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Wolframite

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Formula:
(Fe
2+
 
)WO
 
4
 
 
to (Mn
2+
 
)WO
 
4
System:MonoclinicColour:Greyish-black
Lustre:Sub-MetallicHardness:4 - 4½
Name:Per Agricola, it is derived from "volf," "wolf," and "rahm," "ram," for "froth", "cream," "soot" (Latin = Lupi spuma), perhaps in allusion to an objectionable scum or substance formed during the smelting of tin ores containing tungsten; possibly also derived from "lupus" and "wolf", which were alchemists' terms for antimony, for which it may have been mistaken as an ore.


Material chemically intermediate between Hübnerite and Ferberite with unspecified chemical composition.

Occurs in high-temperature hydrothermal veins, in greisen, granitic pegmatites; in alluvial and eluvial deposits.

Classification of Wolframite

IMA status:Intermediate member of Solid solution Series
Dana 7th edition ID:48.1.1.0
Hey's CIM Ref.:27.4.15

27 : Sulphites, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
4 : Tungstates
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Occurrences of Wolframite

Geological Setting:High-temperature hydrothermal veins; greisen, granitic pegmatites; alluvial and eluvial deposits.

Physical Properties of Wolframite

Lustre:Sub-Metallic
Colour:Greyish-black
Streak:Reddish brown
Hardness (Mohs):4 - 4½
Tenacity:Brittle
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven

Crystallography of Wolframite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P2/b
Morphology:Crystals tabular or short prismatic. Often grouped in parallel.
Crystal Atlas:
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Wolframite no.37 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Wolframite - {100}, {010}, {102}, modified

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Chemical Properties of Wolframite

Formula:
(Fe
2+
 
)WO
 
4
 
 
to (Mn
2+
 
)WO
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Essential elements:Fe, Mn, O, W
All elements listed in formula:Fe, Mn, O, W

Relationship of Wolframite to other Species

Common Associates:
TopazScheeliteQuartz
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
27.4.1Cuprotungstite
Cu
 
2
(WO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
27.4.2Scheelite
Ca(WO
 
4
)
27.4.4Anthoinite
AlWO
 
3
(OH)
 
3
27.4.5Mpororoite
WAlO
 
3
(OH)
 
3
· 2(H
 
2
O)
27.4.6Yttrotungstite-(Y)
YW
 
2
O
 
6
(OH)
 
3
27.4.7Yttrotungstite-(Ce)
(Ce,Nd,Y)W
 
2
O
 
6
(OH)
 
3
27.4.8Stolzite
Pb(WO
 
4
)
27.4.9Raspite
Pb(WO
 
4
)
27.4.10Russellite
Bi
 
2
WO
 
6
27.4.11Pinalite
Pb
 
3
WO
 
5
Cl
 
2
27.4.12Uranotungstite
(Fe
2+
 
,Ba,Pb)(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(WO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
· 12H
 
2
O
27.4.13Hübnerite
MnWO
 
4
27.4.14Ferberite
FeWO
 
4
27.4.16Ferritungstite
27.4.17Phyllotungstite
(H
 
2
O,M)
 
x
(W,Fe)(O,OH)
 
3
· yH
 
2
O (M = Ca, Cs, Pb or K)
27.4.18Qitianlingite
(Fe,Mn)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
WO
 
10

Other Names for Wolframite

Synonyms:
CalCallGalMock-leadPrismatic scheelium ore
Scheelate of Iron and ManganeseTungstate of Iron and ManganeseTungstic acid, iron, and manganeseWolfram
Other Languages:
Czech:Wolframit
Dutch:Wolframiet
French:Wolframite
Ecume de loup
Schéelin ferruginé
Tungstate ferrugineux
Tungstate manganèsié
German:Wolframit
Eisenscheel
Prismatissches Scheel-Erz
Scheeleisenerz
Volfram
Wolf
Wolfart
Wolffert
Wolffram
Wolfort
Wolfrath
Wolfrig
Woolferam
Hungarian:Volframit
Italian:Wolframite
Licafro
Latin:Ferrum arsenico mineralisatum
Lapis niger ex quo conflatur candidum plumbum
Lupi Spuma
Lupus jovuis, molybdaemum
Manganesia, parva cum portoine martis et jovis mixta
Spuma lupi
Wolframum
Polish:Wolframit
Portuguese:Wolframita
Romanian:Wolframit
Russian:Вольфрамит
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Волфрамит
Simplified Chinese:黑钨矿
钨锰铁矿
Spanish:Wolframita
Swedish:Wolframit

Other Information

Other Information:Slightly magnetic. Decomposed by aqua regia with the separation of tungstic oxide.

Forms pseudomorphs after Scheelite. Often more or less completely replaced by Scheelite. Pseudomorphs of Quartz, Hematite, Marcasite, and Kaolinite after Wolframite noted.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Ore of tungsten.

References for Wolframite

Reference List:

- +
Agricola (1546) De Natura Fossilium: 255 (as Lupi Spuma).

Agricola (1546) De Natura Fossilium: 255 (as Lapis niger ex quo conflatur candidum plumbum).

Henckel, J. Fr. (1725) Pyritologia oder Kiess-Historie. Leipzig: 171 (as Wolfram).

Wallerius, J.G (1747) Mineralogia, eller Mineralriket. Stockholm: 268 (as Volfram).

Cronstedt A. (1758) Mineralogie; eller Mineral-Rikets Upstallning. 12mo, Stockholm: 107.

Linnaeus (1778) Natursystem des Mineralreichs, Gmelin: 3: 78 (as Lupus jovis, molybdaenum).

Pryce (1778) Pryce, W. (1778) Mineralogia cornubiensis. 331pp., London: 317, 321, 324 (as Cal, Call, Gal, Mock-lead).

de Elhuyar, J.J. and F. (1785) A Chemical Examination of Wolfram and Examination of a New Metal Which Enters into its Composition, London (as Tungstic acid, iron, and manganese).

Cronstedt (1788) Magellan’s edition in English, 2 volumes, 8vo, London: 208, 866 (as Wolframum, Manganesia, parva cum portoine martis et jovis mixta).

Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol. Paris: 4: 314 (as Schéelin ferruginé).

Haüy, R.J. (1822), Traité de minéralogie. second edition, 4 volumes, with fol. Atlas: 4: 366 (as Schéelin ferruginé).

Mohs, F. (1822) Grundriss der Mineralogie. 2 volumes, Dresden (as Prismatisches Scheel-Erz).

Haidinger, Wm. (1825) Treatise on Mineralogy, by F. Mohs; translation with considerable additions. 3 volumes, Edinburg: 2: 387 (as Prismatic scheelium ore).

Naumann, C.F. (1830) Lehrbuch der Krystallographie. 2 volumes, Leipzig: 2: Tafel 32.

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 659 (as Eisenscheel).

Breithaupt, A. (1832) Vollständige Characteristik etc.: 2nd. Ed.: 227 (as Wolframit).

Dana, J.D. (1837) System of Mineralogy, 1st. edition, New Haven: 373 (as Wolfram).

Lévy, A. (1837) Description d’une collection de minéraux formée par M. Henri Heuland, et appartenant à M. Ch. H. Turner, de Rooksnest, dans le comté de Surrey en Angleterre. 3 volumes and atlas of 85 plates, London: 3: 362.

Rose (1845) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 64: 175.

Breithaupt, A. (1847) Vollständige Handbuch der Mineralogie. Dresden and Leipzig. Vol. 3: Tafel 16.

Kerndt (1847) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 42: 81.

Des Cloizeaux (1850) Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 28: 163.

Miller (1852): 473.

Dufrénoy, A. (1856): 2: 636; Atlas, Plate 74.

Des Cloizeaux (1870) Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 19: 168.

Groth and Arzruni (1873) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 149: 235.

Krenner (1875) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 5: 9.

Fritsch (1878) Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaften, HalleP: 3: 864 ("Reinite" pseudomorphs after Scheelite).

Luedecke (1879) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 286 ("Reinite" pseudomorphs after Scheelite).

Purgold (1883) Isis, Dresden: 73.

Seligmann (1886) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 11: 347.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 982.

Genth and Penfield (1892) American Journal of Science: 43: 184.

Maskelyne (1895): 369.

Winkeltabellen (1897): 366.

Warren (1901) American Journal of Science: 11: 369.

Bøggild (1905) Meddelelser om Grønland, no. 32: 179.

Brögger (1908) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 45: 87 (morphological comparison to columbite).

Tronquoy (1913) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 36: 113.

Hess and Schaller (1914) U.S. Geological Survey Bull. 583: 20, 36, 37, 40.

Wherry (1914) Proceedings of the .S. National Museum: 47: 501.

Hess (1915) U.S. Geological Survey Bull. 652.

Jimbo (1915) Beiträge zur Mineralogie von Japan, Tokyo: no. 5: 256.

Dewey and Bromehead (1916) Mem. Geological Survey, Special Report, Tungsten and Manganese Ores.

Bravo (1921) Arch. Assoc. peruana Prog. Cienc.: 1: 141 [Zs Kr. (1924): 59: 487].

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 157.

Pereirqa-Ferraz (1921) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 173: 1170.

Goldschmidt, V. (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text. Heidelberg. vol. 9: 86.

Gordon (1924) Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia: 76: 335.

Dupare (1925) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 38: 116-117.

Koch (1925) Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Nat. Hungarici: 22: 146 [Min. Abs. (1926): 3: 101].

Swanson (1925) University iof Toronto Studies, Geology Series, no. 20: 28.

Jahn (1926) Vogtländ. Ges. Naturfor. Mitt.: no. 3: 1 [Min. Abs. (1926): 3: 154].

Smith (1926) Mineralogy of New South WAles, Department of Mines, Mineral Resources, no. 34, p. 132.

Doelter (1928): 4 [2]: 825, 846.

Broch (1929) Norske Videnskaps-Akademi, Oslo, Mat.-Nat. Kl., Skrifter, no. 8.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4067, 4103, 4112, 4113, 4117, 4143.

Fisher (1930) American Mineralogist: 15: 104.

Parga (1930) Anal. Soc. españ. Fis. Quím.: 28: 905 (Ta content).

Van Horn (1930) American Mineralogist: 15: 461.

Franzenau and Tokody (1931) Mathematische und Naturwissenschaftliche Berichte aus Ungarn, Berlin, Budapest, Leipzig: 38: 236 [Min. Abs. (1934): 5: 135].

Schneiderhöhn, Hans and Ramdohr, P. (1931) Lehrbuch der Erzmikroskopie. 2 volumes. Berlin. vol. 2, 714 pp. (1931) (descriptive): 606-607.

Ahlfeld (1932) Chemie der Erde, Jena: 7: 121.

Lacroix (1933) Bull. serv. Geol. Indochine: 20 [Min. Abs. (1935): 6: 21].

Lindgren, W. (1933) Mineral Deposits. Fourth edition, 930pp. New York: 596, 659, 761.

Ellsworth and Jolliffe (1937) University of Toronto Studies, Geology Series: no. 40: 71.

Loomis (1937) Economic Geology: 32: 952.

Ahlfeld , Fr. and Reyes, J. Muñoz (1938), Mineralogie von Bolivien: 63.

Angelelli and Chaudet (1939) Rev. Min. Soc. Argentine Min. Geol.: 10: 74.

Bunin, Klimov, and Umansky (1940) J. Phys. Chem., Ac. Sc. U.S.S.R.: 14: 844.

Short, Max N. (1940) “Microscopic Determination of the Ore Minerals,” Second edition, USGS Bulletin 914: 167-168.

Lovering (1941) Economic Geology: 36: 229.

Wilson (1941) rizona Bureau of Mines, Geology Series, Bll. 148.

Bailly (1942) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales: 65: B133.

Ke-Chin Hsu (1943) Economic Geology: 38: 431.

Li and Wang (1943) Tungsten. New York.

Gordon (1944) Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia: 96: 279.

Juan (1946) Economic Geology: 41: 399.

Kerr (1946) Geological Society of America, mem: 15.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume II: 1064-1072.

Geological Society of America Memoir 85 (1962), 222.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1976): 144: 238.

Picot -Johan (1982): 393.

Quantitative Data File for Ore Minerals, 3rd edition, (1993): 625.

Internet Links for Wolframite

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    Localities for Wolframite

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