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Violarite

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Formula:
Fe2+Ni23+S4
System:
Isometric
Colour:
Violet gray, copper red, ...
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
4½ - 5½
Name:
From Latin "violaris", of violets, alluding to the color of the mineral, especially if viewed with a reflected-light microscope.

Classification of Violarite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
2.DA.05

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
D : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 3 :4 and 2:3
A : M:S = 3:4
2.10.1.8

2 : SULFIDES
10 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
3.11.8

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
11 : Sulphides etc. of Ni
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First Recorded Occurrence of Violarite

Year of Discovery:
1924

Physical Properties of Violarite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Violet gray, copper red, light gray, or steel gray
Streak:
Black
Hardness (Mohs):
4½ - 5½
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect

Crystallography of Violarite

Crystal System:
Isometric
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.46Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 846.59 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Violarite

Type:
Isotropic

Chemical Properties of Violarite

Formula:
Fe2+Ni23+S4
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Co,Cu

Relationship of Violarite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Polydymite (see here)
Forms a series with Greigite (see here)
Forms a series with Siegenite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
BornhardtiteCo2+Co23+Se4
CadmoinditeCdIn2S4
CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
Cuproiridsite(Cu,Fe)Ir2S4
CuprokalininiteCuCr2S4
Cuprorhodsite(Cu,Fe)Rh2S4
DaubréeliteFe2+Cr23+S4
Ferrorhodsite(Fe,Cu)(Rh,Ir,Pt)2S4
FletcheriteCu(Ni,Co)2S4
Florensovite(Cu,Zn)Cr1.5Sb0.5S4
GreigiteFe2+Fe23+S4
InditeFeIn2S4
KalininiteZnCr2S4
LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
MalaniteCu(Pt3+,Ir3+)2S4
PolydymiteNi2+Ni23+S4
SiegeniteCoNi2S4
TrüstedtiteNi3Se4
TyrrelliteCu(Co3+,Ni3+)2Se4
Xingzhongite(Pb,Cu,Fe)(Ir,Pt,Rh)2S4
2.DA.05BornhardtiteCo2+Co23+Se4
2.DA.05CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
2.DA.05Cuproiridsite(Cu,Fe)Ir2S4
2.DA.05Cuprorhodsite(Cu,Fe)Rh2S4
2.DA.05DaubréeliteFe2+Cr23+S4
2.DA.05FletcheriteCu(Ni,Co)2S4
2.DA.05Florensovite(Cu,Zn)Cr1.5Sb0.5S4
2.DA.05GreigiteFe2+Fe23+S4
2.DA.05InditeFeIn2S4
2.DA.05KalininiteZnCr2S4
2.DA.05LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
2.DA.05MalaniteCu(Pt3+,Ir3+)2S4
2.DA.05PolydymiteNi2+Ni23+S4
2.DA.05SiegeniteCoNi2S4
2.DA.05TrüstedtiteNi3Se4
2.DA.05TyrrelliteCu(Co3+,Ni3+)2Se4
2.DA.05Xingzhongite(Pb,Cu,Fe)(Ir,Pt,Rh)2S4
2.DA.05Ferrorhodsite(Fe,Cu)(Rh,Ir,Pt)2S4
2.DA.05CadmoinditeCdIn2S4
2.DA.05CuprokalininiteCuCr2S4
2.DA.10RhodostanniteCu2FeSn3S8
2.DA.10ToyohaiteAg2FeSn3S8
2.DA.15BrezinaiteCr3S4
2.DA.15Heideite(Fe,Cr)1.15(Ti,Fe)2S4
2.DA.20InaglyiteCu3Pb(Ir,Pt)8S16
2.DA.20KonderiteCu3Pb(Rh,Pt,Ir)8S16
2.DA.25Kingstonite(Rh,Ir,Pt)3S4
3.11.1HeazlewooditeNi3S2
3.11.2Godlevskite(Ni,Fe)9S8
3.11.3MilleriteNiS
3.11.4PolydymiteNi2+Ni23+S4
3.11.5VaesiteNiS2
3.11.6ShanditeNi3Pb2S2
3.11.7DonharrisiteNi8Hg3S9
3.11.9Pentlandite(Fe,Ni)9S8
3.11.10Bravoite(Fe,Ni)S2
3.11.11SiegeniteCoNi2S4
3.11.12FletcheriteCu(Ni,Co)2S4
3.11.13Villamaninite(Cu,Ni,Co,Fe)S2
3.11.14Mäkineniteγ-NiSe
3.11.15Sederholmitebeta-NiSe
3.11.16TrüstedtiteNi3Se4
3.11.17WilkmaniteNi3Se4
3.11.18KulleruditeNiSe2
3.11.19Penroseite(Ni,Co,Cu)Se2
3.11.20TyrrelliteCu(Co3+,Ni3+)2Se4
3.11.21ImgreiteNiTe (?)
3.11.22MeloniteNiTe2
3.11.23KitkaiteNiTeSe
3.11.24Dienerite
3.11.25OrceliteNi5-xAs2, x ~ 0.25
3.11.26MaucheriteNi11As8
3.11.27NickelineNiAs
3.11.28RammelsbergiteNiAs2
3.11.29PararammelsbergiteNiAs2
3.11.30NickelskutteruditeNiAs3-x
3.11.31OregoniteNi2FeAs2
3.11.32Westerveldite(Fe,Ni,Co)As
3.11.33Langisite(Co,Ni)As
3.11.34GersdorffiteNiAsS
3.11.35JolliffeiteNiAsSe
3.11.36BreithauptiteNiSb
3.11.38UllmanniteNiSbS
3.11.39Willyamite(Co,Ni)SbS

Other Names for Violarite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Violarite

Reference List:
CLARK, F.W. & CATLETT, C. (1889): A platinoferrous nickel ore from Canada, Laspeyres’s (sic) polydymite. American Journal of Science 37, 372-374.

LINDGREN, W. & DAVY, W.M. (1924): Nickel ores from the Key West mine, Nevada. Economic Geology 19, 309-319.

SHORT, M.N. & SHANNON, E.V. (1930): Violarite and other nickel sulphides. American Mineralogist 15, 1-22.

Milton, C. and Axelrod, J. M. (1955): Beyrichite, a discredited species. American Mineralogist, 40, 757-770.

Berry, L.G. and R.M. Thompson (1962) X-ray powder data for the ore minerals. Geological Society of America Mem. 85: 77-78.

Canadian Mineralogist (1969): 6: 629-643.

Misra, K.C. and M.E. Fleet (1974), Chemical composition and stability of violarite: Economic Geology: 69: 391-403.

Dunn, J.G., & V.L. Howes (1996): The oxidation of violarite: Thermochimica Acta: 282/283: 305-316.

Grguric, B.A. (2002), Hypogene violarite of exsolution origin from Mount Keith, Western Australia: field evidence for a stable pentlandite-violarite tie line: Mineralogical Magazine: 66: 313-326.

Tenailleau, C., Pring, A., Tschmann, B., Brugger, J., Grguric, B. and Putnis, A. (2006) Transformation of pentlandite to violarite under mild hydrothermal conditions: American Mineralogist: 91: 706-709.

Internet Links for Violarite

Localities for Violarite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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