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Vivianite

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Formula:
Fe
2+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless and ...
Lustre:Vitreous, Pearly, DullHardness:1½ - 2
Member of:Vivianite Group
Name:Named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1817 after John Henry Vivian (August 9, 1785 - February 10, 1855), an English (Welsh-Cornish) politician, mine owner, and mineralogist living in Truro, Cornwall and discoverer of the mineral.
(Note: Many references erroneously state that the mineral was named for J. G. Vivian, but the middle initial seems to have been a typographical error.)
Dimorph of:Symplesite Group


Vivianite Group

Usually found as deep blue to deep bluish green prismatic to flattened crystals, most crystals rather small to microscopic, larger ones rather rare.

When fresh the mineral may be colourless, or nearly so, and, once exposed, will oxidize with the Fe2+ converting to Fe3+ with a concurrent darkening to dark blue or blue-green - See Alfredo Petrov's article on Vivianite colour change.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Vivianite. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Vivianite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/C.13-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.CE.40

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
E : With only medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O about 1:2.5
Dana 7th edition ID:40.3.6.1
Dana 8th edition ID:40.3.6.1

40 : HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
3 : A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.13.11

19 : Phosphates
13 : Phosphates of Fe alone
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Type Occurrence of Vivianite

Type Locality:Wheal Kind (Wheal Kine), West Wheal Kitty group, St Agnes, St Agnes District, Cornwall, England, UK
Year of Discovery:1817

Occurrences of Vivianite

Geological Setting:A secondary mineral found in a number of geologic environments: The oxidation zone of metal ore deposits, particularly associated with gossan; in granite pegmatites containing phosphate minerals; and in clays and glauconitic sediments, and in recent alluvial deposits replacing organic material, peat, lignite, bog iron ores and forest soils.

Physical Properties of Vivianite

Lustre:Vitreous, Pearly, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Comment:Pearly on cleavage {010}, dull when massive.
Colour:Colourless and transparent when fresh, quickly turning pale to deep blue, greenish-blue or bluish-green.
Streak:Colourless to bluish white, quickly changing to dark blue or brown
Hardness (Mohs):1½ - 2
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Sectile
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {010}, in traces on {106} and {100}.
Fracture:Fibrous
Translation gliding:T(010) t[001]
Comment:Fibrous nearly perpendicular to [001]; also flexible in thin {010} laminae.
Density (measured):2.67 - 2.69 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.696 g/cm3

Crystallography of Vivianite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/m
Space Group Setting:C2/m
Cell Parameters:a = 10.086Å, b = 13.441Å, c = 4.703Å
β = 104.27°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.75 : 1 : 0.35
Unit Cell Volume:V 617.89 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals typically prismatic parallel to [001], also flattened {010}, more rarely {100} and equant; often rounded into blade-like or lanceolate shapes by vicinal development; found in stellate clusters, as reniform or globular aggregates, tabular masses or concretions, crusts with fibrous to bladed structure, and earthy to pulverent.
Twinning:Lamellar twinning on {010}, corresponding to approx. (304).
Crystal Atlas:
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Vivianite no.22 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Vivianite no.27 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
7.93(10)
6.73(100)
4.90(10)
4.08(10)
3.21(20)
2.99(10)
2.96(10)
2.73(10)
Comments:Data given are for synthetic material.

Optical Data of Vivianite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.579 - 1.616 nβ = 1.602 - 1.656 nγ = 1.629 - 1.675
2V:Measured: 63° to 83.5°, Calculated: 78° to 88°
Birefringence:0.050
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.050 - 0.059

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:r < v weak
Optical Extinction:X=b, Z^c = 28.5°
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:X= blue, deep blue, indigo blue
Y= pale yellowish green, pale bluish green, green-yellow
Z= pale yellowish green, pale yellowish green, olive-yellow.
Comments:The refractive indices increase with increasing oxidation, the birefringence decreases, and the pleochroism on {010} becomes stronger.

Chemical Properties of Vivianite

Formula:
Fe
2+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Fe2+3(PO4)2·8H2O
Essential elements:Fe, H, O, P
All elements listed in formula:Fe, H, O, P
Common Impurities:Mn,Mg,Ca

Relationship of Vivianite to other Species

Member of:Vivianite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Annabergite
Ni
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Arupite
Ni
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Babánekite
Cu
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Barićite
(Mg,Fe)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Erythrite
Co
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Hörnesite
Mg
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Köttigite
Zn
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Manganohörnesite
(Mn,Mg)
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Pakhomovskyite
Co
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Parasymplesite
Fe
2+
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Common Associates:
SideriteSantaclaraitePyrrhotitePyriteMetavivianite
LudlamiteLimonite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.CE.05Chudobaite
(Mg,Zn)
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.CE.05Geigerite
Mn
2+
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.CE.10Newberyite
Mg(HPO
 
4
) · 3H
 
2
O
8.CE.15Brassite
Mg(HAsO
 
4
) · 4H
 
2
O
8.CE.20Phosphorrösslerite
Mg(HPO
 
4
) · 7H
 
2
O
8.CE.20Rösslerite
Mg(HAsO
 
4
) · 7H
 
2
O
8.CE.25Metaswitzerite
Mn
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CE.25Switzerite
(Mn,Fe)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
8.CE.30Lindackerite
CuCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8-9H
 
2
O
8.CE.30Ondrušite
CaCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.CE.30Veselovskýite
ZnCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 9H
 
2
O
8.CE.30Pradetite
CoCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 9H
 
2
O
8.CE.30Klajite
MnCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 9-10H
 
2
O
8.CE.35Bobierrite
Mg
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Annabergite
Ni
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Arupite
Ni
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Barićite
(Mg,Fe)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Erythrite
Co
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Ferrisymplesite
Fe
3+
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
3
· 5H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Hörnesite
Mg
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Köttigite
Zn
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Manganohörnesite
(Mn,Mg)
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Parasymplesite
Fe
2+
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Pakhomovskyite
Co
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.45Symplesite
Fe
2+
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.50Cattiite
Mg
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 22H
 
2
O
8.CE.55Koninckite
Fe
3+
 
PO
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
8.CE.60Kaňkite
FeAsO
 
4
· 3.5H
 
2
O
8.CE.65Steigerite
Al(VO
 
4
) · 3H
 
2
O
8.CE.70Metaschoderite
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(VO
 
4
) · 6H
 
2
O
8.CE.70Schoderite
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(VO
 
4
) · 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.75Malhmoodite
FeZr(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CE.75Zigrasite
MgZr(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CE.75Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Zigrasite)
CaZr[PO
 
4
]
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CE.80Santabarbaraite
Fe
3+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
3
· 5H
 
2
O
8.CE.85Metaköttigite
(Zn,Fe,Fe)
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8(H
 
2
O,OH)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.13.1Barbosalite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
19.13.2Strengite
FePO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
19.13.3Phosphosiderite
FePO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
19.13.4Dufrénite
Ca
 
0.5
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
19.13.5Giniite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
5
· 2H
 
2
O
19.13.6Whitmoreite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.13.7Tinticite
Fe
3+
5.34
(PO
 
4
)
 
3.62
(VO
 
4
)
 
0.38
(OH)
 
4
· 6.7H
 
2
O
19.13.8Ferristrunzite
Fe
3+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
3
· 5H
 
2
O
19.13.9Ferrostrunzite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
19.13.10Beraunite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
5
· 6H
 
2
O
19.13.12Metavivianite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
40.3.6.4Annabergite
Ni
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O

Other Names for Vivianite

Synonyms:
A-MatrixAngelarditeAnglarite (of Berthier)Anglarite (of Kobell)Blue Iron Earth
Blue OcherEarthy Phosphate of IronGlaucosideriteMulliciteNative Prussian Blue
ParavivianitePhosphate of Iron
Other Languages:
Catalan:Vivianita
Czech:Vivianit
Dutch:Vivianiet
French:Bleu de Prusse natif
Fer azuré
Fer phosphaté
Ocre martiale bleue
German:Vivianit
Blaueisenerde
Eisenblau
Eisen-Phyllit
Glaucosiderit
Glaukosiderit
Mullicit
Mullinit
Natürliches Berlinblau
Phosphorsaures Eisen
Hungarian:Vivianit
Italian:Vivianite
Japanese:藍鉄鉱
Latin:Cæruleum Berolinense nativum
Calx Martis phlogisto juncta
Romanian:Vivianit
Russian:Вивианит
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Вивијанит
Simplified Chinese:蓝铁矿
Spanish:Glaucosiderita
Mullicita
Vivianita
Swedish:Bloa Järnjord
Naturligit Berlinerblätt
Ukrainian:Вівіаніт

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not Fluorescent.
Other Information:Readily soluble in acids. Melting point = 1114°. Darkens in colour in H2O2.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements from:
Blackbird Mine,..., Lemhi Co., Idaho, USAWashing in common dish soap may halt matrix decomposition.
Vivianite locality, Richmond, Virginia, USAVivianite is susceptible to dehydration of separation along cleavage planes
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Vivianite

Reference List:

- +
Springsfeld, G.C. (1751) De Terra quadam cærulea, in fodina, prope Eccardsbergam in Thuringia, reperta.- Acta Physico-Medica Academiæ Caesareæ Leopoldino-Carolinæ Naturæ Curiosorum exhibentia Ephemerides, sive, Observationes Historias et Experimenta a Celeberrimis Germaniæ et Exterarum Regionum Viris Habita et Communicata, Singulari Studio Collecta, Vol. X, p. 76-90 (from Eckartsberga near Naumburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, as Terra cærulea, with description and chemical investigation, identification as an iron mineral)

Cronstedt A. (1758) Mineralogie; eller Mineral-Rikets Upstallning. 12mo, Stockholm: 182 (as Bloa Järnjord, Naturligit Berlinerblätt, & Calx Martis phlogisto juncta).

Born, I. von (1772) Lythophylacium Bornianum; Index fossiliumquae colligit, etc., Prague. part 1: 136 (as Cæruleum Berolinense nativum).

de Lisle, R. (1783) Cristallographie, ou description des formes propres à tous les corps du regne minéral. 4 volumes, Paris: 3: 295 (as Ocre martiale bleue & Bleu de Prusse natif).

Klaproth M.H. (1784) Crell’s Chemical Journal, London: 1: 390 (as Natürliches Berlinblau & Phosphorsaurer Eisen).

Klaproth, M.H. (1807) Chemische Untersuchung der Blau-Eisenerde von Eckartsberg.- Beiträge zur Chemischen Kenntnis der Mineralkörper, 4. Band, p. 120-122 (first quantitative chemical analysis)

Werner, A.G. (1817) Letztes Mineral-System. Freiberg and Vienna. A catalogue with notes: 41 (as Vivianit).

Hoffmann, C.A. S. (1818) Handbuch der Mineralogie volume 4B: 146 (as Vivianit).

Breithaupt, August (1823) Vollständige Characteristik etc.. 1st. ed.: 26 (as Eisen-Phyllit).

Glocker, E.F. (1831) Handbuch der Mineralogie, Nürnberg: 857 (as Glaukosiderit).

Thomson, Thomas (1836) Outlines of Mineralogy, Geology, and Mineral Analysis. 2 volumes, London: 1: 452 (as Mullicite).

Berthier (1837) Annales des mines: 12: 303 (as Anglarite).

Fisher (1850) American Journal of Science: 9: 84.

vom Rath (1869) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 136: 405.

Mügge (1884) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie: I: 53.

Goldschmidt, V. (1891) Index der Krystallformen der Mineralien. 3 volumes: vol. 3: 273.

Dana, Edward S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 814.

Kovář (1898) Böhm. Ak., Abh., no. 9.

Mügge (1898) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie: I: 71.

Gaubert (1904) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 27: 212.

Popoff (1906) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 112 (as Paravivianite).

Popoff (1907) Bull. Ac. Sc. St. Petersburg: 1: 127 (as Paravivianite).

Rosický (1908) Böhm. A.,Abhandlung, no. 28: 17.

Lacroix, Alfred (1910) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes: vol. 4: 522.

Buttgenbach (1913) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Mémoires: 40: 3.

Lincio (1914) Heidelberg Ak. Wiss., Math.-Nat. Kl., Abteil A, Abhandlung: 15.

Petrow (1914) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Beil.-Bd.: 37: 457.

Watson and Gooch (1918) Journal of the Washington Academy of Science: 8: 82 (Gooch analysis).

Kuhara (1918) Memoires of the College Eng. Kyoto: 2: 71.

Watson (1918) American Mineralogist: 3: 159.

Ulrich (1922) Rozpr. České Ak.: 31:, no. 10.

Goldschmidt, Victor (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text. Heidelberg, vol. 9: 57.

Gordon, Samuel (1924) Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia: 76: 335.

Ulrich (1925) Rozpr. České Ak.: 33:, no. 33.

Ulrich (1926) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 64: 143.

Hintze, Carl (1933) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 1235.

Larsen, Esper S. and Berman, Harry (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 110.

Pelíšek (1935) Příroda: 28: 279.

Takané and Ômori (1936) Journal of the Japanese Association of Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic Geology: 16: 234.

Yamaguti (1936) Proceedings of the Physico-Math. Society Japan: 18[3]: 372.

Barth, Tomas (1937) American Mineralogist: 22: 325.

Wolfe, Caleb Wroe (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 738.

Zieleniewski (1945) Arch. Min. Soc. Warsaw: 15: 51.

Palache, Charles, Berman, Harry, & Frondel, Clifford (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 742-746.

Acta Crystallographica 3: 1-6.

Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie (1980) 103: 135.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig, and Vandall T. King (1997) Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 793.

Anthony, John W., Bideaux, Richard A., Bladh, Kenneth W., and Nichols, Monte C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 632.

Internet Links for Vivianite

Search Engines:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Vivianite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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    Localities for Vivianite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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