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Zinkenite

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Formula:
Pb9Sb22S42
System:
Hexagonal
Colour:
Steel-grey
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
3 - 3½
Name:
Named in 1826 by Gustav Rose in honor of Johann Karl Ludwig Zinken (Zincken) [June 13, 1790 Seesen, Braunschweig, Germany- March 19, 1862 Bernburg, Germany], mineralogist and mining geologist, and director of the "Anhalt-Bernburgischen Berg- und Hüttenwerke“ in Mägdesprung, who discovered the mineral.
The structure contains interconnected SbS3 groups, also observed in, e.g., boulangerite, jamesonite, and robinsonite.

Classification of Zinkenite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.JB.35a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
J : Sulfosalts of PbS archetype
B : Galena derivatives, with Pb
3.8.1.1

3 : SULFOSALTS
8 : 1 < ø < 2
5.6.8

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
6 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Pb alone
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Type Occurrence of Zinkenite

Physical Properties of Zinkenite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Steel-grey
Streak:
Steel-grey
Hardness (Mohs):
3 - 3½
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
On {112¯0}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
5.25 - 5.35 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Crystallography of Zinkenite

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6 - Pyramidal
Space Group:
P63
Cell Parameters:
a = 22.12Å, c = 4.31Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.195
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,826.33 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals thin prismatic, and striated [0001] due, in part, to subparallel aggregation. Crystals seldom distinct. Columnar to radial fibrous aggregates; massive.
Comment:
Some crystals exhibit a superstructure with a doubled c parameter. Cell is also given as a = 44.15 c = 8.62 A.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.45 (100)
3.02 (20)
2.81 (40)
2.13 (20)
2.06 (20)
1.985 (30)
1.828 (30)

Optical Data of Zinkenite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Distinct
Colour in reflected light:
Grey-white
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of Zinkenite

Formula:
Pb9Sb22S42
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ag,Cu,Fe,As

Relationship of Zinkenite to other Species

2.JB.05DiaphoriteAg3Pb2Sb3S8
2.JB.10CosalitePb2Bi2S5
2.JB.15FreieslebeniteAgPbSbS3
2.JB.15MarriteAgPbAsS3
2.JB.20CannizzaritePb4Bi6S13
2.JB.20WittitePb9Bi12(S,Se)27
2.JB.25aJunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16
2.JB.25iNeyiteAg2Cu6Pb25Bi26S68
2.JB.25cNordströmiteCuPb3Bi7(Se4S10)
2.JB.25gNuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
2.JB.25dProuditeCuPb7.5Bi9.33(S,Se)22
2.JB.25hWeibullitePb5Bi8Se7S11
2.JB.25bFelbertaliteCu2Pb6Bi8S19
2.JB.25jRouxeliteCu2HgPb23Sb27S65.5
2.JB.25fÁngelaiteCu2AgPbBiS4
2.JB.25iCuproneyiteCu7Pb27Bi25S68
2.JB.30aGeocronitePb14(Sb,As)6S23
2.JB.30aJordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23
2.JB.30bKirkiitePb10Bi3As3S19
2.JB.30cTsugaruitePb4As2S7
2.JB.35cPillaitePb9Sb10S23ClO0.5
2.JB.35bScainiitePb14Sb30S54O5
2.JB.35dPellouxite(Cu,Ag)Pb10Sb12S27O(Cl,S)0.6
2.JB.35fTubuliteAg2Pb22Sb20S53
2.JB.35eChovanitePb15-2xSb14+2xS36Ox (x ~ 0.2)
2.JB.40bAschamalmitePb6Bi2S9
2.JB.40aBursaitePb5Bi4S11 (?)
2.JB.40bEskimoiteAg7Pb10Bi15S36
2.JB.40aFizélyiteAg5Pb14Sb21S48
2.JB.40aGustaviteAgPbBi3S6
2.JB.40aLillianitePb3-2xAgxBi2+xS6
2.JB.40cOurayiteAg3Pb4Bi5S13
2.JB.40aRamdohritePb5.9Fe0.1Mn0.1In0.1Cd0.2Ag2.8Sb10.8S24
2.JB.40aRoshchiniteAg19Pb10Sb51S96
2.JB.40dSchirmeritePbAgBi3S6 - Pb3Ag1.5Bi3.5S9
2.JB.40aTreasuriteAg7Pb6Bi15S32
2.JB.40aUchucchacuaiteAgMnPb3Sb5S12
2.JB.40eUstarasitePb(Bi,Sb)6S10 (?)
2.JB.40aVikingiteAg5Pb8Bi13S30
2.JB.40aXilingolitePb3Bi2S6
2.JB.40bHeyrovskýitePb6Bi2S9
2.JB.40UM1988-05-S:AgBiCuHgPb(Hg,Ag,Cu,Pb)5Pb5Bi11S27
2.JB.40UM1988-06-S:AgBiCuHgPb(Pb,Hg)12(Cu,Ag)3(Bi,Sb)10(S,Te)27
2.JB.40aAndorite IVPb18Ag15Sb47S96
2.JB.55GratonitePb9As4S15
2.JB.60MarrucciiteHg3Pb16Sb18S46
2.JB.65VurroitePb20Sn2(Bi,As)22S54Cl6
5.6.1SartoritePbAs2S4
5.6.2DufrénoysitePb2As2S5
5.6.3LiveingitePb9As13S28
5.6.4BaumhaueritePb12As16S36
5.6.5GratonitePb9As4S15
5.6.6JordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23
5.6.7FülöppitePb3Sb8S15
5.6.9PlagionitePb5Sb8S17
5.6.10HeteromorphitePb7Sb8S19
5.6.11LaunayiteCuPb10(Sb,As)12S20
5.6.12PlayfairitePb16(Sb,As)19S44Cl
5.6.13SemseyitePb9Sb8S21
5.6.14MadocitePb19(Sb,As)16S43
5.6.15BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
5.6.17RobinsonitePb4Sb6S13
5.6.18GuettarditePbAsSbS4
5.6.19Twinnite Pb0.8Tl0.1Sb1.3As0.8S4
5.6.20VeenitePb2(Sb,As)2S5
5.6.21SorbyiteCuPb9(Sb,As)11S26
5.6.22GeocronitePb14(Sb,As)6S23
5.6.23GalenobismutitePbBi2S4
5.6.24CosalitePb2Bi2S5
5.6.25CannizzaritePb4Bi6S13
5.6.26LillianitePb3-2xAgxBi2+xS6
5.6.27GiessenitePb27Cu2(Bi,Sb)19S57
5.6.28Platynite
5.6.29XilingolitePb3Bi2S6
5.6.30WeibullitePb5Bi8Se7S11
5.6.31WittitePb9Bi12(S,Se)27
5.6.32KirkiitePb10Bi3As3S19
5.6.33UstarasitePb(Bi,Sb)6S10 (?)

Other Names for Zinkenite

Other Information

Other Information:
Raman bands connected with stretching and bending of the SbS3 groups are between 350 and 180 cm-1 (same as for robinsonite)
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Zinkenite

Reference List:
Rose (1826) Annals of Physical Chemistry: 7: 91.

Eakins (1890) American Journal of Science: 39: 74 (as warrenite, in part).

Gordon (1922) Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Proceedings: 74: 101 (as keeleyite).

Vaux and Bannister (1938) Mineralogical Magazine: 25: 221.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 476-478.

Harris, D. C. (1965): Zinckenite. Canadian Mineralogist 8, 381-382.

Walia, D. S. & Chang, L. L. Y. (1973): Investigations in the systems PbS-Sb2S3-As2S3 and PbS-Bi2S3-As2S3. Can. Mineral., 12, 113-119.

Portheine, J. C., Nowacki, W. (1975): Refinement of the crystal structure of zinckenite, Pb6Sb14S27. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 141, 79-96.

Lebas, G., le Bihan, M. T. (1976): Étude chimique et structurale d’un sulfure naturel: la zinckénite. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie 99, 351-360.

Smith, P.P.K. (1986): Direct imaging of tunnel cations in zinkenite by high-resolution electron microscopy. American Mineralogist 71, 194-201.

Pruseth, K. L., Mishra, B., Bernhardt, H. J. (1998): Solid solution in synthetic zinkenite, robinsonite and meneghinite in the system Cu2S-PbS-Sb2S3. Canadian Mineralogist 36, 207-213.

Kharbish, S., Jeleň, S. (2016): Raman spectroscopy of the Pb-Sb sulfosalts minerals: Boulangerite, jamesonite, robinsonite and zinkenite. Vibrational Spectroscopy: 85: 157-166; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12815 (2016)

Internet Links for Zinkenite

Specimens:
The following Zinkenite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Zinkenite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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