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Whewellite

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Formula:
Ca(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:White, yellow, brown, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, PearlyHardness:2½ - 3
Name:
Named after William Whewell (1794-1866), English naturalist and scientist, Professor of Moral Philosophy and inventor of the system of crystallographic indexing.

The type locality is uncertain, however, the most likely type locality is Cavnic, Romania (Papp, G. (2004) History of minerals, rocks and fossil resins discovered in the Carpathian Region. Hungarian Natural History Museum publ., Studia Naturalia 15, 215p.)


A rare low-temperature primary hydrothermal mineral in carbonate-sulphide veins; also occurs in geodes, or septarian nodules; associated with coal measures and surrounding rocks with organic material; in some uranium deposits. As microscopic crystals in living plant cells and as calculi or as a sediment in the human urinary tract.

NOTE: Cleaning any specimen containing Ca-bearing soluble species with oxalic acid will lead to crystallisation of whewellite or weddellite.

Classification of Whewellite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:9/A.01-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:10.AB.45

10 : ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
A : Salts of organic acids
B : Oxalates
Dana 8th edition ID:50.1.1.1

50 : ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
1 : Oxalates
Hey's CIM Ref.:31.1.5

31 : Oxalates, Citrates, Mellitates and Acetates
1 : Oxalates
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Occurrences of Whewellite

Geological Setting:In carbonate-sulphide veins, geodes, or septarian nodules; associated with coal measures or in surrounding rock containing organic matter; in some uranium deposits.

Physical Properties of Whewellite

Lustre:Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Comment:Lustre pearly on {010} and on some cleavages.
Colour:White, yellow, brown, colourless; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Very Good
On {101} very good; on {010}, imperfect; on {001}, {110}, indistinct.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.21 - 2.23 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.22 g/cm3

Crystallography of Whewellite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:a = 6.284Å, b = 7.29Å, c = 9.994Å
β = 107.03°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.862 : 1 : 1.371
Unit Cell Volume:V 437.75 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals equant to short prismatic [001], typically distorted with faces commonly irregularly developed, exhibiting forms {001}, {011}, {010}, {110}, {120}, {132}, {101}, plus several additional. Cleavable massive.
Twinning:Very common on {101} as twin and contact plane, with or without reentrant angles, yielding heart-shaped or prismatic, and of pseudo-orthorhombic appearance.
Comment:Space Group: P21/n
Crystal Atlas:
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Whewellite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Whewellite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.489 - 1.491 nβ = 1.553 - 1.554 nγ = 1.649 - 1.650
2V:Measured: 80° to 84°, Calculated: 84°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.160

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:none

Chemical Properties of Whewellite

Formula:
Ca(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca(C2O4)·H2O
Essential elements:C, Ca, H, O
All elements listed in formula:C, Ca, H, O
CAS Registry number:5794-28-5

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society

Relationship of Whewellite to other Species

Common Associates:
WeddelliteSphaleritePyriteCalciteBaryte
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
10.AB.05Humboldtine
Fe
2+
 
(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
10.AB.05Lindbergite
Mn
2+
 
(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
10.AB.10Glushinskite
Mg(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
10.AB.15Moolooite
Cu(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · 0.4H
 
2
O
10.AB.20Stepanovite
NaMgFe
3+
 
(C
 
2
O
 
4
)
 
3
· 8-9H
 
2
O
10.AB.25Minguzzite
K
 
3
Fe
3+
 
(C
 
2
O
 
4
)
 
3
· 3H
 
2
O
10.AB.30Wheatleyite
Na
 
2
Cu(C
 
2
O
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
10.AB.35Zhemchuzhnikovite
NaMg(Fe
3+
 
,Al)(C
 
2
O
 
4
)
 
3
· 8H
 
2
O
10.AB.40Weddellite
Ca(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
10.AB.50Caoxite
Ca(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · 3H
 
2
O
10.AB.55Oxammite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
10.AB.60Natroxalate
Na
 
2
(C
 
2
O
 
4
)
10.AB.65Coskrenite-(Ce)
(Ce,Nd,La)
 
2
(C
 
2
O
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
10.AB.70Levinsonite-(Y)
(Y,Nd,La)Al(C
 
2
O
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
10.AB.75Zugshunstite-(Ce)
(Ce,Nd,La)Al(C
 
2
O
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
10.AB.80Novgorodovaite
Ca
 
2
(C
 
2
O
 
4
)Cl
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
31.1.1Oxammite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
31.1.2Moolooite
Cu(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · 0.4H
 
2
O
31.1.3Wheatleyite
Na
 
2
Cu(C
 
2
O
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
31.1.4Glushinskite
Mg(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
31.1.6Weddellite
Ca(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
31.1.7Humboldtine
Fe
2+
 
(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
31.1.8Stepanovite
NaMgFe
3+
 
(C
 
2
O
 
4
)
 
3
· 8-9H
 
2
O
31.1.9Zhemchuzhnikovite
NaMg(Fe
3+
 
,Al)(C
 
2
O
 
4
)
 
3
· 8H
 
2
O
31.1.10Minguzzite
K
 
3
Fe
3+
 
(C
 
2
O
 
4
)
 
3
· 3H
 
2
O

Other Names for Whewellite

Synonyms:
OxacalciteOxalate of LimeVevellite
Other Languages:
German:Kohlenspath
Thierschite
Tierschit
Vevellit
Whewellit
Russian:Уэвеллит
Simplified Chinese:水草酸钙石
Spanish:Vevellita
Whewellita

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in acids. Insoluble in water.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
External LinksSearch for toxicity information at the United States National Library of Medicine

References for Whewellite

Reference List:

- +
Brooke, H. T. (1840) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 16: 449-450 (as Oxalate of Lime).

Shepard C.U. (1844) Treatise on Mineralogy. second edition: 111 (as Oxacalcite).

Brooke, H.J. and Miller, W.H. (1852) Introduction to Mineralogy by Wm. Phillips, London, 1823. New edition by Brooke and Miller. 8vo, London: 623.

Liebig (1853) Annalen der Chemie, Leipzig (Justus Liebig’s): 86: 113 (as Thierschite).

Dana, J.D. (1854) System of Mineralogy, 4th. Edition, New York.

Frenzel (1889) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 11: 83 (as Kohlenspath).

Becke (1907) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 26: 391.

Slavík (1908) Rozpr. böhm. Ak. Prag: 17, no. 38.

Ježek (1908) Ac. Sc. Bohéme, Bull.: 13: 1.

Ježek (1909) Ac. Sc. Bohéme, Bull.: 14: 1.

Ungemach (1909) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 32: 20.

Ježek (1911) Ac. Sc. Bohéme, Bull.: 16: 1.

Kolbeck, Goldschmidt, and Schröder (1918) Beitr. Kr. Min.: 1: 199.

Wherry (1922) Journal of the Washington Academy of Science: 12: 196.

Goldschmidt, V. (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 9: 70.

Frey (1924) Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Frauenfeld: 4: 16.

Vassoyevicz and Razumovsky (1928) Mem. soc. russe min.: 57: 275.

Kašpar (1932) Vĕstnik. Král. Čes. Spol. Nauk, Cl. 2, no. 34.

Kašpar (1939) Knihov. Stat. Geol. Úst. Česk. Repub.: 20: 1.

Pobeguin, et al (1943) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 216: 500, 808.

Kalyuzhnyi (1948) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S.: 59: 1631.

Pecora, W.T. and J.H. Kerr (1954) Whewellite from a septarian limestone concretion in marine shale near Havre, Montana. American Mineralogist, 39, 208–214.

Leavens, P.B. (1968) New data on whewellite. American Mineralogist: 53: 455-463.

American Mineralogist (1980): 65: 327-334.

Deganello, S. and O.E. Piro (1981) The crystal structure of calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite). Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Monatsh., 81–88.

Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva (1984): 113: 84.

Internet Links for Whewellite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
  • Look for Whewellite on Webmineral
  • Look for Whewellite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Whewellite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Whewellite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Whewellite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • The Arkenstone - Fine Minerals
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Whewellite specimens
  • Buy from McDougall Minerals
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  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
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  • SpiriferMinerals.com - high quality low prices
  • Lapis Mineral Magazin
  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
  • Fine minerals from bisbeeborn.com
  • Specimens:The following Whewellite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Whewellite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Durham Co.
        • Muswellbrook
    Keith F Compton collection
    • Tasmania
      • Cape Grim district
    http://www.crocoite.com/locationbulletins/part1/zeolites.pdf
    • Victoria
      • City of Greater Shepparton
        • Murchison
    Louis H. Fuchs, Kenneth J. Jensen & Edward Olsen (1970). Mineralogy and Composition of the Murchison Meteorite. Meteoritics 5, #4, p. 198. (Dec 1970).
    • Western Australia
      • Upper Gascoyne Shire
        • Yinnietharra (Yinnietharra Station; Yinnetharra)
    Moolooite, a Naturally Occurring Hydrated Copper Oxalate; R.M. Clarke and I.R. Williams; Mineralogical Magazine, June 1986, Vol 50, pp 295-298
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Habach valley
    NIEDERMAYR, G., F. BERNHARD, H.-P. BOJAR, F. BRANDSTÄTTER, H. FINK, J. GRÖBNER, V. M. F. HAMMER, G. KNOBLOCH, U. KOLITSCH, B. LEIKAUF, W. POSTL, M. SABOR, & F. WALTER (2006): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LV. – Carinthia II, 196./116.: 121-157.
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • Jequitinhonha valley
        • Itinga
          • Monte Belo
    Luiz Alberto Dias Menezes
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1101; Duda, Rejl, Slivka: "Mineralien", 1991; Zacek, V., Oplustil, S., Mayova, A. & Meyer, F. R. (1995): Die Mineralien von Kladno in Mittelböhmen, Tschechische Republik. Mineralien-Welt 6 (1), 13-30 (in German).
          • Pchery
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1101.
    Šarf J.: Nové nálezy v kladenských pelosideritech. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1979, 24, 3, 324-325.
        • Příbram
          • Dubenec
    Litochleb et al. (2005) Bull. Nár. muz. (Praha)
      • Ústí Region
        • Bílina (Bilin)
    Bouška, V., Dvořák, Z.: Nerosty severočeské hěndouhelné pánve. Praha: Severočeské doly, a.s., 160 s.
        • Chomutov (Komotau)
    Svejkovský, J., Koutecký, D.: Nerosty v pelokarbonátových konkrecích na hnědouhelném lomu Libouš u Chomutova. Minerál, 2008, roč. 16, č. 1, s. 41 - 44.
        • Duchcov (Dux)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1101.
        • Most
    RnDr.Zdeněk Dvořák
    Finland
     
    • Lapland Region
      • Savukoski
        • Tulppio
    Vartiainen, H. 1980 The petrography, mineralogy and petrochemistry of the Sokli carbonative massif, northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin, 313
    France
     
    • Alsace
      • Bas-Rhin
        • Villé Valley
          • Urbeis
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1101.
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Loire
        • Saint-Just-en-Chevalet
    "Les Mineraux, leurs gisements, leurs associations" P. Bariand, F. Cesbron, J. Geffroy, Mineraux et Fossiles 1978
    P.-C. Guiollard (2002), L'uranium du Morvan et du Forez, Ed. P.-C. Guiollard, Fichous(64), 95 pp.
    J.-J. Périchaud: "Où trouver les minéraux d'Auvergne", Vol. 1, Editions l'Instant Durable (Clermont-Ferrand), 1985, p. 92
    Germany
     
    • Lower Saxony
      • Peine
    Aufschluss 1986(8+9), 282
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Münsterland
        • Steinfurt
          • Ibbenbüren
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Niederzissen
          • Hannebach
    Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag, München (2. Auflage), 1987
    • Saxony
      • Dresden
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1101; O'Donoghue, 1976 - "Encyclopedia of Minerals & Gemstones", 286.
      • Erzgebirge
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1101; Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Schlema-Hartenstein District
    Roger Lang collection
    No reference listed
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1101; O'Donoghue, 1976 - "Encyclopedia of Minerals & Gemstones", 286.
        • Oelsnitz
    Leon Hupperichs Collection
    • Thuringia
      • Gera
        • Ronneburg U deposit
    T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    Greenland
     
    • Kujalleq
      • Narsaq
    Soerensen, H. (2001): The Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland: status of mineralogical research with new results, Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin 190, GEUS; Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
    Hungary
     
    • Fejér Co.
      • Bicske-Zsámbéki Basin
        • Bicske-Csordakút
    • Heves Co.
      • Mátra Mtns
        • Recsk
    Zsivny,1925
    Weiszburg,1983
    Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
    • Komárom-Esztergom Co.
      • Gerecse Mtns
    Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
      • Pilisi Basin
        • Dorog
    Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei,2005
    Italy
     
    • Emilia-Romagna
      • Modena Province
    Dondi, M. & Puggioli, G. (1990): Minerali organici, 1 parte. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1990, 189-206.
    Kolitsch, U., Lackner, E., Ciriotti, M.E. (2008): Lindbergite: primo ritrovamento italiano a Molinello. Addendum-corrigendum. Micro (UK Report), 2/2008, 77-78
    Mexico
     
    • Coahuila
      • Mun. de Cuatrociénegas
        • Cuatro Ciénegas (Cuatrociénegas de Carranza; Venustiano Carranza)
          • Limestone caves
    Forti, P. et al. (2006): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79–98.
    Romania
     
    • Maramureș Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1101.
    Mineralogical Record 28:132-139
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
        • Polar Yakutia
          • Bulun District
            • Lena River Basin
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Chitinskaya Oblast'
          • Krasnokamensk
    P.M. Kartashov data
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Primorskiy Kray
        • Kavalerovo Mining District
          • Dal'negorsk (Dalnegorsk; Tetyukhe; Tjetjuche; Tetjuche)
    Min Rec vol 32, pp 7-30 (2001)
    • Krasnodarskiy Kray
      • Apsheronsk area
        • Khadyzhensk
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    Slovakia
     
    • Prešov Region
      • Bardejov Co.
    Bačo,P.,Pacindová,M., 1993: Whewellit a dawsonit - epigenetická mineralizácia v puklinách pieskovca pri Cígeľke. Min.Slovaca,Bratislava, 4,277-281p
    • Trenčín Region
      • Prievidza Co.
        • Handlová
    Števko M., Bačík P., Cagáň P., 2011: Výskyt whewellitu v pelosideritoch uhoľného ložiska Handlová (Slovenská republika). Bull. mineral.-petrolog. Odd. Nár. Muz. (Praha), 19, 1, 27-31.
    UK
     
    • England
      • North Yorkshire
        • North Pennines
          • Craven District
            • Ingleton
    No reference listed
    Ukraine
     
    • Crimea Oblast'
    World of Stones v.9
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
    Rolf Luetcke
    • Florida
      • Polk Co.
        • Central Florida Phosphate District (Bone Valley)
          • Homeland
    Marc V. Hurst (2012) Central Florida Phosphate District. Southeastern Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook No. 57
    • Michigan
      • Keweenaw Co.
        • Ahmeek
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • Montana
      • Hill Co.
    Am Min 39:208-214
    • Ohio
      • Erie Co.
        • Milan
    AmMin 51:228
      • Franklin Co.
        • Columbus
    Carlson, Ernest H. (1991), Minerals of Ohio. Ohio Department of Natural Resources.
    Minerals of Ohio Bull. 69 ODNR
    • Oregon
      • Sherman Co.
    Campbell, T. and Roberts, W., 1986, Whewellite from South Dakota and a Review of Other North American Locanities, Mineralogical Record, v 17:131-133.
    • South Dakota
      • Meade Co.
        • Dalzell
    Lapis Vol 21, no. 1 (1996)
    Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
    • Texas
      • Hudspeth Co.
        • Van Horn Mts
    R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
    • Utah
    AmMin 45:1257
        • Big Indian District (Big Indian Wash - Lisbon Valley Area)
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
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