Valentinite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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