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Zincite

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Formula:
(Zn,Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)O
System:HexagonalColour:Red, orange, yellow, ...
Lustre:Sub-AdamantineHardness:4
Name:Re-named in 1845 by Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger for its zinc content. Originally named red oxyde of zinc in 1810 by Archibald Bruce. Francis Alger called this mineral "sterlingite" in 1844, while Henry James Brooke and William Hallowes Miller named this mineral "spartalite" in 1852.


NOTE: synthetic zincite crystals are widespread on the mineral market.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Zincite. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Zincite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/A.03-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.AB.20

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
A : Metal: Oxygen = 2:1 and 1:1
B : M:O = 1:1 (and up to 1:1.25); with small to medium-sized cations only
Dana 8th edition ID:4.2.2.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
2 : AX
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.5.1

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
5 : Oxides of Zn, Cd and Hg
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Type Occurrence of Zincite

Co-type Localities:Franklin Mine, Franklin, Franklin Mining District, Sussex Co., New Jersey, USA
Sterling Mine, Sterling Hill, Ogdensburg, Franklin Mining District, Sussex Co., New Jersey, USA
Year of Discovery:1845
Geological Setting of type material:Metamorphic Precambrian zinc-manganese-iron oxide-silicate ore bodies in crystalline Franklin marble.

Physical Properties of Zincite

Lustre:Sub-Adamantine
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Colour:Red, orange, yellow, white
Streak:Orange-yellow
Hardness (Mohs):4
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
{1010} perfect, but difficult.
Parting:On {0001} distinct at times.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):5.64 - 5.68 g/cm3
Density (calculated):5.699 g/cm3

Crystallography of Zincite

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Class (H-M):6mm - Dihexagonal Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:a = 3.24Å, c = 5.2Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.605
Unit Cell Volume:V 47.27 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystals extremely rare. Hemimorphic pyramidal with a large negative pedion {0001}. Often rounded and corroded. Usually massive, foliated; also compact granular, and in rounded irregular masses.
Twinning:On {0001}, composition plane always {0001}.
Crystal Atlas:
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Zincite no.20 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Zincite

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 2.013 nε = 2.029
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.016

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Weak
Colour in reflected light:Light rose-brown

Chemical Properties of Zincite

Formula:
(Zn,Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)O
Simplified for copy/paste:(Zn,Mn2+,Fe2+)O
Idealised Formula:
ZnO
Essential elements:O, Zn
All elements listed in formula:Fe, Mn, O, Zn
Common Impurities:Mn,Fe

Relationship of Zincite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.AB.05Crednerite
CuMnO
 
2
4.AB.10Tenorite
CuO
4.AB.15Delafossite
CuFeO
 
2
4.AB.15Mcconnellite
CuCrO
 
2
4.AB.20Bromellite
BeO
4.AB.25Bunsenite
NiO
4.AB.25Lime
CaO
4.AB.25Manganosite
MnO
4.AB.25Monteponite
CdO
4.AB.25Periclase
MgO
4.AB.25Wüstite
FeO
4.AB.30Palladinite
PdO
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.5.2Sweetite
Zn(OH)
 
2
7.5.3Ashoverite
Zn(OH)
 
2
7.5.4Wülfingite
Zn(OH)
 
2
7.5.5Gahnite
ZnAl
 
2
O
 
4
7.5.6Hetaerolite
ZnMn
 
2
O
 
4
7.5.7Hydrohetaerolite
ZnMn
 
2
O
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.5.8Chalcophanite
(Zn,Fe,Mn)Mn
 
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
7.5.9Woodruffite
Zn(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)
 
5
O
 
10
·3½H
 
2
O
7.5.10Franklinite
Zn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
7.5.11Monteponite
CdO
7.5.12Montroydite
HgO

Other Names for Zincite

Synonyms:
AncramiteApartaliteBrucite (of Dufrénoy)Red Oxide of ZincRed Zink Ore
Ruby Zinc (of Alger)SpartaliteSterlingite (of Alger)
Other Languages:
French:Zinc oxydé
German:Ancramit
Rothzinkerz
Rotzinkerz
Spartalit
Spartalith
Zincit
Zinkit
Zinkoxid
Zinkoxyd
Japanese:紅亜鉛鉱
Norwegian (Bokmål):Sinkitt
Russian:Цинкит
Simplified Chinese:红锌矿
Spanish:Ancramita
Spartalita
Zincita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Yellow-green (SW UV) (light yellow material from Sterling Mine only).
Special Storage/
Display Requirements from:
Sterling Mine,..., Sussex Co., New Jersey, USANone.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Source of refined zinc oxide (Franklin ores only)

References for Zincite

Reference List:

- +
Bruce (1810) American Min. Journal: 1(2): 96 (as Red Oxide of Zinc).

Haidinger W. (1845) Handbuch der bestimmenden mineralogie (Vienna), 548.

Brooke and Miller (1852): 218 (as Spartalite).

Alger (1844): 565 (as Sterlingite).

Alger (1861) Boston Society of Natural History, Proceedings: 6: 145 (as Ruby Zinc).

vom Rath (1871) Ann. Phys.: 144: 580.

Palache, C. (1910) American Journal of Science: 29: 177.

Berman (1927) American Mineralogist: 12: 168.

Palache, C. (1935) Minerals of Franklin and Sterling Hill, New Jersey, USG Professional Paper 180: 38.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 504-506.

Acta Crystallographica (1989): B: 34.

Internet Links for Zincite

Search Engines:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Zincite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Specimens:The following Zincite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Zincite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Western Australia
      • Wyndham-East Kimberley Shire
        • Ningbing Station
    Lead, Zinc and Silver Deposits of Western Australia, 1999
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Reißeck group
          • Gmünd
    M. Puttner: Carinthia II 184./104.:43-47 (1994)
    • Lower Austria
      • Mostviertel
    No reference listed
    • Styria
      • Niedere Tauern
        • Öblarn
          • Walchen
    [Lapis 1992: 2 p.19-30]
    Belgium
     
    • Hainaut Province (Henegouwen; Hennegau)
      • Charleroi
        • Montignies-sur-Sambre
    Leon Hupperichs Collection
    • Liège Province
      • Verviers
        • Plombières-Vieille Montagne District (Plombières-Altenberg)
          • Plombières (Bleyberg)
    van Tassel, R., (1979): Minéraux artificiels ou de néoformation à Plombières et Sclaigneaux, Belgique, Bulletin de la Societe Belge de Géologie, 88 (4), 273-279; Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995b): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Limburg Province
      • Dilsen-Stokkem
    • Namur Province
      • Andenne
    No reference listed
    Bulgaria
     
    • Haskovo Oblast (Khaskovo Oblast)
      • Simeonovgrad Obshtina
    Doinikova, O.A. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(1), 80-86.
        • Simeonovgrad
    Doinikova, O.A. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(1), 80-86.
    China
     
    • Guizhou Province
      • Qiannan Autonomous Prefecture
        • Duyun Co.
    Tiegeng Liu, Qian Zhang, Lin Ye, and Shuxun Shao (2004): Geology in China 31(1), 40-45
    • Henan Province
      • Luoyang Prefecture
        • Luanchuan Co.
    Haiqi Yan, Yuhua Pei, Yaowu Song, and Hui Yun (2007): Mineral Resources and Geology 21(3), 245-250
        • Song Co.
          • Dongwan gold field
    Yuhua Pei and Haiqi Yan (2006): Geology and Prospecting 42(3), 56-60; Meijuan Yao, Junfeng Shen, Shengrong Li, Ye Cao, and Xiuyan Liu (2008): Geological Bulletin of China 27(5), 649-656
    • Qinghai Province
      • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
        • Dulan Co.
    Fenying Zhang, Yanping Cai, Jianhua Liu, Zhaoyu Cui, Yongna Li, Yujuan Ye, Yan Wang, and Shengqin Jia (2011): Gold Science and Technology 19(6), 49-54
    • Shaanxi Province
      • Ankang Prefecture
        • Xunyang Co.
          • Zhenxun Pb-Zn ore field (Zhen'an-Xunyang Pb-Zn ore field)
    Huaping Zhu and Dequan Zhang (2004): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 19(2), 76-82, 86
      • Hanzhong Prefecture
        • Lüeyang Co.
          • Tongchang ore field
    Guoxing Wu (1990): Shaanxi Geological Science and Technology Information 1990(2), 20-24; Shuzhen Yao, Zhenju Ding, Zonggui Zhou, and Xinbiao Lü (2005), In: Jingwen Mao and Bierlein, F.P. (Eds.): Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge, Vol. 1, Springer (Berlin, Heidelberg, New York), pp. 215-218
    • Sichuan Province
      • Garzê Autonomous Prefecture (Ganzi Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Kangding Co.
          • Daduhe gold field
    Zhimin Cao (1991): Journal of Chengdu College of Technology 18(4), 26-36
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
        • Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.)
    Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggang Yan, Zhongming Zhang, Yufeng Ren, Nicheng Shi, Zhesheng Ma, and Mingquan Dai (2004): Earth Science Frontiers 11(1), 179-187
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
        • Kutná Hora (Kuttenberg)
          • Poličany
            • Vrchlice river valley
    Pauliš P. Mineralogické lokality okolí Kutné Hory. Kuttna, Kutná Hora 1999. ISBN 80-902719-0-1.
      • Liberec Region
    Scharm, B.: Přehled minerálů nalezených v oblasti uranových koncentrací v severočeské křídě. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1995, roč. 3, s. 169-172.
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    • Katanga (Shaba)
      • Kipushi
    Kampunzu, A.B., Cailteux, J.L.H., Kamona, A.F., Intiomale, M.M., and Melcher, F. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 263-297.
    France
     
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Gard
        • Saint-Laurent-le-Minier
    - Gol, D, Martaud, A., Meisser, N. & Chollet, P. (2010): Minéralogie des Malines, Gard. Le Règne Minéral, HS XVI, 49-88.
    Germany
     
    • Hesse
      • Richelsdorf District
        • Süss
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Goslar
          • Astfeld
    No reference listed
          • Grane Reservoir
    No reference listed
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Aachen
        • Eschweiler
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
        • Stolberg
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    International Association of Collectors of Slag; Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Eifel
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Sauerland
        • Arnsberg
          • Hüsten
    D. Pawlowski: "Mineralfundstellen im Sauerland", Weise (Munich), 1991
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Lahn valley
        • Bad Ems District
          • Braubach
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G. & David, W. (1991): Die Blei- und Silberhütte Braubach und ihre Haldenminerale. Lapis, 16 (1), 38-49; 58 (in German).
    Lapis, 16 (1), 38-53+58.
      • Siegerland
        • Niederfischbach
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
    Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, L. & Standfuss, K. (1991): Neue Funde aus den antiken Schlacken von Lavrion, Griechenland. Lapis, 16 (6), 21-23; 58.; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996): Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags
    India
     
    • Rajasthan (Rajputana)
      • Ajmer Division
        • Bhilwara District
    Nalin Shah (2002) Rampura-Agucha - A remobilized SEDEX deposit Southeastern Rajasthan, India in M. Deb, Wayne David Goodfellow eds. Sediment-hosted lead-zinc sulphide deposits: attributes and models of some major deposits in India, Australia and Canada
    Iran
     
    • Zanjan Province
      • Sheykhlar
    USGS database
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Genova
          • Varenna Valley
    Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
      • Savona Province
        • Rialto
          • Melogno
    Antofilli, Borgo & Palenzona, 1985. I nostri minerali. Geologia e mineralogia in Liguria. Edizioni Melita, La Spezia.
    • Lombardy
      • Bergamo Province
        • Brembana Valley
          • Oltre il Colle
            • Vedra Valley
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
    • Sardinia
      • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
        • Iglesias
          • Masua
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente-Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Volume 1, EMSA, Ed., Cagliari, 239 pp.
    De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
      • Medio Campidano Province
        • Arbus
    Binotto, C., Boi, G., Cocco, E., Preite, D., Sitta, S. (1988): Minerali dalle miniere di Montevecchio e da altri giacimenti collegati al granito dell'Arburese. 4° Parte, 1/1988, 5-16.
    • Tuscany
      • Grosseto Province
        • Montieri
    Bazzoni C. et al., 2003. Il "Filone di Boccheggiano": miniere e minerali. Riv. Miner. Ital., 2: 78-89
      • Livorno Province
        • Piombino
    Muenchener Micromounter - Lithothek
      • Lucca Province
        • Apuan Alps
          • Stazzema
    D'Achiardi A., 1872/72. Mineralogia della Toscana. Tip. Nistri, Pisa.
    Norway
     
    • Buskerud
      • Modum
        • Åmot
    Goldschmidt, V.M. (1911): Die Kontaktmetamorphose im Kristianiagebiet . Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. 1.Mat.-Naturv. Klasse 1911. No 1. Kristiania. 483p, p. 268
    Poland
     
    • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
      • Katowice
        • Świętochłowice
    Puziewicz, J., Zainoun, K. and Bril, H. (2007): Primary phases in pyrometallurgical slags from a zinc-smelting waste dump, Świętochłowice, Upper Silesia, Poland. Can. Mineral. 45, 1189-1200.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
    Mironov, A.G., Zhmodik, S.M., Kolesov, G.M., Mit’kin, V.N., Damdinov, B.B., and Zayakina, S.B. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(1), 41-59.
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Magadanskaya Oblast'
        • Kolyma River Basin
          • Ducat District
            • Omsukchan
    Filimonova, L.G., and Trubkin, N.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 135-144.
    Geologiya Rudnykh Mestorozhdenii, 2008, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 153–163.
    Slovakia
     
    • Košice Region
      • Gelnica Co.
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
    Sweden
     
    • Dalarna
      • Hedemora
        • Garpenberg
    Nysten, P. (2003): Yeatmanite and magnussonite from the Garpenberg Norra mine, Bergslagen ore province, Sweden. Can. Mineral., 41, 201-206
    The Moon
     
    • Mare Crisium
    Mokhov A.V., Kartashov P.M., Gornostaeva T.A., Asadulin A.A., Bogatikov O.A. (2013) Complex nanospherulites of zinc oxide and native amorphous boron in the Lunar regolith from Mare Crisium, - Doklady Earth Sciences, 448(1), p. 61-63.
    Tunisia
     
    • Siliana Governorate
      • Siliana
        • Djebel Sekarna
    Dill, Weiss, Botz, Dohrmann, Paleontological, mineralogical and chemical studies of syngenetic and epigenetic Pb–Zn–Ba–P mineralizations at the stratotype of the K/P boundary, International Journal of Earth Sciences, Feb 2010.
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cumbria
        • City of Carlisle District
          • Tindale (Tindale Fell)
    Braithwaite, R.S.W., Lamb, R.P.H. and Nattrass, A.L. (2006): Secondary species associated with weathering of industrial residues at Tindale Fell Spelter Works, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society 9, 61-64.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Maricopa Co.
        • Big Horn Mts
          • Osborn District
            • Tonopah
              • Belmont Mountain
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 429.
    • California
      • Kern Co.
        • Loraine District
          • Loraine
    Troxel, Bennie Wyatt & P.K. Morton (1962), Mines and mineral resources of Kern County, California: California Division Mines & Geology County Report No. 1, 370 pp.: 346; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 182.
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Bear Valley Mining District
    Leavens & Patton: Axis 4 (1)13p (2008)
        • Chemehuevi Mts
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Colorado
      • Fremont Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Gilpin Co.
        • Central City District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Illinois
      • Vermilion Co.
        • Danville
          • Hegeler
    Piatak, N. M. & Seal, R. R., II (2010): Mineralogy and the release of trace elements from slag from the Hegeler Zinc smelter, Illinois (USA). Applied Geochemistry, 25, 302-320
    • Nevada
      • Eureka Co.
        • Lone Mountain District
    NBMG Bull 64 Geology and Mineral Resources of Eureka County, Nevada
      • Lincoln Co.
        • Viola District
    NBMG Bull 73 Geology and Mineral Resources of Lincoln County, Nevada
      • White Pine Co.
        • Duck Creek District
    NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Jersey
      • Bergen Co.
    The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 76.
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
    Palache(1935):39; Dunn(1995):Pt4:558-565.
    Palache(1935):39; Dunn(1995):Pt4:558-565.
    Van King
    Palache(1935):39.
    Palache(1935):39; Dunn(1995):Pt4:558-565.
    FOMS Millsite Committee (1986) (circa), List of Mineral Species Found on the Franklin Mill Site, Franklin-Ogdensburg Mineralogical Society (unpublished).
    Although no specific reference is citeable, zincite is pervasive throughout the Franklin orebody and zincite has been collected on the trotter mine dump.
          • Ogdensburg
            • Sterling Hill
    Min.Rec.:19:273; Palache(1935):39; Dunn(1995):Pt4:558-565.
    • New Mexico
      • Luna Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Socorro Co.
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
    • Pennsylvania
      • Carbon Co.
        • Lower Towamensing Township
          • Palmerton
    Rob Lavinsky specimens
    • Tennessee
      • Cocke Co.
    Travis A. Paris (2011) Tennessee mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 86, #4, 300-328.
    • Utah
      • Juab Co.
        • Fish Springs Mts
          • Fish Springs District
    Ken Puchlik (2009) The Crypto Zinc-Indium-Copper-Molybdenum Skarn Deposit, Western Juab County, Utah. Utah Geological Association newsletter VOLUME 41, NUMBER 6 June 2009
      • Summit Co.
        • Wasatch Mts
          • Park City District (Uinta District)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Virginia
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Zambia
     
    • Central Province
      • Kabwe District
        • Kabwe (Broken Hill)
    [MinRec 12:394]
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