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Xenotime-(Y)

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Formula:
Y(PO4)
May contain minor HREE, Ca, U, Th, Si, F and other elements.
System:
Tetragonal
Colour:
Yellowish brown, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
4 - 5
Member of:
Name:
From the Greek κευός = "vain" and τιμή = "honor," in allusion to the fact that the yttrium in it was mistaken for a new element.
Isostructural with:
Xenotime Group. Chernovite-(Y)-Xenotime-(Y) Series. The P (or phosphate) analogue of chernovite-(Y) and wakefieldite-(Y).

A recent find of As-rich xenotime-(Y), accompanied by wakefieldite-(Ce) - wakefieldite-(Y) solid solution, in a silicified Agathoxylon wood is described by Matisová et al. (2016).

An interesting, strongly fluorine-enriched xenotime-(Y), was described from Madeira pluton, Pitinga, Brasil. It is though to contain some PO3F anions in the structure.

Classification of Xenotime-(Y)

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8.AD.35

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
A : Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
Dana 7th ed.:
38.4.9.1
19.9.1

19 : Phosphates
9 : Phosphates of rare earths and Sc
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Type Occurrence of Xenotime-(Y)

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Granite pegmatite

Occurrences of Xenotime-(Y)

Geological Setting:
Minor accessory mineral in acidic and alkalic igneous rocks and pegmatites; in mica and quartz rich gneisses. Also as a detrital mineral.

Physical Properties of Xenotime-(Y)

Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Yellowish brown, reddish, brown, light red, flesh-red, light green, gray, grayish-white, wine-yellow
Comment:
Colourless to very light yellowish green, yellow or yellowish brown in transmitted light
Streak:
Pale brown, yellowish or reddish, white
Hardness (Mohs):
4 - 5
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
On {100}, complete (good - according to the Handbook of Mineralogy)
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Splintery
Density:
4.4 - 5.1 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.277 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Xenotime-(Y)

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
I41/amd
Space Group Setting:
I41/amd
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.884-6.902(4) Å, c = 6.021-6.038(8) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.875
Unit Cell Volume:
V 285.33 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals short to long prismatic [001], wiht {010} and {110} faces; also equant, pyramidal {011}; as crude radial aggregates comprised of coarse crystals; in rosettes; crystals up to 5 cm are reported
Twinning:
On {111}, rare.

Crystallographic forms of Xenotime-(Y)

Crystal Atlas:
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Xenotime no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Xenotime no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Epitaxial Relationships of Xenotime-(Y)

Epitaxial Minerals:
ZirconZr(SiO4)
Epitaxy Comments:
Parallel growth with zircon common.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.443 (100)
2.558 (60)
1.762 (45)
4.54 (25)
2.145 (25)
1.820 (18)
1.721 (18)
Comments:
similar to that of atelisite-(Y)

Optical Data of Xenotime-(Y)

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.720 nε = 1.816 - 1.827
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.096
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Dichroic:

O = Pink, yellow, or yellowish brown
E = Brownish yellow, grayish brown, or greenish

Chemical Properties of Xenotime-(Y)

Formula:
Y(PO4)

May contain minor HREE, Ca, U, Th, Si, F and other elements.
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Gloserheia pegm., Norway / Switzerland, both by electron microprobe, wt.%, mean of 8 (Norway) and 82 (Switzerland) analyzes
P2O5 34.37 / 33.89
SiO2 0.31 / 0.10
UO2 - / 0.96
ThO2 - / 0.38
Y2O3 44.03 / 46.49
RE2O3 20.18 / 17.22
CaO 0.07 / -
Total 98.89 / 99.11

REE (Norway / Switzerland) [wt.%]

Nd2O3 0.17 / -
Sm2O3 0.49 / -
Eu2O3 0.07 / 0.04
Gd2O3 2.69 / 1.89
Tb2O3 0.58 / 0.60
Dy2O3 4.93 / 5.15
Ho2O3 1.27 / 1.06
Er2O3 4.05 / 3.86
Tm2O3 0.70 / -
Yb2O3 4.36 / 4.10
Lu2O3 0.87 / 0.52

Relationship of Xenotime-(Y) to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Chernovite-(Y) (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
8.AD.05NahpoiteNa2HPO4
8.AD.10MonetiteCa(HPO4)
8.AD.10WeiliteCa(HAsO4)
8.AD.10ŠvenekiteCa(H2AsO4)2
8.AD.15Archerite(K,NH4)(H2PO4)
8.AD.15Biphosphammite(NH4,K)(H2PO4)
8.AD.20Phosphammite(NH4)2(HPO4)
8.AD.25BuchwalditeNaCa(PO4)
8.AD.30SchultenitePb(HAsO4)
8.AD.35Chernovite-(Y)Y(AsO4)
8.AD.35DreyeriteBi(VO4)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(Ce)Ce(VO4)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(Y)Y(VO4)
8.AD.35PretuliteSc(PO4)
8.AD.35Xenotime-(Yb)Yb(PO4)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(La)La(VO4)
8.AD.40PucheriteBi(VO4)
8.AD.45XimengiteBi(PO4)
8.AD.50Gasparite-(Ce)Ce(AsO4)
8.AD.50Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
8.AD.50Monazite-(La)La(PO4)
8.AD.50Monazite-(Nd)Nd(PO4)
8.AD.50RooseveltiteBi(AsO4)
8.AD.50CheraliteCaTh(PO4)2
8.AD.50Monazite-(Sm)Sm(PO4)
8.AD.50UM2005-35-VO:CaFePSiTh(Th,Ca)(VO4,SiO4,PO4)
8.AD.55TetrarooseveltiteBi(AsO4)
8.AD.60Chursinite(Hg2+)0.5Hg2+(AsO4)
8.AD.65ClinobisvaniteBi(VO4)
19.9.2Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
19.9.3Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
19.9.4Monazite-(La)La(PO4)
19.9.5Monazite-(Nd)Nd(PO4)
19.9.6Rhabdophane-(Ce)(Ce,La)(PO4) · H2O
19.9.7Rhabdophane-(La)(La,Ce)(PO4) · H2O
19.9.8Rhabdophane-(Nd)(Nd,Ce,La)(PO4) · H2O
19.9.9Vitusite-(Ce)Na3(Ce,La,Nd)(PO4)2
19.9.10Florencite-(Ce)CeAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
19.9.11Florencite-(La)LaAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
19.9.12Florencite-(Nd)NdAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
19.9.13KolbeckiteScPO4 · 2H2O

Other Names for Xenotime-(Y)

Other Information

Magnetism:
Paramagnetic
Other Information:
Very slightly attacked or impervious to acids, depending on the composition.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
An ore of yttrium.

References for Xenotime-(Y)

Reference List:
Berzelius, J. (1824) Undersökning af några Mineralier. 1. Phosphorsyrad Ytterjord. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, 2 : 334-338
(as Phosphorsyrad Ytterjord).

Glocker, E.F. (1831) Handbuch der Mineralogie, Nürnberg: 959 (as Ytterspath).

Beudant, F.S. (1832) Xenotime, yttria phosphatée. Traité élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 552. (as Xenotime)

Scheerer, T. (1843) Ueber den Fundort und die Krystallform der phosphorsauren Yttererde. Annalen der Physik und Chemie: 60: 591-594.

Damour (1853) L'Institut: 78 (as Castelnaudite).

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 748.

Eakins analysis in: Hidden (1893) American Journal of Science: 46: 255.

Penfield (1893) American Journal of Science: 45: 398.

Kraus and Reitinger (1901) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 34: 268 (as Hussakite).

Brögger (1904) Nytt Mag.: 42: 1.

Brögger (1906) Vidensk.-Selsk. Skr., Oslo, Math.-Nat. Kl.: 1: no. 6: 6.

Hussak (1907) Centralblatt für Mineralogie: 533.

Tschernik (1907) Verh. Min. Ges. St. Petersburg: 45: 425.

Tschernik (1910) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 47: 291.

Vegard (1917) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 33: 395.

Hintze, Carl (1922) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: vol. 1 [4A]: 240.

Goldschmidt, V. (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, Heidelberg: vol. 9: 102.

Vegard (1927) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 4: 511.

Clouse (1930) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 76: 285.

Clouse (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 83: 161.

Strunz (1936) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 94: 60.

Hutton, C.O. (1947) Determination of xenotime. American Mineralogist: 32: 141.

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 688-691.

Kristanović, I. (1965) Redetermination of oxygen parameters in xenotime, YPO4. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 121: 315-316.

Graeser, S., Schwander, H., Stalder, H.A. (1973) A Solid Solution Series between Xenotime (YtPO4) and Chernovite (YtAsO4). Mineralogical Magazine: 39: 145.

Bastos Neto, A. C., Pereira, V. P., Pires, A. C., Barbanson, L., Chauvet, A. (2012) Fluorine-rich xenotime from the world-class Madeira Nb-Ta-Sn deposit associated with the albite-enchriched granite at Pitinga, Amazonia, Brazil. The Canadian Mineralogist 50, 1453-1466.

Lenz, C., Nasdala, L., Talla, D., Hauzenberger, H., Seitz, R., Kolitsch, U. (2015) Laser-induced REE3+ photoluminescence of selected accessory minerals: An “advantageous artefact” in Raman spectroscopy. Chemical Geology: 415: 1-16.

Matisová, P., Götze, J., Leichmann, J., Škoda, R., Strnad, L., Drahota, P., Grygar, T.M. (2016): Cathodoluminescence and LA-ICP-MS chemistry of silicified wood enclosing wakefieldite – REEs and V migration during complex diagenetic evolution. European Journal of Mineralogy: 28 (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12810 (2016)

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W. and Nichols, M.C., Eds. Handbook of Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA 20151-1110, USA. http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/ (2016)

Internet Links for Xenotime-(Y)

Specimens:
The following Xenotime-(Y) specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Xenotime-(Y)

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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