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Zirconolite

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Formula:
CaZrTi2O7
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Black to brown, red
Hardness:
A complex zirconium titanium oxide with three polytypoids known (2M, 3O, 3T).

Gieré et al. (1998) identified five hypothetical end-members, CaZrTi2O7, CaZrMe5+Me3+O7, ACTZrTiMe2+O7, REEZrTiMe3+O7 and REEZrMe5+Me2+O7.
The last one has been observed as a 53% percentage of REEZrNb(Mn,Fe)O7 in a sample from the Eifel volcanic region (Della Ventura et al., 2000).

Related to laachite.


Classification of Zirconolite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.DH.30

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
H : With large (+- medium-sized) cations; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
8.2.5.5

8 : MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
2 : A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
7.10.5

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
10 : Oxides of Zr and Th

Type Occurrence of Zirconolite

Physical Properties of Zirconolite

Resinous, Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Black to brown, red
Streak:
Dark brown, brownish yellow
Hardness (Mohs):

Crystallography of Zirconolite

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
Zirconolite-2MZirconolite-3OZirconolite-3T
   
Monoclinic Orthorhombic Trigonal 
2/m - Prismaticmmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal3 2 - Trapezohedral
B2/b  P31 2 1
C2/c   
a = 12.444(2) Å, b = 7.266(1) Å, c = 11.341(2) Å
β = 100.59(1)°
a = 10.148(4) Å, b = 14.147(5) Å, c = 7.278(3) Å
a = 7.279(2) Å, c = 16.89(2) Å
a:b:c = 1.713 : 1 : 1.561a:b:c = 0.717 : 1 : 0.514a:c = 1 : 2.32
V 1,007.97 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
V 1,044.86 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
V 775.00 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
   

Optical Data of Zirconolite

Type:
Biaxial
Dispersion:
r > v strong

Chemical Properties of Zirconolite

Formula:
CaZrTi2O7
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Zirconolite to other Species

4.DH.05Brannerite(U4+,REE,Th,Ca)(Ti,Fe3+,Nb)2(O,OH)6
4.DH.05OrthobranneriteU4+U6+Ti4O12(OH)2
4.DH.05Thorutite(Th,U,Ca)Ti2(O,OH)6
4.DH.10KassiteCaTi2O4(OH)2
4.DH.10Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2(O,OH)6
4.DH.15Bariomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Bariopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
4.DH.15Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)A2-mB2X6-wY1-n
4.DH.15Bismutomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Calciobetafite (of Mazzi & Munno)A2-mB2X6-wY1-n
4.DH.15Ceriopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
4.DH.15Cesstibtantite
4.DH.15JixianitePb(W,Fe3+)2(O,OH)7
4.DH.15Hydropyrochlore(H2O,□)2Nb2(O,OH)6(H2O)
4.DH.15Natrobistantite
4.DH.15Plumbopyrochlore (of Skorobogatova et al.)A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
4.DH.15Plumbomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Plumbobetafite (of Hogarth 1977)A2-mB2X6-wY1-n
4.DH.15Stibiomicrolite (of Groat et al.)
4.DH.15Strontiopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
4.DH.15Stannomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Stibiobetafite (of Černý et al.)A2-mB2X6-wY1-n
4.DH.15Uranpyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)(U,Ca,Ce)2(Nb,Ta)2O6(OH,F)
4.DH.15Yttrobetafite (of Hogarth 1977)A2-mB2X6-wY1-n
4.DH.15Yttropyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
4.DH.15Fluornatromicrolite(Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
4.DH.15Bismutopyrochlore (of Chukanov et al.)A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
4.DH.15Hydrokenoelsmoreite2W2O6(H2O)
4.DH.20BismutostibiconiteBi(Sb5+,Fe3+)2O7
4.DH.20BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
4.DH.20Monimolite
4.DH.20CuproroméiteCu2Sb2(O,OH)7
4.DH.20StetefeldtiteAg2Sb2(O,OH)7
4.DH.20Stibiconite
4.DH.25RosiaitePbSb25+O6
4.DH.35LiandratiteU(Nb,Ta)2O8
4.DH.35PetscheckiteUFe(Nb,Ta)2O8
4.DH.40IngersoniteCa3Mn2+Sb45+O14
4.DH.45PittongiteNa0.22(W,Fe3+)(O,OH)3 · 0.44H2O
7.10.1BaddeleyiteZrO2
7.10.2ArkeliteZrO2
7.10.3PainiteCaZrAl9(BO3)O15
7.10.4SrilankiteZrTi2O6
7.10.6CalzirtiteCaZr3TiO9
7.10.7Tazheranite(Zr,Ti,Ca)O2-x
7.10.8Zirkelite(Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-x
7.10.9UhligiteCa3(Ti,Al,Zr)9O20 ?
7.10.10ThorianiteThO2

Other Names for Zirconolite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
May be slightly radioactive.

References for Zirconolite

Reference List:
Gatehouse, B. M., Grey, I. E., Hill, R. J. and Rossell, H. J. (1981): Zirconolite, CaZrxTi3-xO7; structure refinements for near-end-member compositions with x = 0.85 and 1.30. Acta Crystallogr. B37, 306-312.

Mazzi, F. and Munno, R. (1983) Calciobetafite (new mineral of the pyrochlore group) and related minerals from Campi Flegrei, Italy; crystal structures of polymignite, and zirkelite: comparison with pyrochlore and zirconolite. American Mineralogist: 68: 262-276.

Bayliss, P., Mazzi, F., Munno, R. and White, T. J. (1989) Mineral nomenclature: zirconolite. Mineral. Mag. 53, 565-569.

Cheary, R. W. (1992): Zirconolite CaZr0.92Ti2.08O7 from 294 to 1173 K. J. Solid State Chem. 98, 323-329.

Rossell, H. J. (1992): Solid solution of metal oxides in the zirconolite phase CaZrTi2O7. I. Heterotype solid solutions. J. Solid State Chem. 99, 38-51.

Rossell, H. J. (1992): Solid solution of metal oxides in the zirconolite phase CaZrTi2O7. II: The ternary phase CaZrxTi3−xO7. J. Solid State Chem. 99, 52-57.

Mineralogical Magazine (1994): 5: 259-269.

Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 110: 845-848.

Calos, N. J., Forrester, T. S., Kennard, C. H. L. and White, T. J. (1996): Crystal structure of calcium titanium ytterbium zirconium oxide (zirconolite-2M), Ca0.71Ti1.16Yb0.66Zr1.46O7. Z. Kristallogr. 211, 703-704.

Gieré, R., Williams, C. T. and Lumpkin, G. R. (1998) Chemical characteristics of natural zirconolite. Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 78, 433-459.

Bulakh, Andrei G.; Nesterov, Alexander R.; Anastasenko, Galina F.; Anisimov, Ilija S. (1999) Crystal morphology and intergrowths of calzirtite Ca2Zr5TiO16, zirkelite (Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-x, zirconolite CaZrTi2O7 in phoscorites and carbonatites of the Kola Peninsula (Russia). Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Monatsh. 1999, 11-20.

Della Ventura, G., Bellatreccia, F. and Williams, C. T. (2000) Zirconolite with significant REEZrNb(Mn,Fe)O7 from a xenolith of the Laacher See eruptive center, Eifel volcanic region, Germany. Can. Mineral. 38, 57-65.

Della Ventura, G., Williams, T. C., Raudsepp, M., Bellatreccia, F., Caprilli, E. and Giordano, G. (2001): Perrierite-(Ce) and zirconolite from a syenitic ejectum of the Roccamonfina volcano (Latium, Italy): implications for the mobility of Zr, Ti and REE in volcanic environments. N. Jb. Mineral. 2001, 385-402.

Bellatreccia, F., Della Ventura, G., Williams, C. T., Lumpkin, G. R., Smith, K. L. and Colella, M. (2002) Non-metamict zirconolite polytypes from the feldspathoid-bearing alkali-syenitic ejecta of the Vico volcanic complex (Latium, Italy). Eur. J. Mineral. 14, 809-820.

G. Blaß, H.-W. Graf and U. Kolitsch (2003) Zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) from the volcanic Eifel - Verification of three different polytypoids. Mineralien-Welt 14 (3), 32-35. (in German)

Internet Links for Zirconolite

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Localities for Zirconolite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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