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Zirkelite

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Formula:
(Ti,Ca,Zr)O
 
2-x
System:IsometricColour:Black
Lustre:Adamantine, Vitreous, Greasy, Sub-Metallic, DullHardness:
Name:
Named after Ferdinand Zirkel (May 20, 1838 Bonn, Germany - June 12,1912), Professor of Mineralogy, University of Lemberg, later at University of Leipzig (Germany).
A pioneer in the microscopic investigation of rocks.
(Some sources erroneously list March as the birth month.)


Black grains or masses, rarely as simple to complex isometric crystals.

Classification of Zirkelite

IMA status:Approved 1960
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/C.15-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.DL.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
L : With large (+- medium-sized) cations; fluorite-type structures
Dana 8th edition ID:8.2.5.1

8 : MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
2 : A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.10.8

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
10 : Oxides of Zr and Th
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Type Occurrence of Zirkelite

Type Locality:Jacupiranga Mine, Cajati, São Paulo, Brazil
General Appearance of Type Material:Black submetallic to vitreous grains and crystals
Year of Discovery:1895

Physical Properties of Zirkelite

Lustre:Adamantine, Vitreous, Greasy, Sub-Metallic, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Black
Comment:May be brown when altered
Streak:Brownish black
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:None Observed
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):4.741 g/cm3
Comment:May be lower due to alteration

Crystallography of Zirkelite

Crystal System:Isometric
Cell Parameters:a = 5.02Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 126.51 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystals as flattened octahedra.
Twinning:On {111} very common, both polysynthetic and as complicated fourlings.
Comment:Redefined in 1989 as the isometric structure of a set of related chemically minerals. Earlier definitions gave monoclinic but that material is now called zirconolite.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
2.90 (100)
2.52 (40)
1.78 (70)
1.52 (60)
1.46 (20)
1.26 (20)
1.16 (30)
1.13 (20)
(
Comments:38-0450

Optical Data of Zirkelite

Type:Isotropic
RI values: nα = 2.500
Birefringence:0.0
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 2.500 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:Moderate
Internal Reflections:Reddish brown
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic
Comments:Reddish brown in thin section

Chemical Properties of Zirkelite

Formula:
(Ti,Ca,Zr)O
 
2-x
Simplified for copy/paste:(Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-x
Essential elements:O, Ti
All elements listed in formula:Ca, O, Ti, Zr

Relationship of Zirkelite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.DL.05Cerianite-(Ce)
(Ce
4+
 
,Th)O
 
2
4.DL.05Thorianite
ThO
 
2
4.DL.05Uraninite
UO
 
2
4.DL.05Aeschynite Group
4.DL.10Calzirtite
CaZr
 
3
TiO
 
9
4.DL.10Tazheranite
(Zr,Ti,Ca)O
 
2-x
4.DL.10Hiärneite
(Ca,Mn,Na)
 
2
(Zr,Mn
3+
 
)
 
5
(Sb,Ti,Fe)
 
2
O
 
16
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.10.1Baddeleyite
ZrO
 
2
7.10.2Arkelite
ZrO
 
2
7.10.3Painite
CaZrAl
 
9
(BO
 
3
)O
 
15
7.10.4Srilankite
ZrTi
 
2
O
 
6
7.10.5Zirconolite
CaZrTi
 
2
O
 
7
7.10.6Calzirtite
CaZr
 
3
TiO
 
9
7.10.7Tazheranite
(Zr,Ti,Ca)O
 
2-x
7.10.9Uhligite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Al,Zr)
 
9
O
 
20
?
7.10.10Thorianite
ThO
 
2

Other Names for Zirkelite

Other Languages:
German:Zirkelit
Russian:Циркелит
Simplified Chinese:钛锆钍矿
Spanish:Zirkelita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Nonfluorescent
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Zirkelite

Reference List:

- +
Hussak (1894), Min. Mitt.: 14: 408.

Hussak and Prior (1895) Mineralogical Magazine (1895): 11: 80-88.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 740.

Mazzi, F. and Munno, R. (1983) Calciobetafite (new mineral of the pyrochlore group) and related minerals from Campi Flegrei, Italy; crystal structures of polymignite, and zirkelite: comparison with pyrochlore and zirconolite. American Mineralogist: 68: 262-276.

Bayliss, P., Mazzi, F., Munno, R., and White, T., Mineralogical Magazine (1989): 53: 565.

Mineralogical Magazine: 62: 837-846.

Bulakh, Andrei G.; Nesterov, Alexander R.; Anastasenko, Galina F.; Anisimov, Ilija S. (1999) Crystal morphology and intergrowths of calzirtite Ca2Zr5TiO16, zirkelite (Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-x, zirconolite CaZrTi2O7 in phoscorites and carbonatites of the Kola Peninsula (Russia). Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Monatsh. 1999, 11-20.

Internet Links for Zirkelite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Zirkelite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Zirkelite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • Araxá
    Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J., 2009, Carbonatites of the world, explored deposits of Nb and REE; database and grade and tonnage models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1139, 17 p. and database.
    • São Paulo
      • Cajati
    [MinRec 15:269]
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Omenica Mining Division
        • Williston Lake
    Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139; Jennifer Pell (1994) Carbonatites, Nepheline Syenites, Kimberlites and Related Rocks in British Columbia. Brithish Columbia Ministry of Energy Bulletin 88.
    • Ontario
      • Cochrane District
        • South of Ridge Lake Area
    SAGE, R.P. (1981) Geology of the Martison carbonatite complex. Ontario Geological Survey Open File Report 5420, 99p.
      • Sudbury District
        • Chapleau Township
    Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
    Czech Republic
     
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Vysočina Region
        • Nové Město na Moravě
    Novák, M., Šrein, V.: Ryzí antimon v rutilu z dolomitického mramoru od Studnice u Nového Města na Moravě. Minerál, 1997, roč. 5, č. 4, s. 265-266.
    Finland
     
    • Lapland Region
      • Savukoski
        • Tulppio
    Vartiainen, H. 1980 The petrography, mineralogy and petrochemistry of the Sokli carbonative massif, northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin, 313
    Hungary
     
    • Heves Co.
      • Bükk Mtns
        • Szarvaskő
    Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Phlegrean Volcanic complex
        • Naples Province
          • Phlegrean Fields
    Francesco Civero collection
    • Latium
      • Latina Province
        • Ponza Island
    H.E. Belkin, B. De Vivo, A. Lima : "Magmatic (silicte/saline/sulfur-rich/CO2) immiscibility and zirconium and rare-earth element enrichment from alkaline magam chamber margins : evidence from Ponza Island, Pontine Archipelago, Italy", Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, 1401-1420.
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
    Norway
     
    • Vestfold
      • Larvik
        • Hedrum
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, 278 pp.(p. 70).
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
    [World of Stones 12:49]
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Afrikanda
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/afri.htm
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/khib.htm
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm
    Bulakh, A. G., Nesterov, A. R., Anisimov, I. S., & Williams, C. T. (1998). Zirkelite from the Sebl'yavr carbonatite complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia; an X-ray and electron microprobe study of a partially metamict mineral. Mineralogical Magazine, 62(6), 837-846.
        • Northern Karelia
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/vuori.htm
    Saudi Arabia
     
    • Mintaqah Ha'il
    Economic Geology (1996) 91:1414-1434
    South Africa
     
    • Limpopo Province
      • Phalaborwa
        • Loolekop
    No reference listed
    Sri Lanka
     
    • Sabaragamuwa Province
      • Ratnapura District
        • Bambarabotuwa
    Mineralogical Magazine, October 1997, Vol. 61, pp 721-725
    UK
     
    • Scotland
      • Outer Hebrides
    Harding R.R., Merriman R.J. and Nancarrow P.H.A. 1982. Mineralogical Magazine vol 46
    USA
     
    • Colorado
      • Teller Co.
        • Cripple Creek District
    Min Rec 36:2 pp143-185
    • New Mexico
      • Socorro Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Texas
      • Culberson Co.
        • Apache Peak area
    Rocks & Minerals: 66(3): 196-224.
        • Sierra Diablo
    A. Audétat (2010) Source and Evolution of Molybdenum in the Porphyry Mo(^Nb) Deposit at Cave Peak,Texas. Journal of Petrology 51:1739-60.
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    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
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