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Wollastonite

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William Hyde Wollaston
Formula:
CaSiO3
This formula only indicates the stoichiometry of the mineral. In order to reflect the structural units the mineral is composed of, the formula may also be written as Ca(Si3O9)0.33 or as Ca3(Si3O9).
System:
Triclinic
Colour:
White, gray-white, light ...
Hardness:
4½ - 5
Name:
Named in 1818 by J. Léman in honor of William Hyde Wollaston [August 6, 1766 East Dereham, Norfolk, England, United Kingdom - December 22, 1828 London, England, United Kingdom], English chemist and mineralogist who discovered palladium (1804) and rhodium (1809) and invented the reflecting goniometer (1809) and the camera lucida (1812).
Several triclinic and monoclinic polytypes are known.

The structure of wollastonite contains dreier single chains with the repeating unit (Si3O9)6-.

Classification of Wollastonite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered" 1962
9.DG.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
G : Inosilicates with 3-periodic single and multiple chains
65.2.1.1c

65 : INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
2 : Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
14.5.1

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
5 : Silicates of Ca
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Occurrences of Wollastonite

Geological Setting:
In thermally metamorphosed siliceous carbonates, in the igneous rocks and as a skarn deposit.

Physical Properties of Wollastonite

Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Pearly on cleavage
Colour:
White, gray-white, light green, pinkish, brown, red, yellow
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
4½ - 5
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {001}
Good on {001} and {102}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
2.86 - 3.09 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.9 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Wollastonite

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
Wollastonite-1AWollastonite-2MWollastonite-3ÅWollastonite-4ÅWollastonite-5ÅWollastonite-7Å
CaSiO3CaSiO3   CaSiO3
Triclinic Monoclinic    Triclinic 
      
      






      
      
      

Crystallographic forms of Wollastonite

Crystal Atlas:
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Wollastonite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Wollastonite no.27 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Wollastonite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.616 - 1.640 nβ = 1.628 - 1.650 nγ = 1.631 - 1.653
2V:
Measured: 36° to 60°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.015
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
weak r>v

Chemical Properties of Wollastonite

Formula:
CaSiO3

This formula only indicates the stoichiometry of the mineral. In order to reflect the structural units the mineral is composed of, the formula may also be written as Ca(Si3O9)0.33 or as Ca3(Si3O9).
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Wollastonite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
FerrobustamiteCaFe2+(Si2O6)
Keatingine
PectoliteNaCa2(HSi3O9)
SéranditeNa(Mn2+,Ca)2(HSi3O9)
TanohataiteLiMn2(HSi3O9)
9.DG.05BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
9.DG.05FerrobustamiteCaFe2+(Si2O6)
9.DG.05PectoliteNaCa2(HSi3O9)
9.DG.05SéranditeNa(Mn2+,Ca)2(HSi3O9)
9.DG.05Wollastonite-1ACaSiO3
9.DG.07CascanditeCa(Sc,Fe3+)(HSi3O9)
9.DG.08Plombièrite[Ca4Si6O16(OH)2 · 2H2O]·(Ca·5H2O)
9.DG.10Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
9.DG.10RiversideiteCa5(HSi3O9)2 · 2H2O
9.DG.10Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
9.DG.15FoshagiteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2
9.DG.20JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O
9.DG.25ParaumbiteK3Zr2H(Si3O9)2 · nH2O
9.DG.25UmbiteK2(Zr,Ti)Si3O9 · H2O
9.DG.30SørenseniteNa4SnBe2Si6O16(OH)4
9.DG.35XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
9.DG.40HillebranditeCa2(SiO3)(OH)2
9.DG.45ZoriteNa8(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,O)5 · 14H2O
9.DG.45ChivruaiiteCa4(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,O)5 · 13-14H2O
9.DG.50Haineaultite(Na,Ca)5Ca(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,F)8 · 5H2O
9.DG.55EpididymiteNa2Be2Si6O15 · H2O
9.DG.60EudidymiteNa2Be2Si6O15 · H2O
9.DG.65ElpiditeNa2ZrSi6O15 · 3H2O
9.DG.70Fenaksite(K,Na)4(Fe,Mn)2(Si4O10)2(OH,F)
9.DG.70LitidioniteCuNaKSi4O10
9.DG.70ManaksiteKNaMnSi4O10
9.DG.75TinaksiteK2Na(Ca,Mn2+)2Ti[O|Si7O18(OH)]
9.DG.75TokkoiteK2Ca4Si7O17(O,OH,F)4
9.DG.75SenkevichiteCsKNaCa2Ti[O|Si7O18(OH)]
9.DG.80CanasiteK2Na4Ca5(Si12O30(OH,F)4
9.DG.80FluorcanasiteK3Na3Ca5Si12O30F4 · H2O
9.DG.85MiseriteK1.5-x(Ca,Y,REE)5(Si6O15)(Si2O7)(OH,F)2 · yH2O
9.DG.90FrankameniteK3Na3Ca5(Si12O30)(F,OH)4 · H2O
9.DG.92Charoite(K,Sr)15-16(Ca,Na)32[Si6O11(O,OH)6]2[Si12O18(O,OH)12]2[Si17O25(O,OH)18]2(OH,F)4 · ~3H2O
9.DG.95Yuksporite(K,Ba)NaCa2(Si,Ti)4O11(F,OH) · H2O
9.DG.97Eveslogite(Na,K,Ca,Sr,Ba)48 [(Ti,Nb,Mn,Fe2+)12Si48O144(OH)12](F,OH,Cl)14
14.5.2Wollastonite-7T
14.5.3Wollastonite-2MCaSiO3
14.5.4RankiniteCa3Si2O7
14.5.5KilchoaniteCa6(SiO4)(Si3O10)
14.5.6LarniteCa2SiO4
14.5.7BredigiteCa7Mg(SiO4)4
14.5.8HatruriteCa3(SiO4)O
14.5.9RosenhahniteHCa3[Si3O9(OH)]
14.5.10DellaiteCa6(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2
14.5.11AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
14.5.12XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
14.5.13FoshagiteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2
14.5.14HillebranditeCa2(SiO3)(OH)2
14.5.15JaffeiteCa6(Si2O7)(OH)6
14.5.16SuoluniteCa2(H2Si2O7) · H2O
14.5.17KillalaiteCa6.4(H0.6Si2O7)2(OH)2
14.5.18OkeniteCa10Si18O46 · 18H2O
14.5.19RiversideiteCa5(HSi3O9)2 · 2H2O
14.5.20TrabzoniteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2
14.5.21GyroliteNaCa16Si23AlO60(OH)8 · 14H2O
14.5.22FoshallasiteCa3[Si2O7] · 3H2O(?)
14.5.23Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
14.5.24Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
14.5.25NekoiteCa3Si6O15·7H2O
14.5.26Plombièrite[Ca4Si6O16(OH)2 · 2H2O]·(Ca·5H2O)
14.5.27JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O

Other Names for Wollastonite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Wollastonite

Reference List:
Klaproth, M.H. (1802): Chemische Untersuchung des Tafelspaths, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Dritter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 289-291
J. Léman (1818)Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle
Peacock, Martin Alfred (1935), On wollastonite and parawollastonite American Journal of Science, 5th. series: 30: 495-529.

Greenwood, H. J. (1967): Am. Mineral. 52, 1669-1680. [on stability; http://www.minsocam.org/ammin/AM52/AM52_1669.pdf]

Trommsdorf, V. (1968) Mineralreaktione mit Wollastonit und Vesuvian in einem Kalksilikatfels der alpinen Disthenzone (Claro, Tessin), Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 48: 655-666 (in German).

Wenk, H.R. (1969) Polymorphism of wollastonite. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 22: 238-247.

Rustein, M.S. (1971) Re-examination of the wollastonite-hedenbergite (CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6) equilibria. American Mineralogist: 56: 2040-2052.

Shimazaki, H. and Yamanaka, T. (1973) Iron-wollastonite from skarns and its stability relation in the CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6 join. Geochemical Journal: 7: 67-79.

Ohashi, Y. and Finger, L.W. (1978) The role of octahedral cations in pyroxenoid crystal chemistry. I. Bustamite, wollastonite, and the pectolite-schizolite-serandite series. American Mineralogist: 63: 274-288.

American Mineralogist (1979): 64: 658.

Valley, J.W. and Essene, E.J. (1979) Vesuvianite, akermanite, monticellite and wollastonite equlibria and high X H2O/CO2 at Cascade slide, Mt Marcy Quad, Adirondack Mts. EOS: 60: 423.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 168: 93-98.

Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 107: 463-466.

Henmi, C., Kawahara, A., Henmi, K., Kusachi, I., and Takeuchi, Y. (1983) The 3T, 4T and 5T polytypes of the wollastonite from Kushiro, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. American Mineralogist: 68: 156-163.

Ohashi, Y. (1984) Polysynthetically-twinned structures of enstatite and wollastonite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 10: 217-229.

Richet, P. and Bottinga, Y. (1984b) Anorthite, andesine, wollastonite, dopside, cordierite, and pyrope thermodynamics of melting, glass transitions, and properties of the amorphous phases. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 67: 415-432.

Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva (1984): 113: 721-722.

Seto, Y., Ohi, S., Shimobayashi, N., Kitamura, M., Miyake, A., Hiroi, Y., and Grantham, G.H. (2006) Clinopyroxene exsolution in wollastonite from Namaqualand granulite, South Africa. American Mineralogist: 91: 446-450.

Internet Links for Wollastonite

Specimens:
The following Wollastonite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Wollastonite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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