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Wolframite

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Formula:
(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Greyish-black
Lustre:
Sub-Metallic
Hardness:
4 - 4½
Name:
Per Agricola, it is derived from "volf," "wolf," and "rahm," "ram," for "froth", "cream," "soot" (Latin = Lupi spuma), perhaps in allusion to an objectionable scum or substance formed during the smelting of tin ores containing tungsten; possibly also derived from "lupus" and "wolf", which were alchemists' terms for antimony, for which it may have been mistaken as an ore.
Material chemically intermediate between Hübnerite and Ferberite with unspecified chemical composition.

Occurs in high-temperature hydrothermal veins, in greisen, granitic pegmatites; in alluvial and eluvial deposits.

Classification of Wolframite

Intermediate member of Solid solution Series
Dana 7th ed.:
48.1.1.0
27.4.15

27 : Sulphites, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
4 : Tungstates
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Occurrences of Wolframite

Geological Setting:
High-temperature hydrothermal veins; greisen, granitic pegmatites; alluvial and eluvial deposits.

Physical Properties of Wolframite

Sub-Metallic
Colour:
Greyish-black
Streak:
Reddish brown
Hardness (Mohs):
4 - 4½
Tenacity:
Brittle
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven

Crystallography of Wolframite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P2/b
Morphology:
Crystals tabular or short prismatic. Often grouped in parallel.

Crystallographic forms of Wolframite

Crystal Atlas:
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Wolframite no.37 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Wolframite - {100}, {010}, {102}, modified
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Chemical Properties of Wolframite

Formula:
(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Wolframite to other Species

Common Associates:
27.4.1CuprotungstiteCu2(WO4)(OH)2
27.4.2ScheeliteCa(WO4)
27.4.4AnthoiniteAlWO3(OH)3
27.4.5MpororoiteWAlO3(OH)3 · 2(H2O)
27.4.6Yttrotungstite-(Y)YW2O6(OH)3
27.4.7Yttrotungstite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,Y)W2O6(OH)3
27.4.8StolzitePb(WO4)
27.4.9RaspitePb(WO4)
27.4.10RusselliteBi2WO6
27.4.11PinalitePb3WO5Cl2
27.4.12Uranotungstite(Fe2+,Ba,Pb)(UO2)2(WO4)(OH)4 · 12H2O
27.4.13HübneriteMnWO4
27.4.14FerberiteFeWO4
27.4.16Ferritungstite
27.4.17Phyllotungstite(H2O,M)x(W,Fe)(O,OH)3 · yH2O (M = Ca, Cs, Pb or K)
27.4.18Qitianlingite(Fe,Mn)2(Nb,Ta)2WO10

Other Names for Wolframite

Other Information

Other Information:
Slightly magnetic. Decomposed by aqua regia with the separation of tungstic oxide.

Forms pseudomorphs after Scheelite. Often more or less completely replaced by Scheelite. Pseudomorphs of Quartz, Hematite, Marcasite, and Kaolinite after Wolframite noted.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Ore of tungsten.

References for Wolframite

Reference List:
Agricola (1546) De Natura Fossilium: 255 (as Lupi Spuma).

Agricola (1546) De Natura Fossilium: 255 (as Lapis niger ex quo conflatur candidum plumbum).

Henckel, J. Fr. (1725) Pyritologia oder Kiess-Historie. Leipzig: 171 (as Wolfram).

Wallerius, J.G (1747) Mineralogia, eller Mineralriket. Stockholm: 268 (as Volfram).

Cronstedt A. (1758) Mineralogie; eller Mineral-Rikets Upstallning. 12mo, Stockholm: 107.

Linnaeus (1778) Natursystem des Mineralreichs, Gmelin: 3: 78 (as Lupus jovis, molybdaenum).

Pryce (1778) Pryce, W. (1778) Mineralogia cornubiensis. 331pp., London: 317, 321, 324 (as Cal, Call, Gal, Mock-lead).

de Elhuyar, J.J. and F. (1785) A Chemical Examination of Wolfram and Examination of a New Metal Which Enters into its Composition, London (as Tungstic acid, iron, and manganese).

Cronstedt (1788) Magellan’s edition in English, 2 volumes, 8vo, London: 208, 866 (as Wolframum, Manganesia, parva cum portoine martis et jovis mixta).

Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol. Paris: 4: 314 (as Schéelin ferruginé).

Haüy, R.J. (1822), Traité de minéralogie. second edition, 4 volumes, with fol. Atlas: 4: 366 (as Schéelin ferruginé).

Mohs, F. (1822) Grundriss der Mineralogie. 2 volumes, Dresden (as Prismatisches Scheel-Erz).

Haidinger, Wm. (1825) Treatise on Mineralogy, by F. Mohs; translation with considerable additions. 3 volumes, Edinburg: 2: 387 (as Prismatic scheelium ore).

Naumann, C.F. (1830) Lehrbuch der Krystallographie. 2 volumes, Leipzig: 2: Tafel 32.

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 659 (as Eisenscheel).

Breithaupt, A. (1832) Vollständige Characteristik etc.: 2nd. Ed.: 227 (as Wolframit).

Dana, J.D. (1837) System of Mineralogy, 1st. edition, New Haven: 373 (as Wolfram).

Lévy, A. (1837) Description d’une collection de minéraux formée par M. Henri Heuland, et appartenant à M. Ch. H. Turner, de Rooksnest, dans le comté de Surrey en Angleterre. 3 volumes and atlas of 85 plates, London: 3: 362.

Rose (1845) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 64: 175.

Breithaupt, A. (1847) Vollständige Handbuch der Mineralogie. Dresden and Leipzig. Vol. 3: Tafel 16.

Kerndt (1847) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 42: 81.

Des Cloizeaux (1850) Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 28: 163.

Miller (1852): 473.

Dufrénoy, A. (1856): 2: 636; Atlas, Plate 74.

Des Cloizeaux (1870) Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 19: 168.

Groth and Arzruni (1873) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 149: 235.

Krenner (1875) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 5: 9.

Fritsch (1878) Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaften, HalleP: 3: 864 ("Reinite" pseudomorphs after Scheelite).

Luedecke (1879) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 286 ("Reinite" pseudomorphs after Scheelite).

Purgold (1883) Isis, Dresden: 73.

Seligmann (1886) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 11: 347.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 982.

Genth and Penfield (1892) American Journal of Science: 43: 184.

Maskelyne (1895): 369.

Winkeltabellen (1897): 366.

Warren (1901) American Journal of Science: 11: 369.

Bøggild (1905) Meddelelser om Grønland, no. 32: 179.

Brögger (1908) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 45: 87 (morphological comparison to columbite).

Tronquoy (1913) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 36: 113.

Hess and Schaller (1914) U.S. Geological Survey Bull. 583: 20, 36, 37, 40.

Wherry (1914) Proceedings of the .S. National Museum: 47: 501.

Hess (1915) U.S. Geological Survey Bull. 652.

Jimbo (1915) Beiträge zur Mineralogie von Japan, Tokyo: no. 5: 256.

Dewey and Bromehead (1916) Mem. Geological Survey, Special Report, Tungsten and Manganese Ores.

Bravo (1921) Arch. Assoc. peruana Prog. Cienc.: 1: 141 [Zs Kr. (1924): 59: 487].

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 157.

Pereirqa-Ferraz (1921) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 173: 1170.

Goldschmidt, V. (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text. Heidelberg. vol. 9: 86.

Gordon (1924) Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia: 76: 335.

Dupare (1925) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 38: 116-117.

Koch (1925) Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Nat. Hungarici: 22: 146 [Min. Abs. (1926): 3: 101].

Swanson (1925) University iof Toronto Studies, Geology Series, no. 20: 28.

Jahn (1926) Vogtländ. Ges. Naturfor. Mitt.: no. 3: 1 [Min. Abs. (1926): 3: 154].

Smith (1926) Mineralogy of New South WAles, Department of Mines, Mineral Resources, no. 34, p. 132.

Doelter (1928): 4 [2]: 825, 846.

Broch (1929) Norske Videnskaps-Akademi, Oslo, Mat.-Nat. Kl., Skrifter, no. 8.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4067, 4103, 4112, 4113, 4117, 4143.

Fisher (1930) American Mineralogist: 15: 104.

Parga (1930) Anal. Soc. españ. Fis. Quím.: 28: 905 (Ta content).

Van Horn (1930) American Mineralogist: 15: 461.

Franzenau and Tokody (1931) Mathematische und Naturwissenschaftliche Berichte aus Ungarn, Berlin, Budapest, Leipzig: 38: 236 [Min. Abs. (1934): 5: 135].

Schneiderhöhn, Hans and Ramdohr, P. (1931) Lehrbuch der Erzmikroskopie. 2 volumes. Berlin. vol. 2, 714 pp. (1931) (descriptive): 606-607.

Ahlfeld (1932) Chemie der Erde, Jena: 7: 121.

Lacroix (1933) Bull. serv. Geol. Indochine: 20 [Min. Abs. (1935): 6: 21].

Lindgren, W. (1933) Mineral Deposits. Fourth edition, 930pp. New York: 596, 659, 761.

Ellsworth and Jolliffe (1937) University of Toronto Studies, Geology Series: no. 40: 71.

Loomis (1937) Economic Geology: 32: 952.

Ahlfeld , Fr. and Reyes, J. Muñoz (1938), Mineralogie von Bolivien: 63.

Angelelli and Chaudet (1939) Rev. Min. Soc. Argentine Min. Geol.: 10: 74.

Bunin, Klimov, and Umansky (1940) J. Phys. Chem., Ac. Sc. U.S.S.R.: 14: 844.

Short, Max N. (1940) “Microscopic Determination of the Ore Minerals,” Second edition, USGS Bulletin 914: 167-168.

Lovering (1941) Economic Geology: 36: 229.

Wilson (1941) rizona Bureau of Mines, Geology Series, Bll. 148.

Bailly (1942) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales: 65: B133.

Ke-Chin Hsu (1943) Economic Geology: 38: 431.

Li and Wang (1943) Tungsten. New York.

Gordon (1944) Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia: 96: 279.

Juan (1946) Economic Geology: 41: 399.

Kerr (1946) Geological Society of America, mem: 15.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume II: 1064-1072.

Geological Society of America Memoir 85 (1962), 222.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1976): 144: 238.

Picot -Johan (1982): 393.

Quantitative Data File for Ore Minerals, 3rd edition, (1993): 625.

Internet Links for Wolframite

Specimens:
The following Wolframite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Wolframite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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