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Vanthoffite

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Formula:
Na
 
6
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
4
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless, gray, pale ...
Lustre:Vitreous, PearlyHardness:
Name:
Named after Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff (1852-1911), Professor of Chemistry, University of Amsterdam (1878-1896), University of Berlin (1896-1911), physical chemist and thermodynamicist, founder of stereochemistry, student of equilibria in salt solutions, nobelist (1901).
This page provides mineralogical data about Vanthoffite.

Classification of Vanthoffite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/A.04-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.AC.05

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
A : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, without H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
Dana 8th edition ID:28.4.1.1

28 : ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
4 : Miscellaneous
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.3.8

25 : Sulphates
3 : Sulphates of Mg
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Type Occurrence of Vanthoffite

Type Locality:Wilhelmshall, Halberstadt, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
Year of Discovery:1902
Associated Minerals at type locality:
LangbeiniteHalite

Occurrences of Vanthoffite

Geological Setting:Oceanic salt deposits.

Physical Properties of Vanthoffite

Lustre:Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colourless, gray, pale yellow; colourless in transmitted light
Streak:Colourless
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Fragile
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.694 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.687 g/cm3

Crystallography of Vanthoffite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b {P1 1 21/b} {P21/c} {P1 21/c 1} {P21/a}
Cell Parameters:a = 9.781(2) Å, b = 9.196(2) Å, c = 8.197(2) Å
β = 113.61(2)°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.064 : 1 : 0.891
Unit Cell Volume:V 675.57 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Massive only; anhedral grains or bedded aggregates.

Optical Data of Vanthoffite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.486 nβ = 1.488 nγ = 1.489
2V:Measured: 83° , Calculated: 70°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.003

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:weak r < v

Chemical Properties of Vanthoffite

Formula:
Na
 
6
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:Na6Mg(SO4)4
Essential elements:Mg, Na, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Mg, Na, O, S

Relationship of Vanthoffite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.AC.08Pyracmonite
(NH
 
4
)
 
3
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
3
7.AC.10Efremovite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Mg
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
7.AC.10Langbeinite
K
 
2
Mg
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
7.AC.10Manganolangbeinite
K
 
2
Mn
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
7.AC.15Yavapaiite
KFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AC.15Eldfellite
NaFe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AC.20Godovikovite
(NH
 
4
)Al(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AC.20Sabieite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AC.25Thenardite
Na
 
2
SO
 
4
7.AC.30Metathenardite
Na
 
2
SO
 
4
7.AC.35Aphthitalite
(K,Na)
 
3
Na(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.3.1Kieserite
MgSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
25.3.2Sanderite
MgSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.3.3Starkeyite
MgSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
25.3.4Pentahydrite
MgSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
25.3.5Hexahydrite
MgSO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
25.3.6Epsomite
MgSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
25.3.7Caminite
Mg
 
7
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
(OH)
 
4
· H
 
2
O
25.3.9Blödite
Na
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
25.3.10Konyaite
Na
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
25.3.11Löweite
Na
 
12
Mg
 
7
(SO
 
4
)
 
13
· 15H
 
2
O
25.3.12Uklonskovite
NaMg(SO
 
4
)F · 2H
 
2
O
25.3.13Langbeinite
K
 
2
Mg
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
25.3.14Leonite
K
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
25.3.15Picromerite
K
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
25.3.16Efremovite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Mg
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
25.3.17Boussingaultite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
25.3.18Pickeringite
MgAl
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O

Other Names for Vanthoffite

Other Languages:
German:Vanthoffit
Russian:Вантгоффит
Simplified Chinese:无水钠镁矾
Spanish:Vanthoffita

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in water, slightly bitter taste.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Vanthoffite

Reference List:

- +
Kubierschky (1902) Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin, Ber.: 21: 404.

Görgey (1909) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 28: 334.

Doelter, C. (1926) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie: 4(2): 93.

Ide (1935) Kali: 29: 83;...Min. Abs. (1936): 6: 351.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 430.

Acta Crystallographica (1964): 17: 1613.

Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva (1973): 102: 192-193.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1986): 174: 5.

Internet Links for Vanthoffite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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  • Vanthoffite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Vanthoffite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Hallein
        • Dürrnberg
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Inn valley
          • Innsbruck
            • Hall
              • Hall valley
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 430, 447; R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Upper Austria
      • Gmunden
        • Bad Ischl
          • Perneck
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    China
     
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
    Germany
     
    • Hesse
      • Werra valley
        • Heringen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Phillippsthal
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Halberstadt
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 430.
      • Stassfurt Potash deposit
        • Stassfurt
    Dana 6:A3:14,43,46; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 430; Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig (1911): 50: 139.
    Iceland
     
    • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
      • Heimaey island
        • Heimaey
    Mitolo, D., Garavelli, A., Pedersen, L., Balić-Žunić, T., Jakobsson, S.P., Vurro, F. (2008): Mineralogy of actually forming sublimates at Eldfell Volcano, Heimaey (Vestmannaeyjar archipelago), Iceland. Plinius, 34, 322.
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
      • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
    Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
    USA
     
    • California
      • Imperial Co.
        • Bertram
          • Bertram siding
    Murowchick, B.L. and Gricius, A. (1965) Vanthoffite in California. Gems and Minerals: 333: 45; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 380; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 267.
    • New Mexico
      • Eddy and Lea Counties
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
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