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Zinkenite

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Formula:
Pb
 
9
Sb
 
22
S
 
42
System:HexagonalColour:Steel-grey
Lustre:MetallicHardness:3 - 3½
Name:Named in 1826 by Gustav Rose in honor of Johann Karl Ludwig Zinken (Zincken) [June 13, 1790 Seesen, Braunschweig, Germany- March 19, 1862 Bernburg, Germany], mineralogist and mining geologist, and director of the "Anhalt-Bernburgischen Berg- und Hüttenwerke“ in Mägdesprung, who discovered the mineral.
This page provides mineralogical data about Zinkenite.

Classification of Zinkenite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/E.26-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.JB.35a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
J : Sulfosalts of PbS archetype
B : Galena derivatives, with Pb
Dana 8th edition ID:3.8.1.1

3 : SULFOSALTS
8 : 1 < ø < 2
Hey's CIM Ref.:5.6.8

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
6 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Pb alone
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Type Occurrence of Zinkenite

Type Locality:Graf Jost-Christian Mine, Wolfsberg, Stolberg, Harz, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
Year of Discovery:1826

Physical Properties of Zinkenite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Steel-grey
Streak:Steel-grey
Hardness (Mohs):3 - 3½
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
On {112¯0}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):5.25 - 5.35 g/cm3

Crystallography of Zinkenite

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Class (H-M):6 - Pyramidal
Space Group:P63
Cell Parameters:a = 22.12Å, c = 4.31Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.195
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,826.33 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystals thin prismatic, and striated [0001] due, in part, to subparallel aggregation. Crystals seldom distinct. Columnar to radial fibrous aggregates; massive.
Comment:Some crystals exhibit a superstructure with a doubled c parameter. Cell is also given as a = 44.15 c = 8.62 A.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.45 (100)
3.02 (20)
2.81 (40)
2.13 (20)
2.06 (20)
1.985 (30)
1.828 (30)

Optical Data of Zinkenite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Distinct
Colour in reflected light:Grey-white
Pleochroism:Weak

Chemical Properties of Zinkenite

Formula:
Pb
 
9
Sb
 
22
S
 
42
Simplified for copy/paste:Pb9Sb22S42
Essential elements:Pb, S, Sb
All elements listed in formula:Pb, S, Sb
Common Impurities:Ag,Cu,Fe,As

Relationship of Zinkenite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.JB.05Diaphorite
Ag
 
3
Pb
 
2
Sb
 
3
S
 
8
2.JB.10Cosalite
Pb
 
2
Bi
 
2
S
 
5
2.JB.15Freieslebenite
AgPbSbS
 
3
2.JB.15Marrite
AgPbAsS
 
3
2.JB.20Cannizzarite
Pb
 
4
Bi
 
6
S
 
13
2.JB.20Wittite
Pb
 
9
Bi
 
12
(S,Se)
 
27
2.JB.25aJunoite
Cu
 
2
Pb
 
3
Bi
 
8
(S,Se)
 
16
2.JB.25iNeyite
Ag
 
2
Cu
 
6
Pb
 
25
Bi
 
26
S
 
68
2.JB.25cNordströmite
CuPb
 
3
Bi
 
7
(Se
 
4
S
 
10
)
2.JB.25gNuffieldite
Cu
 
1.4
Pb
 
2.4
Bi
 
2.4
Sb
 
0.2
S
 
7
2.JB.25dProudite
CuPb
 
7.5
Bi
 
9.33
(S,Se)
 
22
2.JB.25hWeibullite
Pb
 
5
Bi
 
8
Se
 
7
S
 
11
2.JB.25bFelbertalite
Cu
 
2
Pb
 
6
Bi
 
8
S
 
19
2.JB.25jRouxelite
Cu
 
2
HgPb
 
23
Sb
 
27
S
 
65.5
2.JB.25fÁngelaite
Cu
 
2
AgPbBiS
 
4
2.JB.25iCuproneyite
Cu
 
7
Pb
 
27
Bi
 
25
S
 
68
2.JB.30aGeocronite
Pb
 
14
(Sb,As)
 
6
S
 
23
2.JB.30aJordanite
Pb
 
14
(As,Sb)
 
6
S
 
23
2.JB.30bKirkiite
Pb
 
10
Bi
 
3
As
 
3
S
 
19
2.JB.30cTsugaruite
Pb
 
4
As
 
2
S
 
7
2.JB.35cPillaite
Pb
 
9
Sb
 
10
S
 
23
ClO
 
0.5
2.JB.35bScainiite
Pb
 
14
Sb
 
30
S
 
54
O
 
5
2.JB.35dPellouxite
(Cu,Ag)Pb
 
10
Sb
 
12
S
 
27
O(Cl,S)
 
0.6
2.JB.35fTubulite
Ag
 
2
Pb
 
22
Sb
 
20
S
 
53
2.JB.35eChovanite
Pb
 
15-2x
Sb
 
14+2x
S
 
36
O
 
x
(x ~ 0.2)
2.JB.40bAschamalmite
Pb
 
6
Bi
 
2
S
 
9
2.JB.40aBursaite
Pb
 
5
Bi
 
4
S
 
11
(?)
2.JB.40bEskimoite
Ag
 
7
Pb
 
10
Bi
 
15
S
 
36
2.JB.40aFizélyite
Ag
 
5
Pb
 
14
Sb
 
21
S
 
48
2.JB.40aGustavite
Ag
 
3
Pb
 
5
Bi
 
11
S
 
24
2.JB.40aLillianite
Pb
 
3-2x
Ag
 
x
Bi
 
2+x
S
 
6
2.JB.40cOurayite
Ag
 
3
Pb
 
4
Bi
 
5
S
 
13
2.JB.40aRamdohrite
(Cd,Mn,Fe)Ag
 
5.5
Pb
 
12
Sb
 
21.5
S
 
48
2.JB.40aRoshchinite
Ag
 
19
Pb
 
10
Sb
 
51
S
 
96
2.JB.40dSchirmerite
PbAgBi
 
3
S
 
6
- Pb
 
3
Ag
 
1.5
Bi
 
3.5
S
 
9
2.JB.40aTreasurite
Ag
 
7
Pb
 
6
Bi
 
15
S
 
32
2.JB.40aUchucchacuaite
AgMnPb
 
3
Sb
 
5
S
 
12
2.JB.40eUstarasite
Pb(Bi,Sb)
 
6
S
 
10
(?)
2.JB.40aVikingite
Ag
 
5
Pb
 
8
Bi
 
13
S
 
30
2.JB.40aXilingolite
Pb
 
3
Bi
 
2
S
 
6
2.JB.40bHeyrovskýite
Pb
 
10
AgBi
 
5
S
 
18
2.JB.40UM1988-05-S:AgBiCuHgPb
(Hg,Ag,Cu,Pb)
 
5
Pb
 
5
Bi
 
11
S
 
27
2.JB.40UM1988-06-S:AgBiCuHgPb
(Pb,Hg)
 
12
(Cu,Ag)
 
3
(Bi,Sb)
 
10
(S,Te)
 
27
2.JB.40aAndorite IV
Pb
 
18
Ag
 
15
Sb
 
47
S
 
96
2.JB.55Gratonite
Pb
 
9
As
 
4
S
 
15
2.JB.60Marrucciite
Hg
 
3
Pb
 
16
Sb
 
18
S
 
46
2.JB.65Vurroite
Pb
 
20
Sn
 
2
(Bi,As)
 
22
S
 
54
Cl
 
6
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
5.6.1Sartorite
PbAs
 
2
S
 
4
5.6.2Dufrénoysite
Pb
 
2
As
 
2
S
 
5
5.6.3Liveingite
Pb
 
9
As
 
13
S
 
28
5.6.4Baumhauerite
Pb
 
12
As
 
16
S
 
36
5.6.5Gratonite
Pb
 
9
As
 
4
S
 
15
5.6.6Jordanite
Pb
 
14
(As,Sb)
 
6
S
 
23
5.6.7Fülöppite
Pb
 
3
Sb
 
8
S
 
15
5.6.9Plagionite
Pb
 
5
Sb
 
8
S
 
17
5.6.10Heteromorphite
Pb
 
7
Sb
 
8
S
 
19
5.6.11Launayite
CuPb
 
10
(Sb,As)
 
12
S
 
20
5.6.12Playfairite
Pb
 
16
Sb
 
18
S
 
43
5.6.13Semseyite
Pb
 
9
Sb
 
8
S
 
21
5.6.14Madocite
Pb
 
19
(Sb,As)
 
16
S
 
43
5.6.15Boulangerite
Pb
 
5
Sb
 
4
S
 
11
5.6.17Robinsonite
Pb
 
4
Sb
 
6
S
 
13
5.6.18Guettardite
PbAsSbS
 
4
5.6.19Twinnite
Pb
 
0.8
Tl
 
0.1
Sb
 
1.3
As
 
0.8
S
 
4
5.6.20Veenite
Pb
 
2
(Sb,As)
 
2
S
 
5
5.6.21Sorbyite
CuPb
 
9
(Sb,As)
 
11
S
 
26
5.6.22Geocronite
Pb
 
14
(Sb,As)
 
6
S
 
23
5.6.23Galenobismutite
PbBi
 
2
S
 
4
5.6.24Cosalite
Pb
 
2
Bi
 
2
S
 
5
5.6.25Cannizzarite
Pb
 
4
Bi
 
6
S
 
13
5.6.26Lillianite
Pb
 
3-2x
Ag
 
x
Bi
 
2+x
S
 
6
5.6.27Giessenite
Pb
 
27
Cu
 
2
(Bi,Sb)
 
19
S
 
57
5.6.28Platynite
5.6.29Xilingolite
Pb
 
3
Bi
 
2
S
 
6
5.6.30Weibullite
Pb
 
5
Bi
 
8
Se
 
7
S
 
11
5.6.31Wittite
Pb
 
9
Bi
 
12
(S,Se)
 
27
5.6.32Kirkiite
Pb
 
10
Bi
 
3
As
 
3
S
 
19
5.6.33Ustarasite
Pb(Bi,Sb)
 
6
S
 
10
(?)

Other Names for Zinkenite

Synonyms:
KeeleyiteKeelyiteZinckenite
Other Languages:
German:Bleiantimonglanz
Keeleyit
Keelyit
Zinckenit
Zinkenit
Simplified Chinese:辉锑铅矿
Spanish:Keeleyita
Keelyita
Zinckenita
Zinkenita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Zinkenite

Reference List:

- +
Rose (1826) Annals of Physical Chemistry: 7: 91.

Eakins (1890) American Journal of Science: 39: 74 (as warrenite, in part).

Gordon (1922) Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Proceedings: 74: 101 (as keeleyite).

Vaux and Bannister (1938) Mineralogical Magazine: 25: 221.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 476-478.

Harris, D. C. (1965): Zinckenite. Canadian Mineralogist 8, 381-382.

Walia, D. S. & Chang, L. L. Y. (1973): Investigations in the systems PbS-Sb2S3-As2S3 and PbS-Bi2S3-As2S3. Can. Mineral., 12, 113-119.

Portheine, J. C., Nowacki, W. (1975): Refinement of the crystal structure of zinckenite, Pb6Sb14S27. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 141, 79-96.

Lebas, G., le Bihan, M. T. (1976): Étude chimique et structurale d’un sulfure naturel: la zinckénite. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie 99, 351-360.

Smith, P.P.K. (1986): Direct imaging of tunnel cations in zinkenite by high-resolution electron microscopy. American Mineralogist 71, 194-201.

Pruseth, K. L., Mishra, B., Bernhardt, H. J. (1998): Solid solution in synthetic zinkenite, robinsonite and meneghinite in the system Cu2S-PbS-Sb2S3. Canadian Mineralogist 36, 207-213.

Internet Links for Zinkenite

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  • Zinkenite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Zinkenite

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