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Wollastonite

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Formula:
CaSiO
 
3
This formula only indicates the stoichiometry of the mineral. In order to reflect the structural units the mineral is composed of, the formula may also be written as Ca(Si3O9)0.33 or as Ca3(Si3O9).
System:TriclinicColour:White, gray-white, light ...
Hardness:4½ - 5
Member of:Wollastonite Group
Name:
Named in 1818 by J. Léman in honor of William Hyde Wollaston [August 6, 1766 East Dereham, Norfolk, England, United Kingdom - December 22, 1828 London, England, United Kingdom], English chemist and mineralogist who discovered palladium (1804) and rhodium (1809) and invented the reflecting goniometer (1809) and the camera lucida (1812).
Dimorph of:Pseudowollastonite


Several triclinic and monoclinic polytypes are known.

The structure of wollastonite contains dreier single chains with the repeating unit (Si3O9)6-.

Classification of Wollastonite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered" 1962
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/F.18-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.DG.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
G : Inosilicates with 3-periodic single and multiple chains
Dana 8th edition ID:65.2.1.1c

65 : INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
2 : Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.5.1

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
5 : Silicates of Ca
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Occurrences of Wollastonite

Geological Setting:In thermally metamorphosed siliceous carbonates, in the igneous rocks and as a skarn deposit.

Physical Properties of Wollastonite

Lustre:Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Comment:Pearly on cleavage
Colour:White, gray-white, light green, pinkish, brown, red, yellow
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):4½ - 5
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {001}
Good on {001} and {102}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):2.86 - 3.09 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.9 g/cm3

Crystallography of Wollastonite

Crystal System:Triclinic
Class (H-M):1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:P1
Cell Parameters:a = 7.925Å, b = 7.32Å, c = 7.065Å
α = 90.055°, β = 95.217°, γ = 103.42°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.083 : 1 : 0.965
Unit Cell Volume:V 396.90 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Tabular, short or long prismatic. Commonly fibrous, compact, massive.
Twinning:Common, twin axis [010], composition plane {100}.
Comment:Cell refers to 1A polytype; several triclinic and monoclinic polytypes are known.
Crystal Atlas:
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Wollastonite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Wollastonite no.27 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Wollastonite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.616 - 1.640 nβ = 1.628 - 1.650 nγ = 1.631 - 1.653
2V:Measured: 36° to 60°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.015

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:weak r>v

Chemical Properties of Wollastonite

Formula:
CaSiO
 
3


This formula only indicates the stoichiometry of the mineral. In order to reflect the structural units the mineral is composed of, the formula may also be written as Ca(Si3O9)0.33 or as Ca3(Si3O9).
Simplified for copy/paste:CaSiO3
Essential elements:Ca, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Ca, O, Si

Relationship of Wollastonite to other Species

Member of:Wollastonite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Bustamite
CaMn
2+
 
(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)
Ferrobustamite
Ca(Fe
2+
 
,Ca,Mn
2+
 
)(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)
Keatingine
Pectolite
NaCa
 
2
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
Sérandite
Na(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
2
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
Tanohataite
LiMn
 
2
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.DG.05Bustamite
CaMn
2+
 
(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)
9.DG.05Ferrobustamite
Ca(Fe
2+
 
,Ca,Mn
2+
 
)(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)
9.DG.05Pectolite
NaCa
 
2
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
9.DG.05Sérandite
Na(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
2
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
9.DG.05Wollastonite-1A
CaSiO
 
3
9.DG.07Cascandite
Ca(Sc,Fe
3+
 
)(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
9.DG.08Plombièrite
[Ca
 
4
Si
 
6
O
 
16
(OH)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O]·(Ca·5H
 
2
O)
9.DG.10Clinotobermorite
[Ca
 
4
Si
 
6
O
 
17
· 2H
 
2
O]·(Ca·3H
 
2
O)
9.DG.10Riversideite
Ca
 
5
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
9.DG.10Tobermorite
[Ca
 
4
Si
 
6
O
 
17
· 2H
 
2
O]·(Ca·3H
 
2
O)
9.DG.15Foshagite
Ca
 
4
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)(OH)
 
2
9.DG.20Jennite
Ca
 
9
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 8H
 
2
O
9.DG.25Paraumbite
K
 
3
Zr
 
2
H(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
9.DG.25Umbite
K
 
2
(Zr,Ti)Si
 
3
O
 
9
· H
 
2
O
9.DG.30Sørensenite
Na
 
4
SnBe
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
16
(OH)
 
4
9.DG.35Xonotlite
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)(OH)
 
2
9.DG.40Hillebrandite
Ca
 
2
(SiO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
9.DG.45Zorite
Na
 
8
(Ti,Nb)
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)
 
2
(OH,O)
 
5
· 14H
 
2
O
9.DG.45Chivruaiite
Ca
 
4
(Ti,Nb)
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)
 
2
(OH,O)
 
5
· 13-14H
 
2
O
9.DG.50Haineaultite
(Na,Ca)
 
5
Ca(Ti,Nb)
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
8
· 5H
 
2
O
9.DG.55Epididymite
Na
 
2
Be
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
15
· H
 
2
O
9.DG.60Eudidymite
Na
 
2
Be
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
15
· H
 
2
O
9.DG.65Elpidite
Na
 
2
ZrSi
 
6
O
 
15
· 3H
 
2
O
9.DG.70Fenaksite
(K,Na)
 
4
(Fe,Mn)
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
9.DG.70Litidionite
CuNaKSi
 
4
O
 
10
9.DG.70Manaksite
KNaMnSi
 
4
O
 
10
9.DG.75Tinaksite
K
 
2
Na(Ca,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Ti[O|Si
 
7
O
 
18
(OH)]
9.DG.75Tokkoite
K
 
2
Ca
 
4
Si
 
7
O
 
17
(O,OH,F)
 
4
9.DG.75Senkevichite
CsKNaCa
 
2
Ti[O|Si
 
7
O
 
18
(OH)]
9.DG.80Canasite
K
 
2
Na
 
4
Ca
 
5
(Si
 
12
O
 
30
(OH,F)
 
4
9.DG.80Fluorcanasite
K
 
3
Na
 
3
Ca
 
5
Si
 
12
O
 
30
F
 
4
· H
 
2
O
9.DG.85Miserite
K(Ca,Ce)
 
4
Si
 
5
O
 
13
(OH)
 
3
9.DG.90Frankamenite
K
 
3
Na
 
3
Ca
 
5
(Si
 
12
O
 
30
)(F,OH)
 
4
· H
 
2
O
9.DG.92Charoite
(K,Sr)
 
15-16
(Ca,Na)
 
32
[Si
 
6
O
 
11
(O,OH)
 
6
]
 
2
[Si
 
12
O
 
18
(O,OH)
 
12
]
 
2
[Si
 
17
O
 
25
(O,OH)
 
18
]
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4
· ~3H
 
2
O
9.DG.95Yuksporite
(K,Ba)NaCa
 
2
(Si,Ti)
 
4
O
 
11
(F,OH) · H
 
2
O
9.DG.97Eveslogite
(Na,K,Ca,Sr,Ba)
 
48
[(Ti,Nb,Mn,Fe
2+
 
)
 
12
Si
 
48
O
 
144
(OH)
 
12
](F,OH,Cl)
 
14
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.5.2Wollastonite-7T
14.5.3Wollastonite-2M
CaSiO
 
3
14.5.4Rankinite
Ca
 
3
Si
 
2
O
 
7
14.5.5Kilchoanite
Ca
 
6
(SiO
 
4
)(Si
 
3
O
 
10
)
14.5.6Larnite
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
14.5.7Bredigite
Ca
 
7
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
14.5.8Hatrurite
Ca
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)O
14.5.9Rosenhahnite
HCa
 
3
[Si
 
3
O
 
9
(OH)]
14.5.10Dellaite
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.11Afwillite
Ca
 
3
(HSiO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
14.5.12Xonotlite
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.13Foshagite
Ca
 
4
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.14Hillebrandite
Ca
 
2
(SiO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.15Jaffeite
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(OH)
 
6
14.5.16Suolunite
Ca
 
2
(H
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
7
) · H
 
2
O
14.5.17Killalaite
Ca
 
6.4
(H
 
0.6
Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
14.5.18Okenite
CaSi
 
2
O
 
5
· 2H
 
2
O
14.5.19Riversideite
Ca
 
5
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
14.5.20Trabzonite
Ca
 
4
(Si
 
3
O
 
10
) · 2H
 
2
O
14.5.21Gyrolite
NaCa
 
16
Si
 
23
AlO
 
60
(OH)
 
8
· 14H
 
2
O
14.5.22Foshallasite
Ca
 
3
[Si
 
2
O
 
7
] · 3H
 
2
O(?)
14.5.23Tobermorite
[Ca
 
4
Si
 
6
O
 
17
· 2H
 
2
O]·(Ca·3H
 
2
O)
14.5.24Clinotobermorite
[Ca
 
4
Si
 
6
O
 
17
· 2H
 
2
O]·(Ca·3H
 
2
O)
14.5.25Nekoite
Ca
 
3
Si
 
6
O
 
15
·7H
 
2
O
14.5.26Plombièrite
[Ca
 
4
Si
 
6
O
 
16
(OH)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O]·(Ca·5H
 
2
O)
14.5.27Jennite
Ca
 
9
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 8H
 
2
O

Other Names for Wollastonite

Synonyms:
Aedelforsite (of Beudant)Brunstens-tremolitGillebachiteGillebäckiteGjellebäckite
GrammiteOkenite (of Rink)ParawollastoniteRivaiteTabular Spar
VilniteWollastonite (of Léman)
Other Languages:
German:Ädelforsit (nach Erdmann)
Braunstein-Tremolith
Gillebäckit
Grammit
Rivait
Tafelspath (Stütz)
Tafelspat (Stütz)
Vilnit
Wollastonit
Russian:Волластонит
Simplified Chinese:硅灰石
Spanish:Gillebäckita
Grammita
Rivaita
Vilnita
Wollastonita
Varieties:
EdelfarseManganoparawollastonite

Polytypes for Wollastonite

Polytypes:
Wollastonite-1AWollastonite-2MWollastonite-3ÅWollastonite-4ÅWollastonite-5Å
Wollastonite-7Å

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Wollastonite

Reference List:

- +
Klaproth, M.H. (1802): Chemische Untersuchung des Tafelspaths, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Dritter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 289-291
J. Léman (1818)Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle
Peacock, Martin Alfred (1935), On wollastonite and parawollastonite American Journal of Science, 5th. series: 30: 495-529.

Greenwood, H. J. (1967): Am. Mineral. 52, 1669-1680. [on stability; http://www.minsocam.org/ammin/AM52/AM52_1669.pdf]

Trommsdorf, V. (1968) Mineralreaktione mit Wollastonit und Vesuvian in einem Kalksilikatfels der alpinen Disthenzone (Claro, Tessin), Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 48: 655-666 (in German).

Wenk, H.R. (1969) Polymorphism of wollastonite. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 22: 238-247.

Rustein, M.S. (1971) Re-examination of the wollastonite-hedenbergite (CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6) equilibria. American Mineralogist: 56: 2040-2052.

Shimazaki, H. and Yamanaka, T. (1973) Iron-wollastonite from skarns and its stability relation in the CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6 join. Geochemical Journal: 7: 67-79.

Ohashi, Y. and Finger, L.W. (1978) The role of octahedral cations in pyroxenoid crystal chemistry. I. Bustamite, wollastonite, and the pectolite-schizolite-serandite series. American Mineralogist: 63: 274-288.

American Mineralogist (1979): 64: 658.

Valley, J.W. and Essene, E.J. (1979) Vesuvianite, akermanite, monticellite and wollastonite equlibria and high X H2O/CO2 at Cascade slide, Mt Marcy Quad, Adirondack Mts. EOS: 60: 423.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 168: 93-98.

Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 107: 463-466.

Henmi, C., Kawahara, A., Henmi, K., Kusachi, I., and Takeuchi, Y. (1983) The 3T, 4T and 5T polytypes of the wollastonite from Kushiro, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. American Mineralogist: 68: 156-163.

Ohashi, Y. (1984) Polysynthetically-twinned structures of enstatite and wollastonite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 10: 217-229.

Richet, P. and Bottinga, Y. (1984b) Anorthite, andesine, wollastonite, dopside, cordierite, and pyrope thermodynamics of melting, glass transitions, and properties of the amorphous phases. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 67: 415-432.

Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva (1984): 113: 721-722.

Seto, Y., Ohi, S., Shimobayashi, N., Kitamura, M., Miyake, A., Hiroi, Y., and Grantham, G.H. (2006) Clinopyroxene exsolution in wollastonite from Namaqualand granulite, South Africa. American Mineralogist: 91: 446-450.

Internet Links for Wollastonite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
  • Look for Wollastonite on Webmineral
  • Look for Wollastonite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Wollastonite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Wollastonite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Wollastonite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Specimens:The following Wollastonite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Wollastonite

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