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Zirkelite

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Ferdinand Zirkel
Formula:
(Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-x
System:
Isometric
Colour:
Black
Lustre:
Adamantine, Vitreous, Greasy, Sub-Metallic, Dull
Hardness:
Name:
Named after Ferdinand Zirkel (May 20, 1838 Bonn, Germany - June 12,1912), Professor of Mineralogy, University of Lemberg, later at University of Leipzig (Germany).
A pioneer in the microscopic investigation of rocks.
(Some sources erroneously list March as the birth month.)
Black grains or masses, rarely as simple to complex isometric crystals.

Classification of Zirkelite

Approved 1960
4.DL.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
L : With large (+- medium-sized) cations; fluorite-type structures
8.2.5.1

8 : MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
2 : A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
7.10.8

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
10 : Oxides of Zr and Th
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First Recorded Occurrence of Zirkelite

General Appearance of First Recorded Material:
Black submetallic to vitreous grains and crystals
Year of Discovery:
1895

Physical Properties of Zirkelite

Adamantine, Vitreous, Greasy, Sub-Metallic, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Black
Comment:
May be brown when altered
Streak:
Brownish black
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
4.741 g/cm3 (Measured)    
Comment:
May be lower due to alteration

Crystallography of Zirkelite

Crystal System:
Isometric
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.02Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 126.51 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals as flattened octahedra.
Twinning:
On {111} very common, both polysynthetic and as complicated fourlings.
Comment:
Redefined in 1989 as the isometric structure of a set of related chemically minerals. Earlier definitions gave monoclinic but that material is now called zirconolite.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.90 (100)
2.52 (40)
1.78 (70)
1.52 (60)
1.46 (20)
1.26 (20)
1.16 (30)
1.13 (20)
(
Comments:
38-0450

Optical Data of Zirkelite

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
nα = 2.500
Birefringence:
0.0
Max Birefringence:
δ = 2.500 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Internal Reflections:
Reddish brown
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic
Comments:
Reddish brown in thin section

Chemical Properties of Zirkelite

Formula:
(Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-x
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Zirkelite to other Species

4.DL.05Cerianite-(Ce)(Ce4+,Th)O2
4.DL.05ThorianiteThO2
4.DL.05UraniniteUO2
4.DL.05Aeschynite Group
4.DL.10CalzirtiteCaZr3TiO9
4.DL.10Tazheranite(Zr,Ti,Ca)O2-x
4.DL.10Hiärneite(Ca,Mn,Na)2(Zr,Mn3+)5(Sb,Ti,Fe)2O16
7.10.1BaddeleyiteZrO2
7.10.2ArkeliteZrO2
7.10.3PainiteCaZrAl9(BO3)O15
7.10.4SrilankiteZrTi2O6
7.10.5ZirconoliteCaZrTi2O7
7.10.6CalzirtiteCaZr3TiO9
7.10.7Tazheranite(Zr,Ti,Ca)O2-x
7.10.9UhligiteCa3(Ti,Al,Zr)9O20 ?
7.10.10ThorianiteThO2

Other Names for Zirkelite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Zirkelit
Simplified Chinese:钛锆钍矿
Spanish:Zirkelita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Zirkelite

Reference List:
Hussak (1894), Min. Mitt.: 14: 408.

Hussak and Prior (1895) Mineralogical Magazine (1895): 11: 80-88.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 740.

Mazzi, F. and Munno, R. (1983) Calciobetafite (new mineral of the pyrochlore group) and related minerals from Campi Flegrei, Italy; crystal structures of polymignite, and zirkelite: comparison with pyrochlore and zirconolite. American Mineralogist: 68: 262-276.

Bayliss, P., Mazzi, F., Munno, R., and White, T., Mineralogical Magazine (1989): 53: 565.

Mineralogical Magazine: 62: 837-846.

Bulakh, Andrei G.; Nesterov, Alexander R.; Anastasenko, Galina F.; Anisimov, Ilija S. (1999) Crystal morphology and intergrowths of calzirtite Ca2Zr5TiO16, zirkelite (Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-x, zirconolite CaZrTi2O7 in phoscorites and carbonatites of the Kola Peninsula (Russia). Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Monatsh. 1999, 11-20.

Internet Links for Zirkelite

Localities for Zirkelite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Araxá
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J., 2009, Carbonatites of the world, explored deposits of Nb and REE; database and grade and tonnage models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1139, 17 p. and database.
  • São Paulo
    • Cajati
[MinRec 15:269]
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Omenica Mining Division
      • Williston Lake
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139; Jennifer Pell (1994) Carbonatites, Nepheline Syenites, Kimberlites and Related Rocks in British Columbia. Brithish Columbia Ministry of Energy Bulletin 88.
  • Ontario
    • Cochrane District
      • South of Ridge Lake Area
SAGE, R.P. (1981) Geology of the Martison carbonatite complex. Ontario Geological Survey Open File Report 5420, 99p.
    • Sudbury District
      • Chapleau Township
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Czech Republic
 
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Vysočina Region
      • Nové Město na Moravě
Novák, M., Šrein, V.: Ryzí antimon v rutilu z dolomitického mramoru od Studnice u Nového Města na Moravě. Minerál, 1997, roč. 5, č. 4, s. 265-266.
Finland
 
  • Lapland Region
    • Savukoski
      • Tulppio
Vartiainen, H. 1980 The petrography, mineralogy and petrochemistry of the Sokli carbonative massif, northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin, 313
Hungary
 
  • Heves Co.
    • Bükk Mts
      • Szarvaskő
Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Phlegrean Volcanic complex
      • Naples Province
        • Phlegrean Fields
Francesco Civero collection
  • Latium
    • Latina Province
      • Ponza Island
H.E. Belkin, B. De Vivo, A. Lima : "Magmatic (silicte/saline/sulfur-rich/CO2) immiscibility and zirconium and rare-earth element enrichment from alkaline magam chamber margins : evidence from Ponza Island, Pontine Archipelago, Italy", Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, 1401-1420.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
Norway
 
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Hedrum
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, 278 pp.(p. 70).
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
[World of Stones 12:49]
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • Afrikanda
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/afri.htm
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/khib.htm
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm
Bulakh, A. G., Nesterov, A. R., Anisimov, I. S., & Williams, C. T. (1998). Zirkelite from the Sebl'yavr carbonatite complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia; an X-ray and electron microprobe study of a partially metamict mineral. Mineralogical Magazine, 62(6), 837-846.
      • Northern Karelia
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/vuori.htm
Saudi Arabia
 
  • Mintaqah Ha'il
Economic Geology (1996) 91:1414-1434
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo Province
    • Phalaborwa
      • Loolekop
No reference listed
Sri Lanka
 
  • Sabaragamuwa Province
    • Ratnapura District
      • Bambarabotuwa
Mineralogical Magazine, October 1997, Vol. 61, pp 721-725
UK
 
  • Scotland
    • Outer Hebrides
Harding R.R., Merriman R.J. and Nancarrow P.H.A. 1982. Mineralogical Magazine vol 46
USA
 
  • Colorado
    • Teller Co.
      • Cripple Creek District
Min Rec 36:2 pp143-185
  • New Mexico
    • Socorro Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • Texas
    • Culberson Co.
      • Apache Peak area
Rocks & Minerals: 66(3): 196-224.
      • Sierra Diablo
A. Audétat (2010) Source and Evolution of Molybdenum in the Porphyry Mo(^Nb) Deposit at Cave Peak,Texas. Journal of Petrology 51:1739-60.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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