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Violarite

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Formula:
Fe
2+
 
Ni
3+
2
S
 
4
System:IsometricColour:Violet gray, copper red, ...
Lustre:MetallicHardness:4½ - 5½
Member of:Linnaeite Group > Thiospinel Group
Name:From Latin "violaris", of violets, alluding to the color of the mineral, especially if viewed with a reflected-light microscope.

Classification of Violarite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/D.01-70
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.DA.05

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
D : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 3 :4 and 2:3
A : M:S = 3:4
Dana 8th edition ID:2.10.1.8

2 : SULFIDES
10 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.11.8

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
11 : Sulphides etc. of Ni
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Type Occurrence of Violarite

Type Locality:Vermilion Mine, Denison Township, Sudbury District, Ontario, Canada
Year of Discovery:1924

Physical Properties of Violarite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Violet gray, copper red, light gray, or steel gray
Streak:Black
Hardness (Mohs):4½ - 5½
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect

Crystallography of Violarite

Crystal System:Isometric
Cell Parameters:a = 9.46Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 846.59 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Violarite

Type:Isotropic

Chemical Properties of Violarite

Formula:
Fe
2+
 
Ni
3+
2
S
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Essential elements:Fe, Ni, S
All elements listed in formula:Fe, Ni, S
Common Impurities:Co,Cu

Relationship of Violarite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Polydymite (see here)
Forms a series with Greigite (see here)
Forms a series with Siegenite (see here)
Member of:Linnaeite Group > Thiospinel Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Bornhardtite
Co
2+
 
Co
3+
2
Se
 
4
Cadmoindite
CdIn
 
2
S
 
4
Carrollite
Cu(Co,Ni)
 
2
S
 
4
Cuproiridsite
(Cu,Fe)Ir
 
2
S
 
4
Cuprokalininite
CuCr
 
2
S
 
4
Cuprorhodsite
(Cu,Fe)Rh
 
2
S
 
4
Daubréelite
Fe
2+
 
Cr
3+
2
S
 
4
Ferrorhodsite
(Fe,Cu)(Rh,Ir,Pt)
 
2
S
 
4
Fletcherite
Cu(Ni,Co)
 
2
S
 
4
Florensovite
(Cu,Zn)Cr
 
1.5
Sb
 
0.5
S
 
4
Greigite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
S
 
4
Indite
FeIn
 
2
S
 
4
Kalininite
ZnCr
 
2
S
 
4
Linnaeite
Co
2+
 
Co
3+
2
S
 
4
Malanite
Cu(Pt
3+
 
,Ir
3+
 
)
 
2
S
 
4
Polydymite
Ni
2+
 
Ni
3+
2
S
 
4
Siegenite
CoNi
 
2
S
 
4
-NiCo
 
2
S
 
4
Trüstedtite
Ni
 
3
Se
 
4
Tyrrellite
Cu(Co
3+
 
,Ni
3+
 
)
 
2
Se
 
4
Xingzhongite
(Pb,Cu,Fe)(Ir,Pt,Rh)
 
2
S
 
4
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.DA.05Bornhardtite
Co
2+
 
Co
3+
2
Se
 
4
2.DA.05Carrollite
Cu(Co,Ni)
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Cuproiridsite
(Cu,Fe)Ir
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Cuprorhodsite
(Cu,Fe)Rh
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Daubréelite
Fe
2+
 
Cr
3+
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Fletcherite
Cu(Ni,Co)
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Florensovite
(Cu,Zn)Cr
 
1.5
Sb
 
0.5
S
 
4
2.DA.05Greigite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Indite
FeIn
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Kalininite
ZnCr
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Linnaeite
Co
2+
 
Co
3+
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Malanite
Cu(Pt
3+
 
,Ir
3+
 
)
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Polydymite
Ni
2+
 
Ni
3+
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Siegenite
CoNi
 
2
S
 
4
-NiCo
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Trüstedtite
Ni
 
3
Se
 
4
2.DA.05Tyrrellite
Cu(Co
3+
 
,Ni
3+
 
)
 
2
Se
 
4
2.DA.05Xingzhongite
(Pb,Cu,Fe)(Ir,Pt,Rh)
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Ferrorhodsite
(Fe,Cu)(Rh,Ir,Pt)
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Cadmoindite
CdIn
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.05Cuprokalininite
CuCr
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.10Rhodostannite
Cu
 
2
FeSn
 
3
S
 
8
2.DA.10Toyohaite
Ag
 
2
FeSn
 
3
S
 
8
2.DA.15Brezinaite
Cr
 
3
S
 
4
2.DA.15Heideite
(Fe,Cr)
 
1.15
(Ti,Fe)
 
2
S
 
4
2.DA.20Inaglyite
Cu
 
3
Pb(Ir,Pt)
 
8
S
 
16
2.DA.20Konderite
Cu
 
3
Pb(Rh,Pt,Ir)
 
8
S
 
16
2.DA.25Kingstonite
(Rh,Ir,Pt)
 
3
S
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.11.1Heazlewoodite
Ni
 
3
S
 
2
3.11.2Godlevskite
(Ni,Fe)
 
9
S
 
8
3.11.3Millerite
NiS
3.11.4Polydymite
Ni
2+
 
Ni
3+
2
S
 
4
3.11.5Vaesite
NiS
 
2
3.11.6Shandite
Ni
 
3
Pb
 
2
S
 
2
3.11.7Donharrisite
Ni
 
8
Hg
 
3
S
 
9
3.11.9Pentlandite
(Fe,Ni)
 
9
S
 
8
3.11.10Bravoite
(Fe,Ni)S
 
2
3.11.11Siegenite
CoNi
 
2
S
 
4
-NiCo
 
2
S
 
4
3.11.12Fletcherite
Cu(Ni,Co)
 
2
S
 
4
3.11.13Villamaninite
(Cu,Ni,Co,Fe)S
 
2
3.11.14Mäkinenite
γ-NiSe
3.11.15Sederholmite
beta-NiSe
3.11.16Trüstedtite
Ni
 
3
Se
 
4
3.11.17Wilkmanite
Ni
 
3
Se
 
4
3.11.18Kullerudite
NiSe
 
2
3.11.19Penroseite
(Ni,Co,Cu)Se
 
2
3.11.20Tyrrellite
Cu(Co
3+
 
,Ni
3+
 
)
 
2
Se
 
4
3.11.21Imgreite
NiTe (?)
3.11.22Melonite
NiTe
 
2
3.11.23Kitkaite
NiTeSe
3.11.24Dienerite
3.11.25Orcelite
Ni
 
5-x
As
 
2
3.11.26Maucherite
Ni
 
11
As
 
8
3.11.27Nickeline
NiAs
3.11.28Rammelsbergite
NiAs
 
2
3.11.29Pararammelsbergite
NiAs
 
2
3.11.30Nickelskutterudite
NiAs
 
2-3
3.11.31Oregonite
Ni
 
2
FeAs
 
2
3.11.32Westerveldite
(Fe,Ni,Co)As
3.11.33Langisite
(Co,Ni)As
3.11.34Gersdorffite
NiAsS
3.11.35Jolliffeite
NiAsSe
3.11.36Breithauptite
NiSb
3.11.38Ullmannite
NiSbS
3.11.39Willyamite
(Co,Ni)SbS

Other Names for Violarite

Other Languages:
German:Violarit
Russian:Виоларит
Simplified Chinese:紫硫镍矿
淡红辉镍铁矿
紫硫镍铁矿
Spanish:Violarita
Varieties:
Beyrichite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Violarite

Reference List:

- +
CLARK, F.W. & CATLETT, C. (1889): A platinoferrous nickel ore from Canada, Laspeyres’s (sic) polydymite. American Journal of Science 37, 372-374.

LINDGREN, W. & DAVY, W.M. (1924): Nickel ores from the Key West mine, Nevada. Economic Geology 19, 309-319.

SHORT, M.N. & SHANNON, E.V. (1930): Violarite and other nickel sulphides. American Mineralogist 15, 1-22.

Milton, C. and Axelrod, J. M. (1955): Beyrichite, a discredited species. American Mineralogist, 40, 757-770.

Berry, L.G. and R.M. Thompson (1962) X-ray powder data for the ore minerals. Geological Society of America Mem. 85: 77-78.

Canadian Mineralogist (1969): 6: 629-643.

Misra, K.C. and M.E. Fleet (1974), Chemical composition and stability of violarite: Economic Geology: 69: 391-403.

Dunn, J.G., & V.L. Howes (1996): The oxidation of violarite: Thermochimica Acta: 282/283: 305-316.

Grguric, B.A. (2002), Hypogene violarite of exsolution origin from Mount Keith, Western Australia: field evidence for a stable pentlandite-violarite tie line: Mineralogical Magazine: 66: 313-326.

Tenailleau, C., Pring, A., Tschmann, B., Brugger, J., Grguric, B. and Putnis, A. (2006) Transformation of pentlandite to violarite under mild hydrothermal conditions: American Mineralogist: 91: 706-709.

Internet Links for Violarite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Violarite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Violarite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Violarite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Localities for Violarite

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