Help mindat.org|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on MindatThe Mindat Store
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryHow to Link to MindatDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Vanadinite

This page kindly sponsored by Norman King
Formula:
Pb5(VO4)3Cl
System:
Hexagonal
Colour:
Orange-red, red-brown, ...
Lustre:
Sub-Adamantine, Resinous
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Name:
The name reflects its vanadium content.
Isostructural with:
Apatite Group. Apatite Supergroup. The vanadate analogue of Mimetite and Pyromorphite. Forms solid solutions with Mimetite and Pyromorphite. Forms a series toward Mimetite up to approximately V:As = 1:1 (Mimetite-Vanadinite Series), and a very limited series toward Pyromorphite.

Vanadinite is a secondary lead chlorovanadate. It is almost always found in the oxidation zone of lead deposits in arid climates resulting from the alteration of vanadiferous sulphides and silicates of the gangue and wall rocks.

First discovered by Señor A.M. del Rio (1764-1849), Professor, School of Mines of Mexico, Zimapan, before the element vanadium was discovered in 1830.


Classification of Vanadinite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7/B.39-170
8.BN.05

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
N : With only large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 0.33:1
41.8.4.3

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
8 : A5(XO4)3Zq
22.2.14

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
2 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with chloride
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-4139.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Vanadinite

Year of Discovery:
1838

Occurrences of Vanadinite

Geological Setting:
A secondary mineral in the oxidized zone of lead bearing deposits.

Physical Properties of Vanadinite

Sub-Adamantine, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Orange-red, red-brown, brown, bright red, yellow, whitish; pale straw-yellow; colourless or weakly tinted in transmitted light.
Comment:
May exhibit zoned colouration due to varying composition.
Streak:
White to pale yellow and light brownish yellow
Hardness (Mohs):
2½ - 3
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
6.88 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.95 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Density decreases with the substitution of Ca for Pb; reported values range between ~6.5 to 7.1.

Crystallography of Vanadinite

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P63/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.3174Å, c = 7.3378Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.711
Unit Cell Volume:
V 676.45 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Well developed hexagonal prisms [0001] with smooth faces and sharp edges; commonly cavernous, also acicular, hairlike, fibrous, rounded, globular, skeletalized. Crystals may exhibit concentric zones of varying composition.

Crystallographic forms of Vanadinite

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Vanadinite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Vanadinite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Vanadinite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Vanadinite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 2.416 nε = 2.350
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.066
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Visible in tinted material in transmitted light.

Chemical Properties of Vanadinite

Formula:
Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
P,As,Ca

Relationship of Vanadinite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Mimetite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3Cl
BellitePb5 (AsO4,CrO4, SiO2)3Cl
Carbonate-rich FluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3Cl
FluorapatiteCa2Ca3(PO4)3F
HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
Hydroxylapatite-MCa5(PO4)3OH
HydroxylpyromorphitePb5(PO4)3(OH)
JohnbaumiteCa5(AsO4)3OH
Johnbaumite-MCa5(AsO4)3OH
Manganapatite
MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mimetite-2M
Miyahisaite(Sr,Ca)2Ba3(PO4)3F
Mn-bearing Fluorapatite(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
OxypyromorphitePb10(PO4)6O
PieczkaiteMn5(PO4)3Cl
PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
StronadelphiteSr5(PO4)3F
SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3F
TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3Cl
Unnamed (F-analogue of Pyromorphite)Pb5(PO4)3F
Unnamed (OH-analogue of Mimetite)Pb5(AsO4)3(OH)
8.BN.05AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Belovite-(Ce)NaCeSr3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich FluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
8.BN.05ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Mimetite-MPb5(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Johnbaumite-MCa5(AsO4)3OH
8.BN.05FluorapatiteCa2Ca3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05HedyphanePb3Ca2(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
8.BN.05JohnbaumiteCa5(AsO4)3OH
8.BN.05MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05MorelanditeCa2Ba3(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
8.BN.05FluorstrophiteSrCaSr3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3F
8.BN.05TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Belovite-(La)NaLaSr3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Deloneite(Na0.5REE0.25Ca0.25)(Ca0.75REE0.25)Sr1.5(CaNa0.25REE0.25)(PO4)3F0.5(OH)0.5
8.BN.05FluorcaphiteSrCaCa3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Kuannersuite-(Ce)NaCeBa3(PO4)3F0.5Cl0.5
8.BN.05Hydroxylapatite-MCa5(PO4)3OH
8.BN.05PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
8.BN.05StronadelphiteSr5(PO4)3F
8.BN.05FluorphosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Carlgieseckeite-(Nd)NaNdCa3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Miyahisaite(Sr,Ca)2Ba3(PO4)3F
8.BN.10ArctiteNa2Ca4(PO4)3F
22.2.1SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
22.2.2LavendulanNaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2O
22.2.3ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3Cl
22.2.4TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.5ShubnikoviteCa2Cu8(AsO4)6(OH)Cl · 7H2O
22.2.6RichelsdorfiteCa2Cu5Sb(AsO4)4(OH)6Cl · 6H2O
22.2.7AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3Cl
22.2.8MorelanditeCa2Ba3(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.9PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
22.2.10MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.11Mimetite-MPb5(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.12SahlinitePb14(AsO4)2O9Cl4
22.2.13GeorgiadèsitePb4(AsO3)Cl4(OH)
22.2.15KombatitePb14(VO4)2O9Cl4
22.2.16LeningraditePbCu3(VO4)2Cl
22.2.17HedyphanePb3Ca2(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.18NealitePb4Fe2+(As3+O3)2Cl4 · 2H2O

Other Names for Vanadinite

Other Information

Other Information:
Readily soluble in HNO3 to a yellow solution; soluble in HCl to a green solution with the deposition of lead chloride.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Vanadinite

Reference List:
Brongniart, A. (1807) Traité élémentaire de minéralogie, 2 volumes, 8vo, Paris: 2: 204 (as Chromate de plomb brun).

Rose (1833) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 29: 455 (as Vanadinbleierz).

Kobell, Fr. Von (1838) Grundzüge der Mineralogie. Nürnberg: 283 (as Vanadinit).

Vrba (1880) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 4: 353.

Frenzel (1881) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 3: 505.

Silliman (1881) American Journal of Science: 22: 198.

Döring (1883) Bol. ac. cienc. Córdoba: 5: 498.

Genth (1885) Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society: 22: 365.

Penfield (1886) American Journal of Science: 32: 441.

Goldschmidt (1900) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 32: 561 (Jannasch analysis).

Bowman (1903) Mineralogical Magazine: 13: 324.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 71.

Wagner and Marchand (1921) Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa: 23: 59.

Goldschmidt, V. (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 9: 49.

Barthoux (1924) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 47: 36.

Hintze, Carl (1924) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 618.

Comucci (1926) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome. Att., [6]: 3: 335.

Lietz (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 77: 454.

Hendricks, Jefferson, and Mosley (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 81: 352.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 895-898.

Baker, W. E. (1966): An X-ray diffraction study of synthetic members of the pyromorphite series. American Mineralogist 51, 1712-1721.

Canadian Mineralogist (1989): 27: 189.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 616.

Laufek, F., Skála, R., Haloda, J., Cisařová, I. (2006): Crystal structure of vanadinite: Refinement of anisotropic displacement parameters. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 51(3-4), 271-275.

Mikio Masaoka & Atsushi Kyono (2006): Single crystal growth of lead vanado-chlorapatite Pb5(VO4)3Cl using CsCl flux method. Materials Letters, 60, 3922-3926.

Internet Links for Vanadinite

Specimens:
The following Vanadinite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Vanadinite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2015, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: July 30, 2015 19:22:40 Page generated: July 30, 2015 00:02:35