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Xenotime-(Y)

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Formula:
Y(PO4)
May contain minor HREE, Ca, U, Th, Si, F and other elements.
System:
Tetragonal
Colour:
Yellowish brown, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
4 - 5
Member of:
Name:
From the Greek κευός = "vain" and τιμή = "honor," in allusion to the fact that the yttrium in it was mistaken for a new element.
Isostructural with:
Xenotime Group. Chernovite-(Y)-Xenotime-(Y) Series.

The X-ray powder diffraction pattern is similar to that of atelisite-(Y).

Classification of Xenotime-(Y)

Approved
8.AD.35

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
A : Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
Dana 7th ed.:
38.4.9.1
19.9.1

19 : Phosphates
9 : Phosphates of rare earths and Sc
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http://www.mindat.org/min-4333.html
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Type Occurrence of Xenotime-(Y)

Year of Discovery:
1824
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Granite pegmatite

Occurrences of Xenotime-(Y)

Geological Setting:
Minor accessory mineral in acidic and alkalic igneous rocks and pegmatites; in mica and quartz rich gneisses. Also as a detrital mineral.

Physical Properties of Xenotime-(Y)

Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Yellowish brown, reddish, brown, light red, light green, gray; colourless to very light yellowish green, yellow or yellowish brown in transmitted light.
Streak:
Pale brown, yellowish or reddish, white
Hardness (Mohs):
4 - 5
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
On {100}, complete.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Splintery
Density:
4.4 - 5.1 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.277 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Xenotime-(Y)

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
I41/a
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.888(4) Å, c = 6.029(8) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.875
Unit Cell Volume:
V 286.04 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals short to long prismatic [001]; also equant, pyramidal; as crude radial aggregates comprised of coarse crystals; in rosettes.
Twinning:
On {111}, rare.

Crystallographic forms of Xenotime-(Y)

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Xenotime no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Xenotime no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Epitaxial Relationships of Xenotime-(Y)

Epitaxial Minerals:
ZirconZrSiO4
Epitaxy Comments:
Parallel growth with zircon common.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Xenotime-(Y)

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.720 nε = 1.816 - 1.827
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.096
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Dichroic:

O = Pink, yellow, or yellowish brown
E = Brownish yellow, grayish brown, or greenish

Chemical Properties of Xenotime-(Y)

Formula:
Y(PO4)

May contain minor HREE, Ca, U, Th, Si, F and other elements.
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Xenotime-(Y) to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Chernovite-(Y) (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
8.AD.05NahpoiteNa2HPO4
8.AD.10MonetiteCa(HPO4)
8.AD.10WeiliteCa(HAsO4)
8.AD.10ŠvenekiteCa(H2AsO4)2
8.AD.15Archerite(K,NH4)(H2PO4)
8.AD.15Biphosphammite(NH4,K)(H2PO4)
8.AD.20Phosphammite(NH4)2(HPO4)
8.AD.25BuchwalditeNaCa(PO4)
8.AD.30SchultenitePb(HAsO4)
8.AD.35Chernovite-(Y)Y(AsO4)
8.AD.35DreyeriteBi(VO4)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(Ce)Ce(VO4)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(Y)Y(VO4)
8.AD.35PretuliteSc(PO4)
8.AD.35Xenotime-(Yb)(Yb,Y,HREE)(PO4)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(La)La(VO4)
8.AD.40PucheriteBi(VO4)
8.AD.45XimengiteBi(PO4)
8.AD.50Gasparite-(Ce)(Ce,REE)(AsO4)
8.AD.50Monazite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Nd,Th)(PO4)
8.AD.50Monazite-(La)(La,Ce,Nd)(PO4)
8.AD.50Monazite-(Nd)(Nd,La,Ce)(PO4)
8.AD.50RooseveltiteBi(AsO4)
8.AD.50Cheralite(Ca,Ce)(Th,Ce)(PO4)2
8.AD.50Monazite-(Sm)(Sm,Gd,Ce,Th)(PO4)
8.AD.50UM2005-35-VO:CaFePSiTh(Th,Ca)(VO4,SiO4,PO4)
8.AD.55TetrarooseveltiteBi(AsO4)
8.AD.60Chursinite(Hg2+)0.5Hg2+(AsO4)
8.AD.65ClinobisvaniteBi(VO4)
19.9.2Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
19.9.3Monazite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Nd,Th)(PO4)
19.9.4Monazite-(La)(La,Ce,Nd)(PO4)
19.9.5Monazite-(Nd)(Nd,La,Ce)(PO4)
19.9.6Rhabdophane-(Ce)(Ce,La)(PO4) · H2O
19.9.7Rhabdophane-(La)(La,Ce)(PO4) · H2O
19.9.8Rhabdophane-(Nd)(Nd,Ce,La)(PO4) · H2O
19.9.9Vitusite-(Ce)Na3(Ce,La,Nd)(PO4)2
19.9.10Florencite-(Ce)CeAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
19.9.11Florencite-(La)LaAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
19.9.12Florencite-(Nd)(Nd,La,Ce)Al3(PO4)2(OH)6
19.9.13KolbeckiteScPO4 · 2H2O

Other Names for Xenotime-(Y)

Other Information

Magnetism:
Paramagnetic
Other Information:
Very slightly attacked or impervious to acids, depending on the composition.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
An ore of yttrium.

References for Xenotime-(Y)

Reference List:
Berzelius, J. (1824): Undersökning af några Mineralier. 1. Phosphorsyrad Ytterjord. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, 2 : 334-338
(as Phosphorsyrad Ytterjord).

Glocker, E.F. (1831): Handbuch der Mineralogie, Nürnberg: 959 (as Ytterspath).

Beudant, F.S. (1832): Traité élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 552 (as Xenotime).

Scheerer, T. (1843): Ueber den Fundort und die Krystallform der phosphorsauren Yttererde. Annalen der Physik und Chemie (herausgegeben zu Berlin von J.C.Poggendorff).60:591-594

Damour (1853) L'Institut: 78 (as Castelnaudite).

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 748.

Eakins analysis in: Hidden (1893) American Journal of Science: 46: 255.

Penfield (1893) American Journal of Science: 45: 398.

Kraus and Reitinger (1901) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 34: 268 (as Hussakite).

Brögger (1904) Nytt Mag.: 42: 1.

Brögger (1906) Vidensk.-Selsk. Skr., Oslo, Math.-Nat. Kl.: 1: no. 6: 6.

Hussak (1907) Centralblatt für Mineralogie: 533.

Tschernik (1907) Verh. Min. Ges. St. Petersburg: 45: 425.

Tschernik (1910) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 47: 291.

Vegard (1917) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 33: 395.

Hintze, Carl (1922) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: vol. 1 [4A]: 240.

Goldschmidt, V. (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, Heidelberg: vol. 9: 102.

Vegard (1927) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 4: 511.

Clouse (1930) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 76: 285.

Clouse (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 83: 161.

Strunz (1936) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 94: 60.

Hutton (1947) American Mineralogist: 32: 141.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 688-691.

Mineralogical Magazine (1973): 39: 145.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 121: 315-316.

Bastos Neto, A. C., Pereira, V. P., Pires, A. C., Barbanson, L. & Chauvet, A. (2012): Fluorine-rich xenotime from the world-class Madeira Nb-Ta-Sn deposit associated with the albite-enchriched granite at Pitinga, Amazonia, Brazil. Canadian Mineralogist 50, 1453-1466.

Internet Links for Xenotime-(Y)

Specimens:
The following Xenotime-(Y) specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Xenotime-(Y)

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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