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Ca3Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
Red-brown, dark brown, ...
2 - 3
Named in 1913 by Joseph Burr Tyrrell and Ronald P. D. Graham for its discovery locality, the Daulton Mine, west side of Windy Arm, Tagish Lake, Yukon, Canada.
Easily confused with Arseniosiderite and identifiable only with XRD methods, although yukonite is frequently amorphous to x-rays.

Note: The "yukonite" described by Nishikawa et al. (2006) may in fact be identical to the Unnamed (Arseniosiderite-related mineral).

Classification of Yukonite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"

D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
M : With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 > 2:1

8 : (AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O

20 : Arsenates (also arsenates with phosphate, but without other anions)
9 : Arsenates of Fe URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Yukonite

General Appearance of Type Material:
Black bright pitchy lumps with deep yellow to brown internal reflections. The lumps of yukonite decrepitated from the heat of handling or when submersed in water due to escape and expansion of enclosed carbon dioxide.
Year of Discovery:
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Quartz-sulfide ore veins
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Physical Properties of Yukonite

Resinous, Waxy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent, Opaque
Red-brown, dark brown, nearly black, dark purple
Hardness (Mohs):
2 - 3
None Observed
Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
2.65 g/cm3 (Measured)    
Original material absorbed water rapidly and increased in specific gravity over time.

Crystallography of Yukonite

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 19.6Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 0.00 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Occurs in pitchy to waxy masses or earthy coatings on fractures in rock. TEM shows crude 5 nm platy shapes with {001}, {100}, and small {110}.
Poorly crystalline and frequently amorphous to x-rays. "a orth = √3a hex = 19.6 Å" Also Pseudohexagonal (d 100 = 9.8, a hex =11.3) (Nishikawa et al, 2006).
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
14.1 (100)
5.58 (37)
3.25 (57)
2.79 (60)
2.61 (20)
2.33 (3)
2.24 (11)
2.14 (3)
1.76 (9)
1.63 (20)
1.51 (6)
XRD pattern richer in lines are also known (U. Kolitsch, unpublished data). Dunn (1982) gave a similar set of d values.

Optical Data of Yukonite


Chemical Properties of Yukonite

Ca3Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Yukonite to other Species

8.DM.05MoriniteNaCa2Al2(PO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2O
8.DM.05EsperanzaiteNaCa2Al2(AsO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2O
8.DM.10ClinotyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4,SO4)4(OH,O)10 · 10H2O
8.DM.10TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
8.DM.20Phosphovanadylite-CaCa[V44+P2O12(OH)4] · 12H2O
8.DM.30UdumineliteCa3Al8(PO4)2O12 · 2H2O
8.DM.35DelvauxiteCaFe4(PO4,SO4)2(OH)8 · 4-6H2O not confirmed ·
8.DM.40Santafeite(Na,Ca,Sr)12(Mn2+,Fe3+,Al,Mg)8Mn84+(VO4)16(OH,O)20 · 8H2O
20.9.2ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
20.9.3KaňkiteFeAsO4 · 3.5H2O
20.9.4FerrisymplesiteFe33+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
20.9.5KaatialaiteFe(H2AsO4)3 · 5H2O
20.9.6SymplesiteFe32+(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
20.9.7ParasymplesiteFe32+(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
20.9.8Natropharmacosiderite(Na,K)Fe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
20.9.9PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
20.9.10KolfaniteCa2Fe33+O2(AsO4)3 · 2H2O
20.9.11ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
20.9.14Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
20.9.15MapimiteZn2Fe33+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 10H2O
20.9.16OgdensburgiteCa2Fe43+(Zn,Mn2+)(AsO4)4(OH)6 · 6H2O
20.9.17WalentaiteH(Ca,Mn2+,Fe2+)Fe33+(AsO4,PO4)4 · 7H2O

Other Names for Yukonite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Not fluorescent in UV
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Yukonite

Reference List:
TYRRELL, Joseph Burr and GRAHAM, R. P. D. (1913): Yukonite, a new hydrous arsenate of iron and calcium from Tagish Lake, Yukon Territory, Canada; with a note on the associated symplesite. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 7, Section 4, 13-18.
JAMBOR, J.L. (1966): Re-examination of yukonite. Canadian Mineralogist 8, 667(abstr.).
DUNN, P.J. (1982): New data for pitticite and a second occurrence of yukonite at Sterling Hill, New Jersey. Mineralogical Magazine 46, 261-264.
Canadian Mineralogist (1970): 8: 13-18.
Ross, D. R. & Post, J. E. (1997) New data on yukonite. Powder Diffraction 12 (2), 113-116. Abstract: American Mineralogist (1998): 83: 189.
Pieczka, A., Golebiowska, B. and Franus, W. (1998) Yukonite, a rare Ca-Fe arsenate, from Redziny (Sudetes, Poland). Eur. J. Mineral. 10, 1367-1370.
Nishikawa, O., Okrugin, V., Belkova, N., Saji, I., Shiraki, K., Tazaki, K. (2006) Crystal symmetry and chemical composition of yukonite: TEM study of specimens collected from Nalychevskie hot springs, Kamchatka, Russia and from Venus Mine, Yukon Territory, Canada. Mineralogical Magazine: 70: 73-81.
Garavelli, A., Pinto, D., Vurro, F., Mellini, M., Viti, C., Balić-Žunić, T. (2009) Yukonite from “Grotta del Monaca” cave, Sant'Agata di Esaro, Italy: characterization and comparison with cotype material from Daulton mine, Yukon, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist, 47, 39-51.

Internet Links for Yukonite

The following Yukonite specimens are currently listed for sale on

Localities for Yukonite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • La Rioja
    • Vinchina Department
      • Jagüé
        • Quebrada de Cumichango
Las Especies Minerales de La Republica Argentina
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
          • Brixlegg - Rattenberg
            • Geyer - Silberberg District
              • Silberberg
Schnorrer, G. and Poeverlein, R. (2002) Schwaz-Brixlegg-Fundstellen: 2. Die Minerale des Stockerstollens bei Brixlegg in Tirol. Aufschluss, 53, 209-228.
  • Northwest Territories
    • Mackenzie District
      • Yellowknife
Jamieson, H. E. (2014): The Legacy of Arsenic Contamination from Mining and Processing Refractory Gold Ore at Giant Mine, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Pp. 533-549 in Bowell, R.J., Alpers, C.N., Jamieson, H.E., Nordstrom, D.K. and Majzlan, J., Eds. (2014): Arsenic: Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Vol. 79, Mineral. Soc. of Am., Chantilly, VA and Geochem. Soc., St. Louis, MO, USA, 635 pp.
  • Yukon
    • Whitehorse Mining District
      • Carcross
        • Tagish Lake
          • Windy Arm
TYRRELL, J.B. & GRAHAM, R.P.D. (1913): Yukonite, a new hydrous arsenate of iron and calcium from Tagish Lake, Yukon Territory, Canada; with a note on the associated symplesite. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 7, Section 4, 13-18. JAMBOR, J.L. (1966): Re-examination of yukonite. Canadian Mineralogist 8, 667(abstr.).
Sabina A.P. (1992) Rock and minerals for the collector: The Alaska highway; Dawson Creek, B.C. to Yukon/Alaska border Geological Survey of Canada, Misc. Report 50: 41.
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Schenkenzell
Walenta, K. (1996): Neufunde aus dem Schwarzwald. 6. Folge, 1. Teil. Lapis 21 (7-8), 70-76.
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Frohnbach valley
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
          • Rankach valley
SCHNORRER-KÖHLER, G. (1991): Mineralogische Notizen V. - Aufschluss 42 (3), 155-171; Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Spessart
        • Hösbach
          • Sailauf
            • Hartkoppe
see locality page
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Hillesheim
Hentschel, G., Die Lavaströme der Graulai: eine neue Fundstelle in der Westeifel, Lapis, Weise Verlag München, 09/1993
    • Palatinate
      • Winnweiler
Meisl, S (1985)
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Wernigerode
        • Hasserode
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Calabria
    • Cosenza Province
      • S. Agata di Esaro
Garavelli A., Pinto D., Vurro F., Mellini F., Viti C., Balić-Žunić T., Della Ventura G. (2009): Yukonite from the Grotta della Monaca cave, Sant’Agata di Esaro, Italy: characterization and comparison with cotype material from the Daulton mine, Yukon, Canada. Can. Mineral., 47, 39-51.
  • Kyushu Region
    • Oita prefecture
      • Saiki City
        • Kiura mine (Shin-Kiura mine; Kiura emery mine)
Enju, S. & Uehara, S. (2015): Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 110, 150-155.
  • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Tazenakht
        • Bou Azer District (Bou Azzer District)
          • Bou Azer
[var: Chromian Yukonite] N. Meisser, J. Brugger (2006): "Bouazzerit und Maghrebit, zwei neue Arsenatmineralien aus dem Revier Bou Azzer, Marokko", Lapis 31(7/8), 69-71
  • Buskerud
    • Nedre Eiker
Nilsen, Ø. J (2000): Steintur fra MIF-hytta til Korsgårdseter. DG-nytt (Drammen Geologiforening). 19 (1), 12-14
  • Nordland
    • Bindal
      • Kolsvika
Pers. Com. G. Raade (Feb. 1993) in Geologisk Museum. Interne notater 1990-1993. Published by Geologisk Museums Venner, Oslo 1993, p 171-173
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Tvedalen
        • Tuften (Tuften 1 Quarry; Tuften 2 Quarry)
Larsen, A. O. (2013): Contributions to the mineralogy of the syenite pegmatites in the Larvik Plutonic Complex. Norsk Bergverksmuseet Skrift 50, 101-109.
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Rudawy Janowickie Mts
      • Czarnów
        • Rędziny
Domańska, J.: Rędziny. Otoczak, nr. 29, p. 38-52; Pieczka, A., Golebiowska, B. and Franus, W. (1998): Yukonite, a rare Ca-Fe arsenate, from Redziny (Sudetes, Poland). Eur. J. Mineral. 10, 1367-1370.
  • Aragón
    • Zaragoza
      • Alpartir
Calvo, M. (2008). Minerales de Aragón. Prames,Zaragoza. 463 pags.
  • Murcia
    • Lorca
    • Mazarrón-Águilas
      • Pastrana
Jordi Fabre
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Anniviers Valley
      • Saint-Luc
Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
    • Binn Valley
      • Lercheltini area (Lärcheltini)
Crumbach M., Cuchet S, Meisser N. (2014) Yukonit von der Lärcheltini : ein weiteres Arsenmineral aus dem Binntal. Schweizer Strahler 4/2014.
  • Colorado
    • Chaffee Co.
      • Buena Vista
        • Trout Creek Pass pegmatite District
Eckel, E. B.(1997): Minerals of Colorado. [Updated and revised edition]. Fulcrum Publishing. 665 pages
  • Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
      • Fitting District
        • Luning
          • Rhyolite Pass
Marco Ciriotti collection (analysed only by SEM-EDS, 2005)
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
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