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Wavellite

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Formula:
Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Green to yellowish-green ...
Hardness:
3½ - 4
Name:
Named in 1805 for William Wavell (1750 (1751?) - 1829), a physician in Harwood Parish, Devonshire, England, who discovered the mineral.
A secondary mineral found most often in aluminous, low-grade metamorphic rocks. Usually found as radiating "starburst" clusters of green to yellow-green fibrous crystals on fracture surfaces in the matrix, these may grade into globular aggregates; more rarely in chalcedony-like or opaline masses, or stalactic; very rare as good distinct crystals.

Note: Allanpringite is a monoclinic-pseudoorthorhombic Fe3+-analogue of wavellite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Wavellite.

Classification of Wavellite

Approved
8.DC.50

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
C : With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 1:1 and < 2:1
Dana 7th ed.:
42.7.4.1
42.10.2.1

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
10 : A3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
19.7.8

19 : Phosphates
7 : Phosphates of Al alone
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http://www.mindat.org/min-4250.html
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First Recorded Occurrence of Wavellite

Year of Discovery:
1805

Occurrences of Wavellite

Geological Setting:
A secondary mineral of aluminous low-grade metamorphic rocks, in phosphate and limonitic deposits; more rarely as a late-forming hydrothermal vein mineral.

Physical Properties of Wavellite

Vitreous, Greasy, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Green to yellowish-green and yellow, greenish white, yellowish-brown, brown, brownish-black, blue, white and colourless; colourless in transmitted light.
Comment:
Colouration may be zoned.
Streak:
White.
Hardness (Mohs):
3½ - 4
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {110}, good on {101}, distinct on {010}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
2.36 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.37 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Wavellite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.621Å, b = 17.363Å, c = 6.994Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.554 : 1 : 0.403
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,168.34 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals rare, stout to long prismatic parallel to [001], with {110} striated parallel to [001]. Found as hemispherical or globular aggregates with an internal radial or stellate structure of fibrous crystals; as crusts and stalactic; more rarely in chalcedony-like opaline masses.
Twinning:
None reported
Comment:
Space Group: Pcmn

Crystallographic forms of Wavellite

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
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Wavellite no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Wavellite no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Wavellite no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
8.67(100)
8.42(100)
5.65(50)
4.81(30)
3.42(40)
3.22(60)
2.57(30)
2.11(20)

Optical Data of Wavellite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.518 - 1.535 nβ = 1.524 - 1.543 nγ = 1.544 - 1.561
2V:
Measured: 60° to 72°, Calculated: 60° to 70°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.026
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
r > v weak
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X= Greenish
Z= Yellowish

Chemical Properties of Wavellite

Formula:
Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
F,Fe

Relationship of Wavellite to other Species

8.DC.05NissoniteCu2Mg2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 5H2O
8.DC.07EuchroiteCu2(AsO4)(OH) · 3H2O
8.DC.10LegranditeZn2(AsO4)(OH) · H2O
8.DC.12StrashimiriteCu8(AsO4)4(OH)4 · 5H2O
8.DC.15ArthuriteCuFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15EarlshannoniteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15OjuelaiteZnFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15WhitmoreiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15Cobaltarthurite(Co,Mg)Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15BendadaiteFe2+Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15KunatiteCuFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15UKI-2006-(PO:FeHZn)ZnFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15UKI-2006-(PO:AlCuFeH)Fe2+Al3(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.17KleemaniteZnAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 3H2O
8.DC.20BermaniteMn2+Mn23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.20CoralloiteMn2+Mn23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.22KovdorskiteMg2(PO4)(OH) · 3H2O
8.DC.25FerristrunziteFe3+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
8.DC.25FerrostrunziteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
8.DC.25MetavauxiteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.25MetavivianiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
8.DC.25StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
8.DC.27BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
8.DC.30GordoniteMgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30LaueiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30MangangordoniteMn2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30ParavauxiteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30PseudolaueiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30SigloiteFe3+Al2(PO4)2(OH)3 · 7H2O
8.DC.30StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30UshkoviteMgFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30FerrolaueiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30Kastningite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30MaghrebiteMgAl2(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30NordgauiteMnAl2(PO4)2(F,OH)2 · 5H2O
8.DC.32TinticiteFe3+5.34(PO4)3.62(VO4)0.38(OH)4 · 6.7H2O
8.DC.35VauxiteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
8.DC.37VantasseliteAl4(PO4)3(OH)3 · 9H2O
8.DC.40CacoxeniteFe243+Al(PO4)17O6(OH)12 · 17H2O
8.DC.45Gormanite(Fe2+,Mg)3(Al,Fe3+)4(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
8.DC.45Souzalite(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+)4(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
8.DC.47KingiteAl3(PO4)2F2(OH) · 7H2O
8.DC.50AllanpringiteFe33+(PO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
8.DC.52KribergiteAl5(PO4)3(SO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
8.DC.55MapimiteZn2Fe33+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 10H2O
8.DC.57OgdensburgiteCa2Fe43+(Zn,Mn2+)(AsO4)4(OH)6 · 6H2O
8.DC.60Nevadaite(Cu2+,Al,V3+)6Al8(PO4)8F8(OH)2 · 22H2O
8.DC.60Cloncurryite(Cu,VO)Al2(PO4)2(F,OH)2 · 4.5-5H2O
19.7.1BerliniteAlPO4
19.7.2AugeliteAl2(PO4)(OH)3
19.7.3TrolleiteAl4(PO4)3(OH)3
19.7.4SenegaliteAl2(PO4)(OH)(OH)2 · H2O
19.7.5VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
19.7.6MetavarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
19.7.7BolivariteAl2(PO4)(OH)3 · 4-5H2O
19.7.9EvansiteAl3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
19.7.10VantasseliteAl4(PO4)3(OH)3 · 9H2O
19.7.11KingiteAl3(PO4)2F2(OH) · 7H2O
19.7.12VashegyiteAl11(PO4)9(OH)6 · 38H2O
42.7.4.1ArsenocrandalliteCaAl3(AsO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
42.7.4.5ArsenogorceixiteBaAl3(AsO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
42.7.4.6BenauiteSrFe33+(HPO4,PO4)2(OH)6

Other Names for Wavellite

Other Information

Other Information:
Readily soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Wavellite

Reference List:
Babbington (1805) Phil. Trans.: 162.

Davy (1805) Phil. Trans.: 155, 162 (as Hydrargillite).

Thomson; von Moll (1809) Jahrb. Efem.: 5: 148 (as Devonite).

Senff (1830) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 18: 474.

Fuchs (1831) Journal of Chemical Physics, Lancaster, PA: 62: 379 (as Lasionit).

Kengott (1855) Uebers (as Kapnicit).

Kengott (1856) Uebers (as Kapnicit).

Bořicky (1869) Königliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 59: 593 (as Zepharovichite).

Des Cloizeaux (1872) Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 27: 405.

Des Cloizeaux, A. (1874) Manuel de minéralogie. 2 volumes and Atlas, Paris. volume 2, 1 Fasc., 208pp.: 455.

Carnot (1894) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 118: 995.

Cesàro (1899) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 31: 90.

Ungemach (1912) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 35: 536.

Slavík (1918) Ac. Sc. Bohéme, Bull.: 22: 32.

Wherry (1919) Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum: 54: 379.

Gordon (1922) Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia: 74: 113.

Laubmann (1922) Geognost. Jahresh.: 35: 193.

Shannon (1922) Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum: 62, article 9.

Buttenbach (1929) Société géologique de Belgique, Ann., Publ. Congo Belge: 51: C117 (as Bialite).

Krenner (1930) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 163.

Ulrich (1930) Vešt. Stát. Geol. Úst. Českoslov. Rep.: 6: 108.

Hintze, Carl (1931) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4B]: 908.

Orlov (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 77: 317.

Jansen (1933) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 85: 239.

Caglioti (1936) Atti V° congr. naz. chim., part 1: 310. (Min. Abstracts (1938): 7: 88).

Gordon (1944) Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia: 96: 279.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 906 (as Bialite), 962-964 (as Wavellite).

Araki, T. and T. Zoltai (1968) The crystal structure of wavellite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1968): 127: 21-33.

Klemic, H. and M.E. Mrose (1972) Geologic relations and X-ray crystallography of wavellite from Jackson County, Wisconsin, and their geologic implications. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 800C, 53–62.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 922.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680 pp.: 645.

Internet Links for Wavellite

Specimens:
The following Wavellite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Wavellite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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