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Chrysothallite

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Formula:
K6Cu6Tl3+Cl17(OH)4·H2O
System:
Tetragonal
Colour:
Golden-yellow to light ...
Name:
Name is an allusion to the colour and thallium content.
Second known mineral with essential trivalent thallium, after avicennite.

Other thallium-bearing chlorides: hephaistosite, steropesite, lafossaite.

Unique crystal structure with layer of distorted edge-sharing CuCl4(OH)2 octahedra; two types of isolated Tl-centered octahedra: TlCl6 and TlCl4(H2O)2; two types of K polyhedra - KCl6 and KCl9 - linking the other building blocks (Pekov et al., 2015).

Product of the interaction of fumarole gas, atmospheric water and high-temperature sublimate minerals; forming at max. temperature of 150ºC.

Classification of Chrysothallite

Approved
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Type Occurrence of Chrysothallite

General Appearance of Type Material:
tabular, lamellar, equant or short prismatic crystals up to 0.1 mm in size, their clusters and pseudomorphs after urusovite crystal crusts up to 1.5 cm × 2 cm in area.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Type material is deposited in the collections of the collections of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, registration number 4384/1
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Fumerole

Physical Properties of Chrysothallite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Golden-yellow to light yellow
Streak:
White
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
2.95 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.97 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Chrysothallite

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
I4/mmm
Space Group Setting:
I4/mmm
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.3689(7) Å, c = 26.207(2) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.305
Unit Cell Volume:
V 3,387.30 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
13.20(44)
6.88(100)
5.16(30)
4.027(26)
3.471(28)
3.153(30)
3.075(47)
2.771(38)
Comments:
From Type Description.

Optical Data of Chrysothallite

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.720 nε = 1.730
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.010
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High

Chemical Properties of Chrysothallite

Formula:
K6Cu6Tl3+Cl17(OH)4·H2O
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Zn

Other Names for Chrysothallite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Chrysothallite

Reference List:
Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Belakovskiy, D.I., Vigasina, M.F., Sidorov, E.G. and Pushcharovsky, D.Y. (2013) Chrysothallite, IMA 2013-008. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, August 2013, page 2702. Mineralogical Magazine: 77: 2695-2709.

Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Belakovskiy, D.I., Yapaskurt, V.O., Vigasina, M.F., Lykova, I.S., Sidorov, E.G., Pushcharovsky, D.Y. (2015) Chrysothallite K6Cu6Tl3+Cl17(OH)4·H2O, a new mineral species from the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Mineralogical Magazine: 79: 365-376.

Internet Links for Chrysothallite

Localities for Chrysothallite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
      • Tolbachik volcano
        • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
          • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
            • Second scoria cone
Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Lykova, I.S., Belakovskiy, D.I., Vigasina, M.F., Sidorov, E.G., Britvin, S.N., Pushscharovsky, D.Yu. (2015): New zinc and potassium chlorides from fumaroles of the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia: mineral data and crystal chemistry. I. Mellizinkalite, K3Zn2Cl7. European Journal of Mineralogy, 27, 247-253.
Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Belakovskiy, D.I., Vigasina, M.F., Sidorov, E.G. and Pushcharovsky, D.Y. (2013) Chrysothallite, IMA 2013-008. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, August 2013, page 2702; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2695-2709.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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