Mindat Logo


This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.

Colour:Black, bluish black, ...Hardness:1 - 6½
Name:Wad, wadd, and/or wadt were used as early miner's terms and used for various black mineral substances. The redundant name "black wad" has been frequently attributed to Richard Kirwan in his Elements of Mineralogy (1784) but Kirwan mentioned, but did not cite, neither Josiah Wedgwood's (1783) analysis of "black wadd" nor contemporary experiments with wad by Joseph Banks, nor any earlier sources. (Wad had the unusual oxidizing power of causing an equal mixture of it and linseed oil to combust after an hour or two.) Kirwan did describe the material: "One of the most remarkable ores of manganese is that called black wad; it is of a dark brown colour, partly in powder and partly indurated, and brittle." Earthy wad-like manganese minerals, of course, were used in glass making in ancient Rome and wads were used as pigments in prehistoric times. (Manganese metal was first isolated in impure form in 1774.) According to Thomas Robinson (1709), wad was also used relating to graphite by miners in the Westmoreland and Cumberland (Cumbria) regions of England. Robinson (1709) further indicated that the name "wadt" was used in Germany suggesting the black character of a substance. Jonathan Otley (1819) stated that a deed dated November 28, 1614 in Borrowdale, England referred to graphite as wad: "... the several names of wad, black cawke, black lead, plumbago and graphite, by which this mineral has been successively designated..."
A Mixture Of:Manganese Oxides

A generic name for (often poorly crystalline) soft manganese oxides/hydroxides, often containing significant amounts of hydroxides/oxides of other metals and adsorbed metals (Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, and other transition metals, alkali elements, etc.)
See also Manganese Oxides.

Classification of Wad

mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-4225.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Physical Properties of Wad

Lustre:Dull, Earthy
Colour:Black, bluish black, brownish black
Streak:Black, bluish black, brownish black, reddish brown, liver-brown
Hardness (Mohs):1 - 6½
Density (measured):2.8 - 4.4 g/cm3

Other Names for Wad

Black OcherBlack WadBog ManganeseEarthy manganeseEarthy Ocher of Manganese
GroroiliteHydrohausmannite (of Boldyrev)HydromanganiteHydromanganositeHydropyrolusite
HydroxybrauniteMagnesia friabilis terriformisMangangraphiteManganschwärzeManganseerz
Other Languages:
German:Brauner Eisenrahm
Schaumartiger Graphit
Schwarzes Braunsteinerz
Simplified Chinese:锰土
AnomaliteCobaltian WadCuprian WadFerrian WadLithian Wad

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Wad

Reference List:

- +
Robinson, Thomas (1709) An Essay Towards a Natural History of Westmoreland and Cumberland, Freeman, pp 95.
Wedgwood, Josiah (1783) Some Experiments upon the Ochra Friabilis Nigro Fusca of Da Costa... and called by the Miners of Derbyshire, Black Wadd, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, p. 284-287.
Otley, Jonathan (1819) Account of the Black-Lead Mine in Borrowdale Cumberland, Memoirs of the Literary & Philosophical Society Manchester, v. 3 series 2, p. 168-175.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 566-567.

Internet Links for Wad

Search Engines:
  • Look for Wad on Google
  • Look for Wad images on Google
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • Top quality minerals from Kristalle of California
  • Fine and rare minerals from mintreasure.com
  • Buy fine minerals and gemstones from Pala International
  • Search for Wad on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Fine minerals from bisbeeborn.com
  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
  • Buy rare minerals from Excalibur Minerals
  • Buy from Dave Bunk Minerals
  • Wad specimens for sale - minfind.com
  • Buy minerals from YourMineralCollection
  • Find Wad on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • Mineral Classics - Worldwide Collector Quality Minerals and Gems
  • Localities for Wad

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    Mineral and/or Locality  
    Search Google  
    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
    Current server date and time: October 30, 2014 10:01:02
    Mineral and Locality Search
    and/or Locality:
    Fade toolbar when not in focusFix toolbar to bottom of page
    Hide Social Media Links
    Slideshow frame delay seconds