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Avicennite

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Formula:
Tl
 
2
O
 
3
System:IsometricColour:Greyish black with ...
Lustre:MetallicHardness:1½ - 2½
Name:
For the medieval Uzbek (Persian) scholar and physician, Abu 'Ali al-Husayn ibn 'Abd Allah ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980-1037), who lived in Bukhara, Tadzhikistan.
This page provides mineralogical data about Avicennite.

Classification of Avicennite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/C.03-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.CB.10

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
B : With medium-sized cations
Dana 8th edition ID:4.3.8.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.7.3

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
7 : Oxides of Group III metals other than Al
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Type Occurrence of Avicennite

Type Locality:Dzhuzumli village, Zirabulak railway station, Zirabulak Mountain (Zirabulakskie Mountain), Samarkand Viloyati (Samarqand), Uzbekistan
Year of Discovery:1958
Geological Setting of type material:Weathered zone of a hematite-calcite vein cutting banded marmorized and silicified limestones near a granite-gneiss contact
Associated Minerals at type locality:
LimoniteHematite

Occurrences of Avicennite

Geological Setting:Oxidation product of carlinite in carbonaceous gold ores in silicified limestones and quartz (Carlin, Nevada, USA).

Physical Properties of Avicennite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Greyish black with brownish black tint
Streak:Greyish black, black with a brownish tint
Hardness (Mohs):1½ - 2½
Hardness (Vickers):VHN25=46 - 80 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Very brittle
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Hackly, Conchoidal
Density (measured):8.9 g/cm3
Density (calculated):10.34 g/cm3

Crystallography of Avicennite

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):m3 (2/m 3) - Diploidal
Space Group:Ia3
Cell Parameters:a = 10.5468Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,173.17 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:16
Morphology:Crystals, less than 1 mm, some showing subhedral octahedral faces; porous grains; coatings on carlinite
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.044 (100)
1.864 (38)
2.637 (37)
1.590 (30)
4.307 (17)
2.068 (7)
2.486 (6)
Comments:Recorded on material from Carlin, Nevada, USA.

Optical Data of Avicennite

Type:Isotropic
Reflectivity:
400 nmR=11.5%
470 nmR=12.5%
500 nmR=13.0%
546 nmR=12.7%
589 nmR=12.3%
650 nmR=10.6%
700 nmR=11.5%


Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Peak reflectance is 13.0%.
Colour in reflected light:Pale grey to medium grey

Chemical Properties of Avicennite

Formula:
Tl
 
2
O
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:Tl2O3
Essential elements:O, Tl
All elements listed in formula:O, Tl
Analytical Data:Average of three electron microprobe analyses of material from Carlin, Nevada, USA.
Tl (89.6)

corresponding to 100.1 wt.-% of Tl2O3
Common Impurities:Fe

Relationship of Avicennite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.CB.05Brizziite
NaSb
5+
 
O
 
3
4.CB.05Corundum
Al
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.05Ecandrewsite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)TiO
 
3
4.CB.05Eskolaite
Cr
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.05Geikielite
MgTiO
 
3
4.CB.05Hematite
Fe
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.05Ilmenite
Fe
2+
 
TiO
 
3
4.CB.05Karelianite
V
3+
2
O
 
3
4.CB.05Melanostibite
Mn
2+
 
(Sb
5+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
3
4.CB.05Pyrophanite
Mn
2+
 
TiO
 
3
4.CB.05Akimotoite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)SiO
 
3
4.CB.05Auroantimonate
AuSbO
 
3
4.CB.05Romanite
(◻,Pb,Ca)UFe
2+
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
6
Ti
 
12
O
 
38
4.CB.05UM1998-11-O-AuHSb
Au
+
2
Sb
3+
 
O
 
2
(OH)
4.CB.05Tistarite
Ti
3+
2
O
 
3
4.CB.10Bixbyite
Mn
3+
2
O
 
3
4.CB.15Armalcolite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Ti
 
2
O
 
5
4.CB.15Pseudobrookite
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
5
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N2S
[(Zn,Al,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Al,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)
 
8
O
 
15
(OH)]
 
2
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N6S
[(Zn,Mg)
 
7
(Al,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)
 
16
O
 
31
(OH)]
 
2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-6N6S
[(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Al,Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
8
O
 
15
(OH)]
 
6
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S
[(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Zn)
 
4
(Al,Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
10
O
 
19
(OH)]
 
2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N2S
[(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
[Al
 
7
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)]O
 
15
(OH)]
 
2
4.CB.20Ferrohögbomite-6N12S
[(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Zn)
 
5
(Al,Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
12
O
 
23
(OH)]
 
6
4.CB.25Pseudorutile
Fe
 
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
4.CB.25Kleberite
FeTi
 
6
O
 
11
(OH)
 
5
4.CB.30Berdesinskiite
V
3+
2
TiO
 
5
4.CB.30Oxyvanite
V
3+
2
V
4+
 
O
 
5
4.CB.35Olkhonskite
(Cr,V)
 
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
4.CB.35Schreyerite
V
3+
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
4.CB.40Kamiokite
Fe
 
2
Mo
 
3
O
 
8
4.CB.40Nolanite
(V
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Ti)
 
10
O
 
14
(OH)
 
2
4.CB.40Rinmanite
Zn
 
2
Sb
 
2
Mg
 
2
Fe
 
4
O
 
14
(OH)
 
2
4.CB.40Iseite
Mn
 
2
Mo
 
3
O
 
8
4.CB.40Majindeite
Mg
 
2
Mo
 
3
O
 
8
4.CB.45Claudetite
As
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.45Stibioclaudetite
AsSbO
 
3
4.CB.50Arsenolite
As
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.50Sénarmontite
Sb
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.55Valentinite
Sb
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.60Bismite
Bi
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.65Sphaerobismoite
Bi
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.70Sillénite
Bi
 
12
SiO
 
20
4.CB.75Kyzylkumite
Ti
 
2
V
3+
 
O
 
5
(OH)
4.CB.80Tietaiyangite
Fe
3+
4
Fe
2+
 
TiO
 
9
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.7.1Söhngeite
Ga(OH)
 
3
7.7.2Cerianite-(Ce)
(Ce
4+
 
,Th)O
 
2
7.7.4Dzhalindite
In(OH)
 
3

Other Names for Avicennite

Other Languages:
German:Avicennit
Russian:Авиценнит
Simplified Chinese:褐铊矿
Spanish:Avicennita

Other Information

Health Warning:Contains thallium - always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when handling or breaking. Never lick or ingest.

References for Avicennite

Reference List:

- +
Karpova, K. N., Kon'kova, E. A., Larkin, E. D. and Savel'ev, V. F. (1958): Avicennite, a new mineral. Dokl. Akad. Nauk. Uzbekistan SSR 2, 23-26 (in Russian). - American Mineralogist (1959) 44, 1324-1325 (abstract).

Kon'kova, E. A. and Savel'ev, V. F. (1960): A new thallium mineral - avicennite. Zap. Vses. Mineral. Obshch. 89, 316-320 (in Russian).

Vlasov, K. A., Ed. (1966): Mineralogy of rare elements, Vol. 2, 604-605.

Radtke, A. S., Dickson, F. W. and Slack, J. F. (1978): Occurrence and formation of avicennite, Tl2O3, as a secondary mineral at the Carlin gold deposit, Nevada. J. Res. U.S. Geol. Surv. 6, 241-246.

Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 31.

Internet Links for Avicennite

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  • External Links:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Avicennite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Localities for Avicennite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    China
     
    • Anhui Province
      • Ma'anshan Prefecture
        • He Co.
    Fan, Y., Zhou, T.F., Yuan, F., Wu, M.A., Hou, M.J., Voicu, G., Hu, Q.H., and Zhang, Q.M. (2005), In: Jingwen Mao and Bierlein, F.P. (eds.): Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge. Springer (Berlin, Heidelberg), 381-383.
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Qamdo Prefecture (Changdu Prefecture)
        • Lhorong Co. (Luolong Co.)
    Shuihe Mao, Wenquan Lu, Youfu Yang, and Yongming Wu (1989): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 9(3), 253-256
    Greenland
     
    • Kujalleq
      • Narsaq
    Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
          • Taseq area
    Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (1999)
    USA
     
    • Nevada
      • Eureka Co.
        • Lynn District
          • Elko
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Utah
      • Tooele Co.
        • Sheeprock Mts
          • Little Valley
    Handbook of Mineralogy
    Uzbekistan
     
    • Samarkand Viloyati (Samarqand)
      • Zirabulak Mountain (Zirabulakskie Mountain)
        • Zirabulak railway station
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 30; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
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