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Wavellite

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Formula:
Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
3
· 5H
 
2
O
System:OrthorhombicColour:Green to yellowish-green ...
Hardness:3½ - 4
Name:Named in 1805 for William Wavell (1750 (1751?) - 1829), a physician in Harwood Parish, Devonshire, England, who discovered the mineral.


Wavellite Group.

A secondary mineral found most often in aluminous, low-grade metamorphic rocks. Usually found as radiating "starburst" clusters of green to yellow-green fibrous crystals on fracture surfaces in the matrix, these may grade into globular aggregates; more rarely in chalcedony-like or opaline masses, or stalactic; very rare as good distinct crystals.

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Classification of Wavellite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/D.13-10
Strunz 9th edition ID:8.DC.50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.DC.50

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
C : With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 1:1 and < 2:1
Dana 7th edition ID:42.7.4.1
Dana 8th edition ID:42.10.2.1

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
10 : A3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.7.8

19 : Phosphates
7 : Phosphates of Al alone
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Type Occurrence of Wavellite

Type Locality:High Down Quarry, Filleigh, North Devon, Devon, England, UK
Year of Discovery:1805

Occurrences of Wavellite

Geological Setting:A secondary mineral of aluminous low-grade metamorphic rocks, in phosphate and limonitic deposits; more rarely as a late-forming hydrothermal vein mineral.

Physical Properties of Wavellite

Lustre:Vitreous, Greasy, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Green to yellowish-green and yellow, greenish white, yellowish-brown, brown, brownish-black, blue, white and colourless; colourless in transmitted light.
Comment:Colouration may be zoned.
Streak:White.
Hardness (Mohs):3½ - 4
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {110}, good on {101}, distinct on {010}.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.36 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.37 g/cm3

Crystallography of Wavellite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:a = 9.621Å, b = 17.363Å, c = 6.994Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.554 : 1 : 0.403
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,168.34 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals rare, stout to long prismatic parallel to [001], with {110} striated parallel to [001]. Found as hemispherical or globular aggregates with an internal radial or stellate structure of fibrous crystals; as crusts and stalactic; more rarely in chalcedony-like opaline masses.
Twinning:None reported
Comment:Space Group: Pcmn
Crystal Atlas:
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Wavellite no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Wavellite no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Wavellite no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
8.67(100)
8.42(100)
5.65(50)
4.81(30)
3.42(40)
3.22(60)
2.57(30)
2.11(20)

Optical Data of Wavellite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.518 - 1.535 nβ = 1.524 - 1.543 nγ = 1.544 - 1.561
2V:Measured: 60° to 72°, Calculated: 60° to 70°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.026

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:r > v weak
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:X= Greenish
Z= Yellowish

Chemical Properties of Wavellite

Formula:
Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
3
· 5H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3·5H2O
Essential elements:Al, H, O, P
All elements listed in formula:Al, F, H, O, P
Common Impurities:F,Fe

Relationship of Wavellite to other Species

Common Associates:
VarisciteLimoniteCrandallite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.DC.05Nissonite
Cu
 
2
Mg
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
8.DC.07Euchroite
Cu
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH) · 3H
 
2
O
8.DC.10Legrandite
Zn
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH) · H
 
2
O
8.DC.12Strashimirite
Cu
 
8
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
8.DC.15Arthurite
CuFe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
,PO
 
4
,SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,O)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DC.15Earlshannonite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DC.15Ojuelaite
ZnFe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DC.15Whitmoreite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DC.15Cobaltarthurite
(Co,Mg)Fe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DC.15Bendadaite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DC.15Kunatite
CuFe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DC.15UKI-2006-(PO:FeHZn)
ZnFe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DC.15UKI-2006-(PO:AlCuFeH)
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DC.17Kleemanite
ZnAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
8.DC.20Bermanite
Mn
2+
 
Mn
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DC.20Coralloite
Mn
2+
 
Mn
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DC.22Kovdorskite
Mg
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH) · 3H
 
2
O
8.DC.25Ferristrunzite
Fe
3+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
3
· 5H
 
2
O
8.DC.25Ferrostrunzite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.DC.25Metavauxite
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DC.25Metavivianite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.DC.25Strunzite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.DC.27Beraunite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
5
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DC.30Gordonite
MgAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DC.30Laueite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DC.30Mangangordonite
Mn
2+
 
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DC.30Paravauxite
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DC.30Pseudolaueite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DC.30Sigloite
Fe
3+
 
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
3
· 7H
 
2
O
8.DC.30Stewartite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DC.30Ushkovite
MgFe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DC.30Ferrolaueite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DC.30Kastningite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DC.30Maghrebite
MgAl
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DC.30Nordgauite
MnAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(F,OH)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
8.DC.32Tinticite
Fe
3+
5.34
(PO
 
4
)
 
3.62
(VO
 
4
)
 
0.38
(OH)
 
4
· 6.7H
 
2
O
8.DC.35Vauxite
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.DC.37Vantasselite
Al
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O
8.DC.40Cacoxenite
Fe
3+
24
Al(PO
 
4
)
 
17
O
 
6
(OH)
 
12
· 17H
 
2
O
8.DC.45Gormanite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
8.DC.45Souzalite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
8.DC.47Kingite
Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
F
 
2
(OH) · 7H
 
2
O
8.DC.50Allanpringite
Fe
3+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
3
· 5H
 
2
O
8.DC.52Kribergite
Al
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DC.55Mapimite
Zn
 
2
Fe
3+
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
4
· 10H
 
2
O
8.DC.57Ogdensburgite
Ca
 
2
Fe
3+
4
(Zn,Mn
2+
 
)(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
6
· 6H
 
2
O
8.DC.60Nevadaite
(Cu
2+
 
,Al,V
3+
 
)
 
6
Al
 
8
(PO
 
4
)
 
8
F
 
8
(OH)
 
2
· 22H
 
2
O
8.DC.60Cloncurryite
(Cu,VO)Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(F,OH)
 
2
· 4.5-5H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.7.1Berlinite
AlPO
 
4
19.7.2Augelite
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
19.7.3Trolleite
Al
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
19.7.4Senegalite
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.7.5Variscite
AlPO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
19.7.6Metavariscite
AlPO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
19.7.7Bolivarite
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
· 4-5H
 
2
O
19.7.9Evansite
Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· 6H
 
2
O
19.7.10Vantasselite
Al
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O
19.7.11Kingite
Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
F
 
2
(OH) · 7H
 
2
O
19.7.12Vashegyite
Al
 
11
(PO
 
4
)
 
9
(OH)
 
6
· 38H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
42.7.4.1Arsenocrandallite
CaAl
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
42.7.4.5Arsenogorceixite
BaAl
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
42.7.4.6Benauite
SrFe
3+
3
(HPO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6

Other Names for Wavellite

Synonyms:
BialiteBrazilianite (of Mawe)DevoniteFischeriteHydrargillite (of Davy)
KapniciteKapnikite (of Kenngott)LasioniteLazioniteUhligite (of Slavik)
Wavellite (of Babington)Zepharovichite
Other Languages:
Dutch:Wavelliet
French:Wavellite
Alumine phosphatée
German:Wavellit
Bialit
Bialith
Devonit
Fischerit
Lasionit
Lazionit
Striegisan
Thonerdephosphat
Zepharovichit
Italian:Wavellite
Japanese:銀星石
Polish:Wavellit
Russian:Вавеллит
Simplified Chinese:银星石
磷铝矿
Slovak:Wavellit
Spanish:Bialita
Devonita
Fischerita
Lasionita
Lazionita
Wavellita
Zepharovichita
Traditional Chinese:銀星石
Ukrainian:Вавеліт
Varieties:
Gelfischerite

Other Information

Other Information:Readily soluble in acids.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Wavellite

Reference List:

- +
Babbington (1805) Phil. Trans.: 162.

Davy (1805) Phil. Trans.: 155, 162 (as Hydrargillite).

Thomson; von Moll (1809) Jahrb. Efem.: 5: 148 (as Devonite).

Senff (1830) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 18: 474.

Fuchs (1831) Journal of Chemical Physics, Lancaster, PA: 62: 379 (as Lasionit).

Kengott (1855) Uebers (as Kapnicit).

Kengott (1856) Uebers (as Kapnicit).

Bořicky (1869) Königliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 59: 593 (as Zepharovichite).

Des Cloizeaux (1872) Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 27: 405.

Des Cloizeaux, A. (1874) Manuel de minéralogie. 2 volumes and Atlas, Paris. volume 2, 1 Fasc., 208pp.: 455.

Carnot (1894) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 118: 995.

Cesàro (1899) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 31: 90.

Ungemach (1912) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 35: 536.

Slavík (1918) Ac. Sc. Bohéme, Bull.: 22: 32.

Wherry (1919) Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum: 54: 379.

Gordon (1922) Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia: 74: 113.

Laubmann (1922) Geognost. Jahresh.: 35: 193.

Shannon (1922) Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum: 62, article 9.

Buttenbach (1929) Société géologique de Belgique, Ann., Publ. Congo Belge: 51: C117 (as Bialite).

Krenner (1930) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 163.

Ulrich (1930) Vešt. Stát. Geol. Úst. Českoslov. Rep.: 6: 108.

Hintze, Carl (1931) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4B]: 908.

Orlov (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 77: 317.

Jansen (1933) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 85: 239.

Caglioti (1936) Atti V° congr. naz. chim., part 1: 310. (Min. Abstracts (1938): 7: 88).

Gordon (1944) Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia: 96: 279.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 906 (as Bialite), 962-964 (as Wavellite).

Araki, T. and T. Zoltai (1968) The crystal structure of wavellite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1968): 127: 21-33.

Klemic, H. and M.E. Mrose (1972) Geologic relations and X-ray crystallography of wavellite from Jackson County, Wisconsin, and their geologic implications. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 800C, 53–62.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 922.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680 pp.: 645.

Internet Links for Wavellite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Wavellite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Wavellite

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