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Xonotlite

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Formula:
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)(OH)
 
2
System:MonoclinicColour:White, grey, pale pink, ...
Hardness:
Member of:Xonotlite Group
Name:Named in 1866 by Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg after its discovery locality, Tetela de Xonotla, Mexico.


An ino-silicate mineral with double dreier chains. Several polytypes are known (Hejny & Armbruster, 2001): Ma2bc (space group P2/a, a = 17.032, b = 7.363, c = 7.012 Å, β = 90.36°), Ma2b2c (space group A2/a, a = 17.032, b = 7.363, c = 14.023, β = 90.36°), and M2a2bc (space group P-1 , a = 8.712, b = 7.363, c = 7.012 Å, α = 89.99° β = 90.36°, γ = 102.18°) .

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Classification of Xonotlite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/F.21-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.DG.35

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
G : Inosilicates with 3-periodic single and multiple chains
Dana 8th edition ID:66.3.1.1

66 : INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
3 : Amphiboles - Ca-Na subgroup
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.5.12

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
5 : Silicates of Ca
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Type Occurrence of Xonotlite

Type Locality:Tetela de Xonotla, Puebla, Mexico
Year of Discovery:1866

Physical Properties of Xonotlite

Lustre:Vitreous, Silky, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:White, grey, pale pink, colorless
Hardness (Mohs):

Crystallography of Xonotlite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:a = 17.032Å, b = 7.363Å, c = 7.012Å
β = 90.36°
Ratio:a:b:c = 2.313 : 1 : 0.952
Unit Cell Volume:V 879.33 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Comment:Space group P2/a (Ma2bc polytype).
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Xonotlite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.583 nβ = 1.585 nγ = 1.595
2V:Calculated: 50°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.012

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:small

Chemical Properties of Xonotlite

Formula:
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)(OH)
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Essential elements:Ca, H, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Ca, H, O, Si
Common Impurities:Fe,Mn,H2O

Relationship of Xonotlite to other Species

Member of:Xonotlite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Chivruaiite
Ca
 
4
(Ti,Nb)
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)
 
2
(OH,O)
 
5
· 13-14H
 
2
O
Haineaultite
(Na,Ca)
 
5
Ca(Ti,Nb)
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
8
· 5H
 
2
O
Zorite
Na
 
8
(Ti,Nb)
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)
 
2
(OH,O)
 
5
· 14H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.DG.05Bustamite
CaMn
2+
 
(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)
9.DG.05Ferrobustamite
Ca(Fe
2+
 
,Ca,Mn
2+
 
)(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)
9.DG.05Pectolite
NaCa
 
2
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
9.DG.05Sérandite
Na(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
2
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
9.DG.05Wollastonite
CaSiO
 
3
9.DG.05Wollastonite-1A
CaSiO
 
3
9.DG.07Cascandite
Ca(Sc,Fe
3+
 
)(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
9.DG.08Plombièrite
Ca
 
5
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
9.DG.10Clinotobermorite
Ca
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
) · 5H
 
2
O
9.DG.10Riversideite
Ca
 
5
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
9.DG.10Tobermorite
Ca
 
4+x
(H
 
2-2x
Si
 
6
O
 
17
) · 5H
 
2
O
9.DG.15Foshagite
Ca
 
4
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)(OH)
 
2
9.DG.20Jennite
Ca
 
9
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 8H
 
2
O
9.DG.25Paraumbite
K
 
3
Zr
 
2
H(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
9.DG.25Umbite
K
 
2
(Zr,Ti)Si
 
3
O
 
9
· H
 
2
O
9.DG.30Sørensenite
Na
 
4
SnBe
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
16
(OH)
 
4
9.DG.40Hillebrandite
Ca
 
2
(SiO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
9.DG.45Zorite
Na
 
8
(Ti,Nb)
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)
 
2
(OH,O)
 
5
· 14H
 
2
O
9.DG.45Chivruaiite
Ca
 
4
(Ti,Nb)
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)
 
2
(OH,O)
 
5
· 13-14H
 
2
O
9.DG.50Haineaultite
(Na,Ca)
 
5
Ca(Ti,Nb)
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
8
· 5H
 
2
O
9.DG.55Epididymite
Na
 
2
Be
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
15
· H
 
2
O
9.DG.60Eudidymite
Na
 
2
Be
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
15
· H
 
2
O
9.DG.65Elpidite
Na
 
2
ZrSi
 
6
O
 
15
· 3H
 
2
O
9.DG.70Fenaksite
(K,Na)
 
4
(Fe,Mn)
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
9.DG.70Litidionite
CuNaKSi
 
4
O
 
10
9.DG.70Manaksite
KNaMnSi
 
4
O
 
10
9.DG.75Tinaksite
K
 
2
Na(Ca,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Ti[O|Si
 
7
O
 
18
(OH)]
9.DG.75Tokkoite
K
 
2
Ca
 
4
Si
 
7
O
 
17
(O,OH,F)
 
4
9.DG.75Senkevichite
CsKNaCa
 
2
Ti[O|Si
 
7
O
 
18
(OH)]
9.DG.80Canasite
K
 
2
Na
 
4
Ca
 
5
(Si
 
12
O
 
30
(OH,F)
 
4
9.DG.80Fluorcanasite
K
 
3
Na
 
3
Ca
 
5
Si
 
12
O
 
30
F
 
4
· H
 
2
O
9.DG.85Miserite
K(Ca,Ce)
 
4
Si
 
5
O
 
13
(OH)
 
3
9.DG.90Frankamenite
K
 
3
Na
 
3
Ca
 
5
(Si
 
12
O
 
30
)(F,OH)
 
4
· H
 
2
O
9.DG.92Charoite
(K,Sr)
 
15-16
(Ca,Na)
 
32
[Si
 
6
O
 
11
(O,OH)
 
6
]
 
2
[Si
 
12
O
 
18
(O,OH)
 
12
]
 
2
[Si
 
17
O
 
25
(O,OH)
 
18
]
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4
· ~3H
 
2
O
9.DG.95Yuksporite
(K,Ba)NaCa
 
2
(Si,Ti)
 
4
O
 
11
(F,OH) · H
 
2
O
9.DG.97Eveslogite
(Na,K,Ca,Sr,Ba)
 
48
[(Ti,Nb,Mn,Fe
2+
 
)
 
12
Si
 
48
O
 
144
(OH)
 
12
](F,OH,Cl)
 
14
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.5.1Wollastonite
CaSiO
 
3
14.5.2Wollastonite-7T
14.5.3Wollastonite-2M
CaSiO
 
3
14.5.4Rankinite
Ca
 
3
Si
 
2
O
 
7
14.5.5Kilchoanite
Ca
 
6
(SiO
 
4
)(Si
 
3
O
 
10
)
14.5.6Larnite
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
14.5.7Bredigite
Ca
 
7
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
14.5.8Hatrurite
Ca
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)O
14.5.9Rosenhahnite
HCa
 
3
[Si
 
3
O
 
9
(OH)]
14.5.10Dellaite
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.11Afwillite
Ca
 
3
(HSiO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
14.5.13Foshagite
Ca
 
4
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.14Hillebrandite
Ca
 
2
(SiO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.15Jaffeite
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(OH)
 
6
14.5.16Suolunite
Ca
 
2
(H
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
7
) · H
 
2
O
14.5.17Killalaite
Ca
 
6.4
(H
 
0.6
Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
14.5.18Okenite
CaSi
 
2
O
 
5
· 2H
 
2
O
14.5.19Riversideite
Ca
 
5
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
14.5.20Trabzonite
Ca
 
4
(Si
 
3
O
 
10
) · 2H
 
2
O
14.5.21Gyrolite
NaCa
 
16
Si
 
23
AlO
 
60
(OH)
 
8
· 14H
 
2
O
14.5.22Foshallasite
Ca
 
3
[Si
 
2
O
 
7
] · 3H
 
2
O(?)
14.5.23Tobermorite
Ca
 
4+x
(H
 
2-2x
Si
 
6
O
 
17
) · 5H
 
2
O
14.5.24Clinotobermorite
Ca
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
) · 5H
 
2
O
14.5.25Nekoite
Ca
 
3
Si
 
6
O
 
15
·7H
 
2
O
14.5.26Plombièrite
Ca
 
5
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
14.5.27Jennite
Ca
 
9
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 8H
 
2
O

Other Names for Xonotlite

Synonyms:
Calcium-PectoliteEakleiteXenotliteXonaltiteXonolite
Other Languages:
German:Eakleit
Xenotlit
Xonaltit
Xonolit
Xonotlit
Russian:Ксонотлит
Spanish:Eakleita
Xenotlita
Xonaltita
Xonolita
Xonotlita
Varieties:
Mg-bearing Xonotlite

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:May fluoresce and phosphoresce violet in SW, MW, and LW ultraviolet light (Franklin, New Jersey).
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Xonotlite

Reference List:

- +
Rammelsberg, Karl Friedrich August, Z. Deutsch. Geol. Ges. (1866): 18: 33.

Larsen, E.S. (1923), The identity of eakleite and xonotlite, American Mineralogist: 8: 181-182.

Taylor, H.F.W. (1953), The identity of jurupaite and xonotlite: Mineralogical Magazine: 30: 338-341.

Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 104: 615-618 (in Russian).

Journal of the Mineral Society of Japan (1972): 10: 358.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1981): 154: 271.

Hejny, C. and Armbruster, T. (2001): Polytypism in xonotlite Ca6Si6O17(OH)2. Z. Kristallogr. 216, 396-408.

Bernstein, S., Fehr, K. T. & Hochleitner, R. (2009): Crystal chemistry of Xonotlite Ca6Si6O17(OH)2. Part I: Determination of polytypes using X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 186, 153-162.

Internet Links for Xonotlite

Search Engines:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Xonotlite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • Localities for Xonotlite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Tasmania
      • Huon district
        • Weld river
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    • Victoria
      • Rural City of Benalla
    Aust.Jour. Earth Sci. 46:251 (1999)
    • Western Australia
      • Kalgoorlie-Boulder Shire
        • Woolibar Station
          • South Kal Mines (South Kalgoorlie Gold Mine; HBJ)
    Sue Koepke collection; from Frank Radke
    Bulgaria
     
    • Yambol Oblast
      • Bolyarovo Obshtina
    I. Kostov, V. Breskovska, J. Mincheva-Stefanova, G. Kirov (1964): Minerals of Bulgaria. Sofia, Bulgaria, 540 pp. (in Bulgarian).
    Canada
     
    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      • Newfoundland
        • Bay of Islands
          • Cox's Cove
    Ray L. Frost, Mahen Mahendran, Keerthan Poologanathan, Yunfei Xi, Raman spectroscopic study of the mineral xonotlite Ca6Si6O17(OH)2—A component of plaster boards, Materials Research Bulletin (in press)
    Traill, R. J. (1980) Catalog of Canadian Minerals: Revised 1980. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 80-18.
    • Ontario
      • Thunder Bay District
        • Blake Township
    Traill, R. J. (1980) Catalog of Canadian Minerals: Revised 1980. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 80-18.
    • Québec
      • Estrie
        • Les Sources RCM
          • Asbestos
    Grice, J.D. and Williams, R. (1979): Famous mineral localities: The Jeffrey Mine, Asbestos, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 10(2):69-80
      • Outaouais
        • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM
          • Chelsea
    Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 41
    Czech Republic
     
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Vysočina Region
        • Havlíčkův Brod (Německý Brod; Deutschbrod)
    Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
    Finland
     
    • Eastern Finland Region
    Ilkka Mikkola collection, Identification by Dr Seppo Lahti
    Germany
     
    • Hesse
      • Odenwald
        • Mühltal
          • Nieder-Beerbach
    Greenland
     
    • Tunu Province (East Greenland)
      • Kangerlussuaq Firth
        • Kangerlussuaq complex
    MinRec 16:485-494
    Iceland
     
    • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
      • Surtsey Island
    Jacobsson et al (1992) Encrustations from Lava Caves in Surtsey, Iceland. A Preliminary Report: Surtsey Research Progress Report X: 73-78 Reykjevik, Iceland.
    Iraq
     
    • Qala-Diz (Qala-Dizeh; Qala-Diza)
      • Hero
    Al-Hermezi, H. M., McKie, D., & Hall, A. J. (1986). Baghdadite, a new calcium zirconium silicate mineral from Iraq. Mineralogical Magazine, 50, 119-123.
    Ireland
     
    • Co. Sligo
      • Killala Bay
    Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, p. 506.
    Israel
     
    • Negev
    Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
    Italy
     
    • Lombardy
      • Sondrio Province
        • Valtellina
          • Malenco Valley
            • Lanterna Valley
              • Lanzada
    Bedognè, F. (2006) Xonotlite della Val Lanterna, Valmalenco (SO). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 30, 254-255.
    • Trentino-Alto Adige
      • Trento Province
        • Fiemme Valley
    Demartin, F., Campostrini, I., Grisotto, M., & Grisotto, L. (2006). I Canzoccoli. Una località classica presso Predazzo, Val di Fiemme, Trento. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 30(3), 166-177.
    • Tuscany
      • Pisa Province
        • Castelnuovo Val di Cecina
    Bonaccorsi E., Merlino S., Orlandi P.(1996): Breve nota sulla xonotlite di Monte Castelli. Atti Soc. tosc. Sci. nat., Mem., Serie A, 103.
    • Veneto
      • Padova Province
        • Euganei Hills
          • Faedo
    Passaglia E. and Taglavini A. (1995): Erionite from Faedo, Colli Euganei, Italy. N.Jb.Miner.Mh.,4, pagg.185-191.
      • Vicenza Province
        • Altissimo
          • Del Tesoro Mt.
    Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
        • Arsiero
          • Contrada Draghi
    Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
        • Astico Valley
    Collections Alessandro Mattiello and Padua University
        • Cogollo del Cengio
          • Astico Valley
    Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
        • Cornedo Vicentino
          • Spagnago
    Lapis, 15 (12), 27-32+50.; Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
        • Gambellara
          • S.Marco hill
    Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
        • Laghi
    Zordan, A., Boscardin, M., & Zorzi, F. (2008). Foshagite di Contrada Molini, Laghi (Vicenza). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/2008, 178-180.
        • Posina
          • Pasubio massif
            • Punta della Lucche
    Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
        • Tretto di Schio
          • Val Munari
            • Contrade Maglio-Pornaro
    - Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chubu Region
        • Niigata Prefecture
          • Itoigawa City
            • Ohmi
    Alluvial cobbles in innumerable collections.
        • Shizuoka Prefecture
          • Amagi-Yugashima
    Dr. Kameki Kinoshita collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
      • Chugoku Region
        • Okayama Prefecture
          • Ihara City (Ibara City)
            • Higashi-Mihara
    http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/xonotlite.pdf
          • Takahashi City
            • Bicchu-cho (Bitchu-cho)
              • Fuka
    Mineralogical Journal Vol. 14 (1989) , No. 7 pp 299-302; Henmi, C., Kusachi, I., Kawahara, A., & Henmi, K. (1978). 7T wollastonite from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture. Mineralogical Journal, 9(3), 169-181.; Henmi, C., & Kusachi, I. (1992). Clinotobermorite, Ca5Si6 (O, OH) 18· 5H2O, a new mineral from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Mineralogical Magazine, 56(3), 353-358.
              • Shitouyouzei
    Matsueda, H. (1983) Journal of the Mining College, Akita University, Ser. A, Mining Geology, 6, #3, 259-292.
      • Kinki region
        • Mie Prefecture
          • Toba City
    Alfredo Petrov specimens
      • Tohoku Region
        • Fukushima Prefecture
    Matsuyama, F. (2001)
    • Kyushu Region
      • Oita Prefecture
    Uehara, S., et al (2014) MInerals from Kyushu and Yamaguchi. (Fukuoka Mineral Club, 355 pages)
    • Shikoku Island
      • Kochi Prefecture
        • Kochi City
          • Rendai
        • Konan City
    Handbook of Mineralogy, (c) 2001.
    Mexico
     
    • Hidalgo
      • Mun. de Pachuca
        • Pachuca de Soto (Pachuca)
    Panczner(1987):399.
    • Puebla
      • Mun. de Tetela de Ocampo
        • Tetela de Ocampo (Tetela; Tetella de Ocampo)
    Panczner(1987):399.
    Panczner(1987):399.
    Pancnzer(1987):399.
    Panczner (1987): 399.
      • Mun. de Tetela del Oro
        • Tetela del Oro
    Panczner(1987):399.
    Rammelsberg C (1866) Ueber den Xonaltit, ein neues wasserhaltiges Kalksilikat, und den Bustamit aus Mexiko, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 18, 33-34; Dana 6:569; Panczner(1987):399.
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
      • Waikato
        • Piopio
    O'Brien, J. P., & Rodgers, K. A. (1973). Xonotlite and rodingites from Wairere, New Zealand. Mineralogical Magazine, 39, 233-240.
    • South Island
      • Southland
    Judy Rowe collection
    Puerto Rico
     
    AmMin 38:860
    Romania
     
    • Caraş-Severin Co.
      • Banat Mts
    Marincea, S., Dumitraş. D-G., Ghinet, C, Fransolet, A.-M., Hatert, F. & Rondeaux, M. (2011): Gehlenite from three occurrences of high-temperature skarns, Romania: new mineralogical data. Canadian Mineralogist. 49, 1001-1014
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Hunedoara
    Marincea, Ş., Bilal, E., Verkaeren, J., Pascal, M.-L., and Fonteilles, M. (2001) Superposed paragenesis in spurrite-, tilleyite- and gehlenite-bearing skarns from Cornet Hill, Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Canadian Mineralogist: 39: 1435-1453.; The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 1405-1434 (2001)
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
    [World of Stones 12:49]
      • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
        • Taimyr Peninsula
          • Putoran Plateau
    Spiridonov, E. M. (2010). Ore-magmatic systems of the Noril’sk ore field. Russian Geology and Geophysics, 51(9), 1059-1077.
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Chukotskii Autonomous Okrug
        • Koryakskoe plateau
    http://geo.web.ru/druza/l-Tamvatnei.htm
    • Northern Caucasus Region
      • Kabardino-Balkarian Republic
        • Baksan Valley
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
        • Verkhnechegemskaya caldera (Verkhni Chegem caldera; Upper Chegem caldera)
    A. E. Zadov data
    South Africa
     
    • Limpopo Province
      • Phalaborwa
        • Loolekop
    Minerals of South Africa
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Kalahari manganese field
        • Black Rock
    Rob Lavinsky photo
        • Hotazel
    Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1996). Wesselsite, SrCu [Si4Olo], a further new gillespite-group mineral from the Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 60, 795-798.
        • Kuruman
          • N'Chwaning Mines
    Minerals of South Africa
    Sweden
     
    • Medelpad
      • Sundsvall
    Sandström, F., Binett, T., Wiklund, C. & Vikström, J. (2010): Alnöområdets geologi och mineralogi. Litiofilen. 27 (2) :14-42
    • Värmland
      • Filipstad
    Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
        • Persberg district
          • Pajsberg
    Mofjell, E.(1990): Xonotlite, Harstigen. Långbansnytt. vol 6 [reprinted in: Långbansnytt. De första 20 åren 1983-2003. Långbansällskapet - Skrifter och rapporter. 2, 141]; Mofjell, E. (1990): Mineralnytt från Sverige. STEIN 17(4),38
    UK
     
    • Northern Ireland
      • Co. Antrim
        • Glenoe
    Henmi C, Kusachi I, Henmi K, Sabine P A, Young B R (1973) A new mineral bicchulite, the natural analogue of gehlenite hydrate, from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan and Carneal, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, Mineralogical Journal, 7, 243-251
    • Scotland
      • Buchan Grampian (Aberdeenshire)
        • Huntly
          • The Bin (Bin of Huntly)
    BMS Collection
      • North West Highlands (Argyllshire)
        • Ardnamurchan
    American Mineralogist 35:1080
      • North West Highlands (Inverness-shire)
        • Glen Urquhart
    [Specimen in the Natural History Museum, London]
      • Strathclyde (Argyllshire)
        • Isle of Mull
    [Specimen in the Natural History Museum, London]
    Dana 6:569
    Dana 6:569
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Gila Co.
        • Dripping Spring Mts
          • Banner District
            • Christmas area
              • Christmas
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 358, 428; Cesbron, F.P. & S.A. Williams (1980), Apachite and gilalite, two new copper silicates from Christmas, AZ, Min.Mag.: 43: 639-641.; Bob Meyer (2012) Micro Mineral Collector. Friends of Mineralogy National Newsletter 42:10-13
    • California
      • Colusa Co.
        • Coast Ranges
          • Stonyford
    Mr. Gail E. Dunning.
      • Mendocino Co.
        • Cloverdale area
          • Russian River
    Pabst, Adolf, Gross, E.B., and Alfors, J.T. (1967) Rosenhahnite, a new hydrous calcium silicate from Mendocino County, California. American Mineralogist: 52: 336; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 409.
        • Coastal Range
          • Reeves Place
            • Leech Lake Mountain
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 390; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 409, 410.
      • Monterey Co.
        • Diablo Range
          • Priest Valley
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 390.
      • Riverside Co.
        • Crestmore
          • Crestmore quarries
            • Sky Blue Hill
    Eakle, Arthur Starr (1917), Minerals associated with the crystalline limestone at Crestmore, Riverside County, California: University of California Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 10: 327-360; Eakle, Arthur Starr (1921), Jurupaite, a new mineral: American Mineralogist: 6: 107-109; Woodford, A.O., Crippen, R.A., and Garner, K.B. (1941) Section Across Commercial Quarry, Crestmorre, California. American Mineralogist: 26: 352-381; Daly, John W. (1935), Paragenesis of mineral assemblages at Crestmore, California American Mineralogist: 20: 654; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 409.
      • San Francisco Co.
    www.missourigeologists.org/Min-Loc1-2005.pdf.
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 115, 390.
          • Fort Point
    Eakle, Arthur Starr (1901), Mineralogical notes; with chemical analyses by W.T. Schaller: University of California, Department of Geological Science Bulletin: 2: 316; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 222, 390; Schlocker, J. (1974) Geology of the San Francisco North quadrangle. USGS Professional Paper 782, 109 pp.; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 201-202, 409.
      • Santa Barbara Co.
        • Guadalupe
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 409.
        • Santa Ynez
    Hanks, Henry Garber (1888), Pectolite Mining and Scientific Press: 56: 44; Irelan, William, Jr. (1890a), Ninth annual report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 9, 352 pp.: 47; Larsen, Esper Signius (1923), The identity of eakleite and xonotlite: American Mineralogist: 8: 181-182; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 285.
    Larsen, Esper Signius (1917), Eakleite, a new mineral from California: American Journal of Science, 4th. series: 43: 464-465; Larsen, Esper Signius (1923), The identity of eakleite and xonotlite: American Mineralogist: 8: 181-182; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 173, 390.
    • Maryland
      • Montgomery Co.
        • Rockville
    [MinRec 30:467]
    • Michigan
      • Keweenaw Co.
        • Lake Superior
    AmMin 7:23
    • Missouri
      • St. Genevieve Co.
    R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Franklin
    Palache(1935):114; Dunn(1995):Pt3:450.
    FOMS Millsite Committee (1986) (circa), List of Mineral Species Found on the Franklin Mill Site, Franklin-Ogdensburg Mineralogical Society (unpublished).
    Beth Schaefer
    • North Carolina
      • Durham Co.
        • Durham
    Kenny Gay message 15.09.2005
    • Texas
      • Culberson Co.
        • Apache Peak area
    Rocks & Minerals: 66(3): 196-224.; Am Min 51:1766-1774
    • Vermont
      • Orleans & Lamoille Cos.
        • Lowell & Eden
    Rocks & Min. Vol. 71, (1996)
    • Virginia
      • Loudoun Co.
    AmMin 10:12
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Washington
      • Skagit Co.
        • Cypress Island
    Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.74
    Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.74
          • Triangulation Point
    Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.74
      • Whatcom Co.
    Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.85
    Minerals of Washington, B. Cannon, 1975
    Minerals of Washington, B. Cannon, 1975
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