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Vesuvianite

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Formula:
(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
System:
Tetragonal
Colour:
Brown, yellow, ...
Hardness:
Name:
Originally named "hyacinthus dictus octodecahedricus" by Moritz Anton Cappeler in 1723.
Renamed "hyacinte du Vesuve" by Jean-Baptiste Louis Romé de L'Isle in 1772.
This was possibly the inspiration for Abraham Gottlob Werner to rename the species "vesuvian" in 1795, after its discovery locality, Mount Vesuvius, Campania, Italy.
In 1799, Rene Just Haüy introduced the name "idocrase", which was formerly a popular name.
Hydroxyl analogue of Fluorvesuvianite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Vesuvianite.

Classification of Vesuvianite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.BG.35

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
B : Sorosilicates
G : Sorosilicates with mixed SiO4 and Si2O7 groups; cations in octahedral [6] and greater coordination
58.2.4.1

58 : SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
2 : Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
16.23.3

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
23 : Aluminosilicates of Fe, Ca, and Mg
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Type Occurrence of Vesuvianite

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany, no. 23278

Occurrences of Vesuvianite

Geological Setting:
Skarns or regional metamorphism of limestones.

Physical Properties of Vesuvianite

Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Brown, yellow, brown-black, light green, emerald green, white, red, purple, violet, blue-green to blue
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
Poor on {110}
Very poor on {100} {001}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
3.32 - 3.43 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.42 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Vesuvianite

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.52Å, c = 11.82Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.762
Unit Cell Volume:
V 2,847.09 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Short pyramidal to long prismatic, columnar, granular, massive.
Twinning:
Twinned domains observed at very fine scale.

Crystallographic forms of Vesuvianite

Crystal Atlas:
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Vesuvianite no.57 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Vesuvianite no.89 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Vesuvianite

Type:
Uniaxial (+/-)
RI values:
nω = 1.703 - 1.752 nε = 1.700 - 1.746
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.003 - 0.006
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
Strong
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
O= colourless to yellowish
E= yellowish, greenish, brownish
Comments:
May also be biaxial. Sectored.

Chemical Properties of Vesuvianite

Formula:
(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Common Impurities:
Fe,Be,B,F,Cu,Li,Na,K,Mn,Ti,Cr,Zn,H2O

Relationship of Vesuvianite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Cyprine (of Panikorovskii et al)Ca19Cu2+(Al10Mg2)Si18O68(OH)10
FluorvesuvianiteCa19(Al,Mg,Fe2+)13(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(F,OH)9
MagnesiovesuvianiteCa19Mg(Al10Mg2)(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH)10
ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9
WiluiteCa19(Al,Mg)13(B,☐,Al)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(O,OH)10
Group Members:
9.BG.05bAllanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bAllanite-(La){CaLa}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bAllanite-(Y){CaY}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05aClinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bDissakisite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Mg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Dollaseite-(Ce){CaCe}{MgAlMg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)F
9.BG.05aEpidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Hancockite{CaPb}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Khristovite-(Ce){CaCe}{MgAlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)F
9.BG.05Mukhinite{Ca2}{Al2V3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bManganiandrosite-(La){Mn2+La}{Mn3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Tawmawite{Ca2}{(Al,Fe3+,Cr)3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Tweddillite{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bFerriallanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Fe3+AlFe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Niigataite{CaSr}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Manganiandrosite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{Mn3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Dissakisite-(La){CaLa}{Al2Mg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Vanadoandrosite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{V3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Uedaite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Epidote-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bAllanite-(Nd){CaNd}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bFerriallanite-(La){CaLa}{Fe3+AlFe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bÅskagenite-(Nd){Mn2+Nd}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O2
9.BG.10Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.15MacfalliteCa2Mn33+(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)3
9.BG.15SursassiteMn22+Al3(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)3
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Fe2+)Ca2Fe2+Fe23+(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.20OkhotskiteCa2(Mn,Mg)(Mn3+,Al,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Fe2+)Ca2Fe2+Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Fe3+)Ca2(Fe3+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Mn2+)Ca2Mn2+Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.20ShuiskiteCa2MgCr2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · 2H2O
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Fe3+)Ca2Fe3+Fe23+(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH) · H2O
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Al)Ca2Al3(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
9.BG.20PoppiiteCa2(V3+,Fe3+,Mg)(V3+,Al)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Mg)Ca2MgFe23+(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.25GanomalitePb9Ca5Mn(Si2O7)4(SiO4)O
9.BG.30RustumiteCa10(Si2O7)2(SiO4)(OH)2Cl2
9.BG.35WiluiteCa19(Al,Mg)13(B,☐,Al)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(O,OH)10
9.BG.35ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9
9.BG.35FluorvesuvianiteCa19(Al,Mg,Fe2+)13(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(F,OH)9
9.BG.40Vyuntspakhkite-(Y)(Y,Yb)4Al2.5-1.5(Si,Al)1.5-2.5(SiO4)4O(OH)7
9.BG.45DellaiteCa6(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2
9.BG.50Gatelite-(Ce)CaCe3Al2(Al,Mg)(Mg,Fe2+,Al)(Si2O7)(SiO4)3(O,F)(OH,O)2
9.BG.55Västmanlandite-(Ce)Ca(Ce,La)3Al2Mg2(Si2O7)(SiO4)3(OH)2F
16.23.1Augite(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
16.23.2DorriteCa4(Mg3Fe93+)O4(Si3Al8Fe3+O36)
16.23.5Ferro-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
16.23.6Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
16.23.7Aerinite(Ca5.1Na0.5)(Fe3+,Al,Fe2+,Mg)4(Al,Mg)6[HSi12O36(OH)12][(CO3)1.2(H2O)12]

Other Names for Vesuvianite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Vesuvianite

Reference List:
Werner, A.G. (1795) Über Vesuvian.

Klaproth, M.H. (1797) Untersuchung des Vesuvians, Vesuvian vom Vesuv, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Zweiter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 27-32.

Vogel, J.H. (1888) Über die chemische Zusammensetzung des Vesuvians. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 17: 215 (in German).

Warren, B.E., Modell, D.I. (1931) The structure of vesuvianite Ca10Al4(Mg,Fe)2Si9O34(OH)4. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 78: 422-432.

Gädeke, R. (1938) Die gesetzmässigen Zusammenhänge und Anomalien in der Vesuviangruppe und einigen anderen Kalksilikaten. Chemie der Erde 11: 592-636 (in German).

Kononova, V.A. (1961) On a metamict variety of vesuvianite from an alkaline pegmatite in southwest Tuva. Dokladi Academii Sci SSR: 130: 129-132.

Peters, T. (1961) Differentialthermoanalyse von Vesuvian. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 41: 325-334. (in German).

Chatterjee, N.D. (1962) Vesuvianite-epidote paragenesis as a product of greenschist facies of regional metamorphism in the Western Alps. Beiträge zur Mineralogie und Petrographie: 8: 432-439.

Braitsch, O., Chatterjee, N.D. (1963) Metamorphe Mineralreaktionen in vesuvianführenden Paragenesen. Beiträge zur Mineralogie und Petrographie: 9: 353-373 (in German).

Murdoch, J., Ingram, B.L. (1966) A cerian vesuvianite from California. American Mineralogist: 51: 381-387.

Trommsdorf, V. (1968) Mineralreaktione mit Wollastonit und Vesuvian in einem Kalksilikatfels der alpinen Disthenzone (Claro Tessin), Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 48: 655-666 (in German).

Arem, J.E., Burnham, C.W. (1969) Structural variations in idocrase. American Mineralogist: 54: 1546-1550.

Coda, A., Della Giusta, A., Isetti, G., Mazzi, F. (1970) On the structure of vesuvianite. Atti dell' Accademia delle Scienze di Torino: 105: 1-22.

Arem, J.E. (1973) Idocrase (vesuvianite) - A 250-year puzzle. Mineralogical Record: 4: 164-174.

Joesten, R. (1974) Pseudomorphic replacement of melilite by idocrase in a zoned calc-silicate skarn. Christmas Mountains, Big Bend region, Texas. American Mineralogist: 5: 694-699.

Rucklidge, J.C., Hemingway, B.S., Fisher, J.R. (1975) The crystal structure of three Canadian vesuvianites. Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 15-21.

Olesch, M. (1978) Obere thermische Stabilität von Vesuvian (Idocrase) bis 2 kbar und Vesuvian + Quarz bis 5 kbar im System CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O. Fortschritte der Mineralogie: 56: Beiheft 1: 99 (in German).

Olesch, M. (1979) Natürliche und synthetische Fe-haltige Vesuviane. Fortschritte der Mineralogie: 57: Beiheft 1: 114-115 (in German).

Valley, J.W., Essene, E.J. (1979) Vesuvianite, akermanite, monticellite and wollastonite equlibria and high X H2O/CO2 at Cascade slide, Mt Marcy Quad, Adirondack Mts. EOS: 60: 423.

Himmelberg, G.R., Miller, T.P. (1980) Uranium- and thorium-rich vesuvianite from the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. American Mineralogist: 65: 1020-1025.

Hochella, M.F.J., Liou, J.G., Keskinen, M.J., Kim, H.S. (1982) Synthesis and stability relations of magnesium idocrase. Economic Geology: 77: 798-808.

Giuseppetti, G., Mazzi, F. (1983) The crystal structure of a vesuvianite with P4/n symmetry. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 31: 277-288.

Hoisch, T.D. (1985) The solid solution chemistry of vesuvianite. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 89: 205-214.

Valley, J.M., Peacor, D.R., Bowman, J.R., Essene, E.J., Allard, M.J. (1985) Crystal chemistry of a Mg-vesuvianite and implications of phase equilibria in the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-CO2. Journal of Metamorphic Geology: 3: 137-153.

Fitzgerald, S., Rheingold, A.L., Leavens, P.B. (1986) Crystal structure of a Cu-bearing vesuvianite. American Mineralogist: 71: 1011-1014.

Fitzgerald, S., Leavens, P.B., Rheingold, A.L., Nelen, J.A. (1987) Crystal structure of a REE-bearing vesuvianite from San Benito County, California. American Mineralogist: 72: 625-628.

Veblen, D.R., Wiechmann, M.J. (1991) Domain structure of low-symmetry vesuvianite from Crestmore, California. American Mineralogist: 76: 397-404.

Allen, F.M., Burnham, C.W. (1992) A comprehensive structure-model for vesuvianite: Symmetry variation and crystal growth. The Canadian Mineralogist: 30: 1-18,

Groat, L.A., Hawthorne, F.C., Ercit, T.S. (1992) The chemistry of vesuvianite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 30: 19-48.

Groat, L.A., Hawthorne, F.C., Ercit, T.S. (1992) The role of fluorine in vesuvianite; a crystal-structure study. The Canadian Mineralogist: 30: 1065-1075.

Ohkawa, M., Yoshiasa, A., Takeno, S. (1992) Crystal chemistry of vesuvianite: site preferences of square-pyramidal coordinated sites. American Mineralogist: 77: 945-953.

Plyusnina, L.P., Likhoydov, G.G., Nekrasov, I.Y. (1992) Vesuvianite equilibria: experiments, calculations and petrologic applications. Doklady Rossiyskoy Akademii Nauk 234: 172-175.

Groat, L.A., Hawthorne, F.C., Ercit, T.S., Putnis, A. (1993) The symmetry of vesuvianite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 31: 617-635.

Groat, L.A., Hawthorne, F.C., Ercit, T.S. (1994) Excess Y-group cations in the crystal structure of vesuvianite. The Canadian Mineralogist 32: 497-504.

Groat, L.A., Hawthorne, F.C., Ercit, T.S. (1994) The incorporation of boron into the vesuvianite structure. The Canadian Mineralogist: 32: 505-523.

Henmi, C., Kusachi, I., Henmi, K. (1994) Vesuvianite from Kushiro, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. Abstracts General Meeting International Mineralogical Association Pisa, Italy, 172.

Ohkawa, M., Yoshiasa, A., Takeno, S. (1994) Structural investigation of high- and low-symmetry vesuvianite. Mineralogical Journal: 17: 1-20.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1995): 264.

Groat, L.A., Hawthorne, F.C., Lager, G.A., Schutz, A.J., Ercit, T.S. (1996) X-ray and neutron crystal-structure refinements of a boron-bearing vesuvianite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 34: 1059-1070.

Bogoch, R., Kumarapeli, S., Matthews, A. (1997) High-pressure K-feldspar-vesuvianite bearing assemblage in the central metasedimentary belt of the Grenville Province, Saint Jovite area, Quebec. The Canadian Mineralogist: 35: 1269-1275.

Groat, L.A, Hawthorne, F.C. (1998) Diffuse reflections and the symmetry of vesuvianite. Phase Transitions: 67: 137-151.

Tribaudino, M., Prencipe, M. (1999) A high-temperature in situ single-crystal study of P4/n vesuvianite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 11: 1037-1042.

Armbruster, T., Gnos, E. (2000) Tetrahedral vacancies and cation ordering in low-temperature Mn-bearing vesuvianites: indication of a hydrogranet-like substitution. American Mineralogist: 85: 570-577.

Armbruster, T., Gnos, E. (2000) 'Rod' polytypism in vesuvianite: crystal structure of a low-temperature P4nc vesuvianite with pronounced octahedral cation ordering. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 80: 109-116.

Armbruster, T., Gnos, E. (2000) P4/n and P4nc long range ordering in low-temperature vesuvianite. American Mineralogist: 85: 563-569.

Tribaudino, M., Prencipe, M. (2001) The compressional behavior of P4/n vesuvianite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 39: 145-151.

Bellatreccia, F. (2003) La Cristallochimica delle Vesuvianiti. PhD thesis, Università di Roma La Sapienza, Roma, Italia.

Borovikova, E.Yu., Kurazhkovskaya, V.S., Alferova, M.S. (2003) Infrared spectra and factor group analysis of vesuvianites in OH region. International Symposium on Light Elements in Rock-Forming Minerals (LERM 2003), Abstract, 8.

Galuskin, E.V., Galuskina, I.O., Sitarz, M., Stadnicka, K. (2003) Si-deficient, OH-substituted, boron-bearing vesuvianite from the Wiluy River, Yakutia, Russia. The Canadian Mineralogist: 41: 833-842.

Galuskin, E.V., Armbruster, T., Malsy, A., Galuskina, I.O., Sitarz, M. (2003) Morphology, composition and structure of low-temperature P4/nnc High-fluorine vesuvianite whiskers from polar Yakutia, Russia. The Canadian Mineralogist: 41: 843-856.

Gnos, Edwin, Armbruster, T. (2006) Relationship among metamorphic grade, vesuvianite "rod polytypism," and vesuvianite composition. American Mineralogist: 91: 862-870.

Balassone, G., Talla, D., Beran, A., Mormone, A., Altomare, A., Moliterni, A., Mondillo, N., Saviano, M., Petti, C.P. (2011) Vesuvianite from Somma-Vesuvius volcano (southern Italy): chemical, X-ray diffraction and single-crystal polarized FTIR investigations. Periodico di Mineralogia: 80: 369-384.

Internet Links for Vesuvianite

Specimens:
The following Vesuvianite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Vesuvianite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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