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Xenotime-(Y)

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Formula:
Y(PO
 
4
)
May contain minor HREE, Ca, U, Th, Si, F and other elements.
System:TetragonalColour:Yellowish brown, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, ResinousHardness:4 - 5
Member of:Xenotime Group
Name:From the Greek κευός = "vain" and τιμή = "honor," in allusion to the fact that the yttrium in it was mistaken for a new element.
Isostructural with:Zircon


Xenotime Group. Chernovite-(Y)-Xenotime-(Y) Series.

The X-ray powder diffraction pattern is similar to that of atelisite-(Y).

Classification of Xenotime-(Y)

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/A.14-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.AD.35

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
A : Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
Dana 7th edition ID:38.4.9.1
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.9.1

19 : Phosphates
9 : Phosphates of rare earths and Sc
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Type Occurrence of Xenotime-(Y)

Type Locality:Hidra (Hitterø), Flekkefjord, Vest-Agder, Norway
Year of Discovery:1824
Geological Setting of type material:Granite pegmatite

Occurrences of Xenotime-(Y)

Geological Setting:Minor accessory mineral in acidic and alkalic igneous rocks and pegmatites; in mica and quartz rich gneisses. Also as a detrital mineral.

Physical Properties of Xenotime-(Y)

Lustre:Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent, Opaque
Colour:Yellowish brown, reddish, brown, light red, light green, gray; colourless to very light yellowish green, yellow or yellowish brown in transmitted light.
Streak:Pale brown, yellowish or reddish, white
Hardness (Mohs):4 - 5
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Imperfect/Fair
On {100}, complete.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Splintery
Density (measured):4.4 - 5.1 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.277 g/cm3

Crystallography of Xenotime-(Y)

Crystal System:Tetragonal
Class (H-M):4/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:I41/a
Cell Parameters:a = 6.888(4) Å, c = 6.029(8) Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.875
Unit Cell Volume:V 286.04 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals short to long prismatic [001]; also equant, pyramidal; as crude radial aggregates comprised of coarse crystals; in rosettes.
Twinning:On {111}, rare.
Crystal Atlas:
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Xenotime no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Xenotime no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Epitaxial Relationships of Xenotime-(Y)

Epitaxial Minerals:
Zircon
ZrSiO
 
4
Epitaxi Comments:Parallel growth with zircon common.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Xenotime-(Y)

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.720 nε = 1.816 - 1.827
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.096

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:Dichroic:

O = Pink, yellow, or yellowish brown
E = Brownish yellow, grayish brown, or greenish

Chemical Properties of Xenotime-(Y)

Formula:
Y(PO
 
4
)


May contain minor HREE, Ca, U, Th, Si, F and other elements.
Simplified for copy/paste:Y(PO4)
Essential elements:O, P, Y
All elements listed in formula:O, P, Y

Relationship of Xenotime-(Y) to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Chernovite-(Y) (see here)
Member of:Xenotime Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Chernovite-(Y)
Y(AsO
 
4
)
Pretulite
Sc(PO
 
4
)
Wakefieldite-(Ce)
Ce(VO
 
4
)
Wakefieldite-(La)
La(VO
 
4
)
Wakefieldite-(Nd)
Nd(VO
 
4
)
Wakefieldite-(Y)
Y(VO
 
4
)
Xenotime-(Yb)
(Yb,Y,HREE)(PO
 
4
)
Common Associates:
ZirconSillimaniteSillimaniteRutileMonazite
MagnetiteK FeldsparIlmeniteHematiteAnatase
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.AD.05Nahpoite
Na
 
2
HPO
 
4
8.AD.10Monetite
Ca(HPO
 
4
)
8.AD.10Weilite
Ca(HAsO
 
4
)
8.AD.10Švenekite
Ca(H
 
2
AsO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AD.15Archerite
(K,NH
 
4
)(H
 
2
PO
 
4
)
8.AD.15Biphosphammite
(NH
 
4
,K)(H
 
2
PO
 
4
)
8.AD.20Phosphammite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)
8.AD.25Buchwaldite
NaCa(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.30Schultenite
Pb(HAsO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Chernovite-(Y)
Y(AsO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Dreyerite
Bi(VO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(Ce)
Ce(VO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(Y)
Y(VO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Pretulite
Sc(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Xenotime-(Yb)
(Yb,Y,HREE)(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(La)
La(VO
 
4
)
8.AD.40Pucherite
Bi(VO
 
4
)
8.AD.45Ximengite
Bi(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.50Gasparite-(Ce)
(Ce,REE)(AsO
 
4
)
8.AD.50Monazite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Nd,Th)(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.50Monazite-(La)
(La,Ce,Nd)(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.50Monazite-(Nd)
(Nd,La,Ce)(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.50Rooseveltite
Bi(AsO
 
4
)
8.AD.50Cheralite
(Ca,Ce)(Th,Ce)(PO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AD.50Monazite-(Sm)
(Sm,Gd,Ce,Th)(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.50UM2005-35-VO:CaFePSiTh
(Th,Ca)(VO
 
4
,SiO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)
8.AD.55Tetrarooseveltite
Bi(AsO
 
4
)
8.AD.60Chursinite
(Hg
+
2
)
 
0.5
Hg
2+
 
(AsO
 
4
)
8.AD.65Clinobisvanite
Bi(VO
 
4
)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.9.2Churchite-(Y)
Y(PO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
19.9.3Monazite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Nd,Th)(PO
 
4
)
19.9.4Monazite-(La)
(La,Ce,Nd)(PO
 
4
)
19.9.5Monazite-(Nd)
(Nd,La,Ce)(PO
 
4
)
19.9.6Rhabdophane-(Ce)
(Ce,La)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
19.9.7Rhabdophane-(La)
(La,Ce)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
19.9.8Rhabdophane-(Nd)
(Nd,Ce,La)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
19.9.9Vitusite-(Ce)
Na
 
3
(Ce,La,Nd)(PO
 
4
)
 
2
19.9.10Florencite-(Ce)
CeAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
19.9.11Florencite-(La)
LaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
19.9.12Florencite-(Nd)
(Nd,La,Ce)Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
19.9.13Kolbeckite
ScPO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O

Other Names for Xenotime-(Y)

Synonyms:
CastelnauditeHussakitePhosphate of YttriaPhosphyttrieTankelite
Tankite (of Haidinger)Xenotimite
Other Languages:
German:Castelnaudit
Hussakit
Phosphorsaure Yttererde
Tankelit
Xenotim
Xenotimit
Xenotim-(Y)
Ytterspath
Japanese:ゼノタイム
Russian:Ксенотим-(Y)
Simplified Chinese:磷钇矿
Spanish:Castelnaudita
Hussakita
Tankelita
Xenotimita
Swedish:Phosphorsyrad Ytterjord
Varieties:
Chrysanthemum Stone (of Kimura)

Other Information

Magnetism:Paramagnetic
Other Information:Very slightly attacked or impervious to acids, depending on the composition.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:An ore of yttrium.

References for Xenotime-(Y)

Reference List:

- +
Berzelius, J. (1824): Undersökning af några Mineralier. 1. Phosphorsyrad Ytterjord. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, 2 : 334-338
(as Phosphorsyrad Ytterjord).

Glocker, E.F. (1831): Handbuch der Mineralogie, Nürnberg: 959 (as Ytterspath).

Beudant, F.S. (1832): Traité élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 552 (as Xenotime).

Scheerer, T. (1843): Ueber den Fundort und die Krystallform der phosphorsauren Yttererde. Annalen der Physik und Chemie (herausgegeben zu Berlin von J.C.Poggendorff).60:591-594

Damour (1853) L'Institut: 78 (as Castelnaudite).

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 748.

Eakins analysis in: Hidden (1893) American Journal of Science: 46: 255.

Penfield (1893) American Journal of Science: 45: 398.

Kraus and Reitinger (1901) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 34: 268 (as Hussakite).

Brögger (1904) Nytt Mag.: 42: 1.

Brögger (1906) Vidensk.-Selsk. Skr., Oslo, Math.-Nat. Kl.: 1: no. 6: 6.

Hussak (1907) Centralblatt für Mineralogie: 533.

Tschernik (1907) Verh. Min. Ges. St. Petersburg: 45: 425.

Tschernik (1910) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 47: 291.

Vegard (1917) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 33: 395.

Hintze, Carl (1922) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: vol. 1 [4A]: 240.

Goldschmidt, V. (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, Heidelberg: vol. 9: 102.

Vegard (1927) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 4: 511.

Clouse (1930) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 76: 285.

Clouse (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 83: 161.

Strunz (1936) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 94: 60.

Hutton (1947) American Mineralogist: 32: 141.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 688-691.

Mineralogical Magazine (1973): 39: 145.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 121: 315-316.

Bastos Neto, A. C., Pereira, V. P., Pires, A. C., Barbanson, L. & Chauvet, A. (2012): Fluorine-rich xenotime from the world-class Madeira Nb-Ta-Sn deposit associated with the albite-enchriched granite at Pitinga, Amazonia, Brazil. Canadian Mineralogist 50, 1453-1466.

Mindat.org articles about Xenotime-(Y)

Article entries:
Xenotime Occurrences in the Olary District of South AustraliaTrevor Dart

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