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Afwillite

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Formula:
Ca
 
3
(HSiO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless, white
Lustre:VitreousHardness:3 - 4
Name:Named in 1925 by John Parry and Frederick Eugene Wright in honor of Alpheus Fuller Williams [June 21, 1874 Oakland Alameda County California, USA - January 6, 1953 Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa] of the De Beers Consolidated Mines of South Africa.
This page provides mineralogical data about Afwillite.

Classification of Afwillite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/B.22-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.AG.75

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
G : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in > [6] +- [6] coordination
Dana 8th edition ID:52.4.7.1

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.5.11

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
5 : Silicates of Ca
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Type Occurrence of Afwillite

Type Locality:Dutoitspan Mine, Kimberley, Francis Baard District, Northern Cape Province, South Africa
Year of Discovery:1925

Occurrences of Afwillite

Geological Setting:Contact metamorphism of limestones.

Physical Properties of Afwillite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colourless, white
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):3 - 4
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {101}, good on {100}
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.630 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.643(5) g/cm3

Crystallography of Afwillite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):m - Domatic
Space Group:Bb {B1 1b} {Cc} {C1c1}
Cell Parameters:a = 16.278(1) Å, b = 5.6321(4) Å, c = 13.236(1) Å
β = 134.9°
Ratio:a:b:c = 2.89 : 1 : 2.35
Unit Cell Volume:V 859.55 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals are prismatic, tabular, radial fibrous spherulites, massive

Optical Data of Afwillite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.617 nβ = 1.620 nγ = 1.634
2V:Measured: 50° to 56°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.017

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:r < v

Chemical Properties of Afwillite

Formula:
Ca
 
3
(HSiO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca3(HSiO4)2·2H2O
Essential elements:Ca, H, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Ca, H, O, Si
Common Impurities:Al,Fe,Mg,F

Relationship of Afwillite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.AG.05Abswurmbachite
CuMn
3+
6
(SiO
 
4
)O
 
8
9.AG.05Braunite
Mn
2+
 
Mn
3+
6
(SiO
 
4
)O
 
8
9.AG.05Neltnerite
CaMn
3+
6
(SiO
 
4
)O
 
8
9.AG.05Braunite-II
CaMn
3+
14
(SiO
 
4
)O
 
20
9.AG.10Långbanite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
4
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
9
Sb
5+
 
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
16
9.AG.15Malayaite
CaSn(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AG.15Titanite
CaTi(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AG.15Vanadomalayaite
CaV
4+
 
(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AG.15Natrotitanite
(Na
 
0.5
Y
 
0.5
)Ti(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AG.20Cerite-(Ce)
(Ce,Ca)
 
9
(Mg,Fe)(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(HSiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
9.AG.20Cerite-(La)
(La,Ce,Ca)
 
9
(Fe,Ca,Mg)(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(HSiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
9.AG.20Aluminocerite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Ca)
 
9
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(HSiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
9.AG.25Trimounsite-(Y)
Y
 
2
Ti
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
 
5
9.AG.25Yftisite-(Y)
(Y,Dy,Er)
 
4
(Ti,Sn)(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
O(F,OH)
 
6
9.AG.30Sitinakite
KNa
 
2
Ti
 
4
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
5
(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
9.AG.35Kittatinnyite
Ca
 
2
Mn
 
2
Mn(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· 9H
 
2
O
9.AG.40aNatisite
Na
 
2
Ti(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AG.40bParanatisite
Na
 
2
Ti(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AG.45Törnebohmite-(Ce)
(Ce,La)
 
2
Al(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
9.AG.45Törnebohmite-(La)
(La,Ce)
 
2
Al(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
9.AG.50Kuliokite-(Y)
Y
 
4
Al(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
F
 
5
9.AG.55Chantalite
CaAl
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
9.AG.60Mozartite
CaMn
3+
 
(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
9.AG.60Vuagnatite
CaAl(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
9.AG.65Hatrurite
Ca
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AG.70Jasmundite
Ca
 
11
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
2
S
9.AG.80Bultfonteinite
Ca
 
2
(HSiO
 
4
)F · H
 
2
O
9.AG.85Zoltaiite
BaV
4+
2
V
3+
12
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
19
9.AG.90Tranquillityite
(Fe
2+
 
,Ca)
 
8
(Zr,Y)
 
2
Ti
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.5.1Wollastonite
CaSiO
 
3
14.5.2Wollastonite-7T
14.5.3Wollastonite-2M
CaSiO
 
3
14.5.4Rankinite
Ca
 
3
Si
 
2
O
 
7
14.5.5Kilchoanite
Ca
 
6
(SiO
 
4
)(Si
 
3
O
 
10
)
14.5.6Larnite
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
14.5.7Bredigite
Ca
 
7
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
14.5.8Hatrurite
Ca
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)O
14.5.9Rosenhahnite
HCa
 
3
[Si
 
3
O
 
9
(OH)]
14.5.10Dellaite
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.12Xonotlite
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.13Foshagite
Ca
 
4
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.14Hillebrandite
Ca
 
2
(SiO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.15Jaffeite
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(OH)
 
6
14.5.16Suolunite
Ca
 
2
(H
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
7
) · H
 
2
O
14.5.17Killalaite
Ca
 
6.4
(H
 
0.6
Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
14.5.18Okenite
CaSi
 
2
O
 
5
· 2H
 
2
O
14.5.19Riversideite
Ca
 
5
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
14.5.20Trabzonite
Ca
 
4
(Si
 
3
O
 
10
) · 2H
 
2
O
14.5.21Gyrolite
NaCa
 
16
Si
 
23
AlO
 
60
(OH)
 
8
· 14H
 
2
O
14.5.22Foshallasite
Ca
 
3
[Si
 
2
O
 
7
] · 3H
 
2
O(?)
14.5.23Tobermorite
Ca
 
4+x
(H
 
2-2x
Si
 
6
O
 
17
) · 5H
 
2
O
14.5.24Clinotobermorite
Ca
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
) · 5H
 
2
O
14.5.25Nekoite
Ca
 
3
Si
 
6
O
 
15
·7H
 
2
O
14.5.26Plombièrite
Ca
 
5
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
14.5.27Jennite
Ca
 
9
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 8H
 
2
O

Other Names for Afwillite

Other Languages:
Dutch:Afwilliet
German:Afwillit
Italian:Afwillite
Latvian:Afvilīts
Russian:Афвиллит
Spanish:Afwillita

Other Information

Electrical:Piezoelectric
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Afwillite

Reference List:

- +
Mineralogical Magazine (1925) 20: 277-285.

American Mineralogist: 10: 447.

Acta Crystallographica: B32: 475-480.

Internet Links for Afwillite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Afwillite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Afwillite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Styria
      • Bad Radkersburg
        • Klöch
    Walter Trattner collection
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Puy-de-Dôme
        • Clermont-Ferrand
          • Ceyrat
    Grünhagen H and Mergoil J (1963) Découverte d'hydrocalumite et afwillite associées à l'ettringite dans les porcélanites de Boisséjour près Ceyrat (Puy de Dôme). Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie 86: 149-157.
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Franconia
        • Maroldsweisach
    Pöllmann, H. (1991): Die Afwillit-Portlandit Paragenese im Basalt des Zeilbergs bei Maroldsweisach/Unterfranken. Aufschluss, 42, 257-266
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Daun
          • Hinterweiler
    Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
          • Üdersdorf
    Schüller, W., Betz, V., Die Mineralien vom Emmelberg, Lapis 12/1986
        • Mayen
          • Ettringen
            • Bellerberg volcano
    Hentschel, G. (1987): Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise (München), 2. Auflage
              • Southern lava flow
                • Mayener Feld
    Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise (München), 1983
        • Mendig
          • Bell
    Blass, G., Graf, HW., Kolitsch, U., Sebold, D., Über neue Mineralfunde aus der Vulkaneifel, MW 6/2005
    Ireland
     
    • Co. Sligo
      • Killala Bay
    Min.Mag.(1974) 39, 544-548
    Israel
     
    • Negev
    Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
    • Tel Aviv District
    GROSS, S., MAZOR, E., SASS, E., & ZAK., I. (1967). The mottled zone complex of Ayalon (Israel). Israel Bull. Earth Sciences, 16, 84-96.
    Italy
     
    • Latium
      • Rome Province
    Caponera, I., Fiori, S., Pucci, R., & Signoretti, E. (2007). I minerali dei Colli Albani. Un aggiornamento sugli ultimi dieci anni di ricerche. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 31 (2), 74-91.
        • Rome
          • Valleranello
    Luigi Matei photo
      • Viterbo Province
        • Montalto di Castro
          • Pietra Massa Locality
    Passaglia, E. & Turconi, B. (1982): Silicati ed altri minerali di Montalto di Castro - VT. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1982, 97-110.
    • Umbria
      • Perugia Province
        • Spoleto
    Stoppa F., Scordari F., Mesto E., Sharygin V.V. and Bortolozzi G. - Calcium-aluminium-silicate-hydrate "cement" phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy (2010). Centr.Eur.J.Geosci. 2 (2), pag. 175-187 .
    • Veneto
      • Vicenza Province
        • Cornedo Vicentino
          • Spagnago
    Lapis, 15 (12), 27-32+50.; Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chugoku Region
        • Okayama Prefecture
          • Ihara City (Ibara City)
            • Higashi-Mihara
    KUSACHI, I., HENM, C., & HENMI, K. (1989). Afwillite and jennite from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Mineralogical Journal, 14, 279-292.
          • Takahashi City
            • Bitchu-cho-fuka (Bicchu-cho-fuka)
    KUSACHI, I., HENM, C., & HENMI, K. (1989). Afwillite and jennite from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Mineralogical Journal, 14, 279-292. ; Mineralogical Journal Vol. 14 (1989) , No. 7 pp 279-292
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
      • Northland
        • Kaipara
          • Tokatoka
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
    Palestine
     
    • West Bank
      • Hatrurim formation
    Mikhail N. Murashko analytical data
    Romania
     
    • Caraş-Severin Co.
      • Banat Mts
    Marincea, S., Dumitraş. D-G., Ghinet, C, Fransolet, A.-M., Hatert, F. & Rondeaux, M. (2011): Gehlenite from three occurrences of high-temperature skarns, Romania: new mineralogical data. Canadian Mineralogist. 49, 1001-1014
    • Harghita Co.
      • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
        • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
    Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk Kray; Krasnoyarskii Krai)
        • Evenkia (Evenkiyskiy Autonomous okrug)
          • Nizhnyaya Tunguska River Basin (Lower Tunguska River)
    No reference listed
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
          • Dovyren Highlands
    American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 323–333, 2009
    • Northern Caucasus Region
      • Kabardino-Balkarian Republic
        • Verkhnechegemskaya caldera (Verkhni Chegem caldera; Upper Chegem caldera)
    A. E. Zadov data; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1361–1370, 2009
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Francis Baard District
        • Kimberley
    [Min.Mag.(1925) 20, 277-285; Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index, 3rd Edition"]
      • Kalahari manganese field
        • Hotazel
    Minerals of South Africa
        • Kuruman
          • N'Chwaning Mines
    [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
    Minerals of South Africa
    UK
     
    • Northern Ireland
      • Co. Antrim
        • Glenoe
    Nawaz, R. (1977). A second occurrence of killalaite. Mineralogical Magazine, 41, 546-548.
        • Larne
    TILLEY, C. E. (1930). An association of afwillite and spurrite. Geological Magazine, 67, 168-169; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 590; Strübel, Zimmer: "Lexikon der Minerale", 2nd Ed., 1991.; Mineralogical Magazine 1942 26 : 190-196
    USA
     
    • California
      • Riverside Co.
        • Crestmore
          • Crestmore quarries
            • Sky Blue Hill
    Switzer, G., & Bailey, E. H. (1953), Afwillite from Crestmore, California. American Mineralogist: 38: 629-633; Murdoch, Joseph (1954b), Scawtite and bultfonteinite from Crestmore, California: (abstract): Geological Society of America Bulletin: 65: 1347-1348.
    • Missouri
      • Washington Co.
        • Sullivan
    R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
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