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Vanadinite

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Formula:
Pb
 
5
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
System:HexagonalColour:Orange-red, red-brown, ...
Lustre:Sub-Adamantine, ResinousHardness:2½ - 3
Member of:Apatite Group > Apatite Supergroup
Name:The name reflects its vanadium content.
Isostructural with:Mimetite, Pyromorphite


Apatite Group. Apatite Supergroup. The vanadate analogue of Mimetite and Pyromorphite. Forms solid solutions with Mimetite and Pyromorphite. Forms a series toward Mimetite up to approximately V:As = 1:1 (Mimetite-Vanadinite Series), and a very limited series toward Pyromorphite.

Vanadinite is a secondary lead chlorovanadate. It is almost always found in the oxidation zone of lead deposits in arid climates resulting from the alteration of vanadiferous sulphides and silicates of the gangue and wall rocks.

First discovered by Señor A.M. del Rio (1764-1849), Professor, School of Mines of Mexico, Zimapan, before the element vanadium was discovered in 1830.


Classification of Vanadinite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/B.39-170
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.BN.05

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
N : With only large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 0.33:1
Dana 8th edition ID:41.8.4.3

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
8 : A5(XO4)3Zq
Hey's CIM Ref.:22.2.14

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
2 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with chloride
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Type Occurrence of Vanadinite

Type Locality:Zimapán, Mun. de Zimapán, Hidalgo, Mexico
Year of Discovery:1838

Occurrences of Vanadinite

Geological Setting:A secondary mineral in the oxidized zone of lead bearing deposits.

Physical Properties of Vanadinite

Lustre:Sub-Adamantine, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Colour:Orange-red, red-brown, brown, bright red, yellow, whitish; pale straw-yellow; colourless or weakly tinted in transmitted light.
Comment:May exhibit zoned colouration due to varying composition.
Streak:White to pale yellow and light brownish yellow
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:None Observed
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):6.88 g/cm3
Density (calculated):6.95 g/cm3
Comment:Density decreases with the substitution of Ca for Pb; reported values range between ~6.5 to 7.1.

Crystallography of Vanadinite

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Class (H-M):6/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:P63/m
Cell Parameters:a = 10.3174Å, c = 7.3378Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.711
Unit Cell Volume:V 676.45 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Well developed hexagonal prisms [0001] with smooth faces and sharp edges; commonly cavernous, also acicular, hairlike, fibrous, rounded, globular, skeletalized. Crystals may exhibit concentric zones of varying composition.
Crystal Atlas:
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Vanadinite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Vanadinite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Vanadinite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Vanadinite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 2.416 nε = 2.350
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.066

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:Visible in tinted material in transmitted light.

Chemical Properties of Vanadinite

Formula:
Pb
 
5
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Simplified for copy/paste:Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Essential elements:Cl, O, Pb, V
All elements listed in formula:Cl, O, Pb, V
Common Impurities:P,As,Ca

Relationship of Vanadinite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Mimetite (see here)
Member of:Apatite Group > Apatite Supergroup
Other Members of Group:

- +
Alforsite
Ba
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Bellite
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
,CrO
 
4
, SiO
 
2
)
 
3
Cl
Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
3
(F,O)
Chlorapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Fluorapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Hydroxylapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
Hydroxylapatite-M
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
Hydroxylpyromorphite
Pb
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
Johnbaumite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
Johnbaumite-M
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
Mimetite
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Mimetite-2M
Mimetite-M
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Miyahisaite
(Sr,Ca)
 
2
Ba
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Oxypyromorphite
Pb
 
10
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
O
Pyromorphite
Pb
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Stronadelphite
Sr
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Svabite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Turneaureite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Unnamed (F-analogue of Pyromorphite)
Pb
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Unnamed (OH-analogue of Mimetite)
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
Common Associates:
WulfenitePyromorphiteMottramiteMimetiteMimetite
LimoniteDescloiziteCerussiteAnglesite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.BN.05Alforsite
Ba
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Belovite-(Ce)
NaCeSr
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
3
(F,O)
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH,O)
8.BN.05Chlorapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Mimetite-M
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Johnbaumite-M
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
8.BN.05Fluorapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Hedyphane
Pb
 
3
Ca
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Hydroxylapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
8.BN.05Johnbaumite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
8.BN.05Mimetite
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Morelandite
Ca
 
2
Ba
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Pyromorphite
Pb
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Fluorstrophite
SrCaSr
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Svabite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Turneaureite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Belovite-(La)
NaLaSr
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Deloneite
(Na
 
0.5
REE
 
0.25
Ca
 
0.25
)(Ca
 
0.75
REE
 
0.25
)Sr
 
1.5
(CaNa
 
0.25
REE
 
0.25
)(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
 
0.5
(OH)
 
0.5
8.BN.05Fluorcaphite
SrCaCa
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Kuannersuite-(Ce)
NaCeBa
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
 
0.5
Cl
 
0.5
8.BN.05Hydroxylapatite-M
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
8.BN.05Phosphohedyphane
Ca
 
2
Pb
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Stronadelphite
Sr
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Fluorphosphohedyphane
Ca
 
2
Pb
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Carlgieseckeite-(Nd)
NaNdCa
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Miyahisaite
(Sr,Ca)
 
2
Ba
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.10Arctite
Na
 
2
Ca
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
22.2.1Sampleite
NaCaCu
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
22.2.2Lavendulan
NaCaCu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
22.2.3Chlorapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.4Turneaureite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.5Shubnikovite
Ca
 
2
Cu
 
8
(AsO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)Cl · 7H
 
2
O
22.2.6Richelsdorfite
Ca
 
2
Cu
 
5
Sb(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
6
Cl · 6H
 
2
O
22.2.7Alforsite
Ba
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.8Morelandite
Ca
 
2
Ba
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.9Pyromorphite
Pb
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.10Mimetite
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.11Mimetite-M
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.12Sahlinite
Pb
 
14
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
9
Cl
 
4
22.2.13Georgiadèsite
Pb
 
4
(AsO
 
3
)Cl
 
4
(OH)
22.2.15Kombatite
Pb
 
14
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
9
Cl
 
4
22.2.16Leningradite
PbCu
 
3
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
Cl
22.2.17Hedyphane
Pb
 
3
Ca
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.18Nealite
Pb
 
4
Fe
2+
 
(As
3+
 
O
 
3
)
 
2
Cl
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O

Other Names for Vanadinite

Synonyms:
Johnstonite (of Chapman)Lead vanadateVanadate of Lead
Other Languages:
Arabic:فانادينيت
Basque:Banadinita
Catalan:Vanadinita
Dutch:Vanadiniet
French:Vanadinite
Chromate de plomb brun
Plomb brun
Galician:Vanadinita
German:Vanadinit
Chlorvanadinit
Vanadinbleierz
Vanadinbleispath
Vanadinsaures Blei
Vanadin-spath
Italian:Vanadinite
Lithuanian:Vanadinitas
Polish:Wanadynit
Portuguese:Vanadinita
Romanian:Vanadinit
Russian:Ванадинит
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Ванадинит
Simplified Chinese:钒铅矿
Spanish:Vanadinita
Plomo pardo
Ukrainian:Ванадиніт
Varieties:
Arsenatian VanadiniteCuprian Vanadinite

Other Information

Other Information:Readily soluble in HNO3 to a yellow solution; soluble in HCl to a green solution with the deposition of lead chloride.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Vanadinite

Reference List:

- +
Brongniart, A. (1807) Traité élémentaire de minéralogie, 2 volumes, 8vo, Paris: 2: 204 (as Chromate de plomb brun).

Rose (1833) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 29: 455 (as Vanadinbleierz).

Kobell, Fr. Von (1838) Grundzüge der Mineralogie. Nürnberg: 283 (as Vanadinit).

Vrba (1880) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 4: 353.

Frenzel (1881) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 3: 505.

Silliman (1881) American Journal of Science: 22: 198.

Döring (1883) Bol. ac. cienc. Córdoba: 5: 498.

Genth (1885) Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society: 22: 365.

Penfield (1886) American Journal of Science: 32: 441.

Goldschmidt (1900) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 32: 561 (Jannasch analysis).

Bowman (1903) Mineralogical Magazine: 13: 324.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 71.

Wagner and Marchand (1921) Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa: 23: 59.

Goldschmidt, V. (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 9: 49.

Barthoux (1924) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 47: 36.

Hintze, Carl (1924) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 618.

Comucci (1926) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome. Att., [6]: 3: 335.

Lietz (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 77: 454.

Hendricks, Jefferson, and Mosley (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 81: 352.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 895-898.

Baker, W. E. (1966): An X-ray diffraction study of synthetic members of the pyromorphite series. American Mineralogist 51, 1712-1721.

Canadian Mineralogist (1989): 27: 189.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 616.

Laufek, F., Skála, R., Haloda, J., Cisařová, I. (2006): Crystal structure of vanadinite: Refinement of anisotropic displacement parameters. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 51(3-4), 271-275.

Mikio Masaoka & Atsushi Kyono (2006): Single crystal growth of lead vanado-chlorapatite Pb5(VO4)3Cl using CsCl flux method. Materials Letters, 60, 3922-3926.

Internet Links for Vanadinite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
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    Localities for Vanadinite

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