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Zoisite

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Sigmund Zois Freiherr von Edelstein
Formula:
{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Colourless, purple, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
6 - 7
Name:
Originally named as saualpite for the locality Saualpe in Carinthia, Austria, where it occurs in eclogites. The name zoisite was introduced by A.G. Werner in 1805 to honor Sigmund Zois, Baron von Edelstein (1747-1819), Austrian scholar who financed mineral-collecting expeditions. It was from Baron Zois that Werner obtained the holotype specimen from Saualpe.
Dimorph of:
Formerly assigned to the Epidote Group. Since Zoisite is the orthorhombic polymorph of Clinozoisite, zoisite is not, according to the new nomenclature of the Epidote Supergroup (Armbruster et al 2006, Mills et al.2009) longer considered as a member of this group.



Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Zoisite.

Classification of Zoisite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8/C.23-100
9.BG.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
B : Sorosilicates
G : Sorosilicates with mixed SiO4 and Si2O7 groups; cations in octahedral [6] and greater coordination
58.2.1b.1

58 : SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
2 : Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
16.9.8

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
9 : Aluminosilicates of Ca
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http://www.mindat.org/min-4430.html
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Type Occurrence of Zoisite

Year of Discovery:
1805

Occurrences of Zoisite

Geological Setting:
Medium grade regionally metamorphosed rocks, eclogites, blueschist facies metamorphic rocks.

Physical Properties of Zoisite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Pearly on cleavage {010}
Colour:
Colourless, purple, greyish-white, grey, yellowish-brown, yellow, pink, green
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
6 - 7
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {010}
Imperfect on {100}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
3.15 - 3.36 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.35 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Zoisite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnma
Cell Parameters:
a = 16.19Å, b = 5.54Å, c = 10.03Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.922 : 1 : 1.81
Unit Cell Volume:
V 899.62 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Prismatic crystals, columnar to compact, massive

Crystallographic forms of Zoisite

Crystal Atlas:
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Zoisite no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Zoisite no.16 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Zoisite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.696 - 1.700 nβ = 1.696 - 1.702 nγ = 1.702 - 1.718
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.006 - 0.018
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
relatively strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X= pale pink to red violet
Y= nearly colourless to bright pink or deep blue
Z= pale yellow to yellow-green

Chemical Properties of Zoisite

Formula:
{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Mn,Mg,Cr,Ti,Ca,Na,V,Sr,H2O

Relationship of Zoisite to other Species

9.BG.05bAllanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bAllanite-(La){CaLa}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bAllanite-(Y){CaY}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05aClinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bDissakisite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Mg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Dollaseite-(Ce){CaCe}{MgAlMg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)F
9.BG.05aEpidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Epidote-(Pb){CaPb}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Khristovite-(Ce){CaCe}{MgAlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)F
9.BG.05Mukhinite{Ca2}{Al2V3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bManganiandrosite-(La){Mn2+La}{Mn3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Tawmawite{Ca2}{(Al,Fe3+,Cr)3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Manganipiemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bFerriallanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Fe3+AlFe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Clinozoisite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Manganiandrosite-(Ce){(Mn2+,Ca)(Ce,REE)}{Mn3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Dissakisite-(La){CaLa}{Al2Mg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Vanadoandrosite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{V3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Uedaite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Epidote-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bAllanite-(Nd){CaNd}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bFerriallanite-(La){CaLa}{Fe3+AlFe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bÅskagenite-(Nd){Mn2+Nd}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O2
9.BG.15MacfalliteCa2(Mn3+,Al)3(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)3
9.BG.15SursassiteMn22+Al3(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)3
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Fe2+)Ca2(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.20OkhotskiteCa2(Mn2+,Mg)(Mn3+,Al,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Fe2+)Ca2Fe2+Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Fe3+)Ca2(Fe3+,Mg,Fe2+)(Al,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Mn2+)Ca2(Mn2+,Mg)(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.20ShuiskiteCa2(Mg,Al)(Cr,Al)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · 2H2O
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Fe3+)Ca2(Fe3+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Al)Ca2(Al,Fe2+,Mg)Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
9.BG.20PoppiiteCa2(V3+,Fe3+,Mg)(V3+,Al)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Mg)Ca2(Mg,Fe2+)(Fe3+,Al)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.25GanomalitePb9Ca5Mn(Si2O7)4(SiO4)O
9.BG.30RustumiteCa10(Si2O7)2(SiO4)(OH)2Cl2
9.BG.35Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
9.BG.35WiluiteCa19(Al,Mg)13(B,☐,Al)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(O,OH)10
9.BG.35ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9
9.BG.35FluorvesuvianiteCa19(Al,Mg,Fe2+)13(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(F,OH)9
9.BG.40Vyuntspakhkite-(Y)(Y,Yb)4Al2.5-1.5(Si,Al)1.5-2.5(SiO4)4O(OH)7
9.BG.45DellaiteCa6(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2
9.BG.50Gatelite-(Ce)CaCe3Al2(Al,Mg)(Mg,Fe2+,Al)(Si2O7)(SiO4)3(O,F)(OH,O)2
9.BG.55Västmanlandite-(Ce)Ca(Ce,La)3Al2Mg2(Si2O7)(SiO4)3(OH)2F
16.9.1GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)
16.9.2AnorthiteCaAl2Si2O8
16.9.3Yoshiokaite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)O4]
16.9.4SvyatoslaviteCaAl2Si2O8
16.9.5DmisteinbergiteCaAl2Si2O8
16.9.6GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
16.9.7VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)
16.9.9Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
16.9.10PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
16.9.11KamaishiliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2
16.9.12BicchuliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2
16.9.13MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
16.9.14ChantaliteCaAl2(SiO4)(OH)4
16.9.15CebolliteCa5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4
16.9.17KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
16.9.18LawsoniteCaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
16.9.19ParthéiteCaAl2Si2O8 · 2H2O
16.9.20WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
16.9.21VertumniteCa4Al4Si4O6(OH)24 · 3H2O
16.9.22ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
16.9.23LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
16.9.24YugawaraliteCaAl2Si6O16 · 4H2O
16.9.25Gismondine-CaCaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
16.9.26EpistilbiteCaAl2Si6O16 · 5H2O
16.9.27GoosecreekiteCa[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2O
16.9.28CowlesiteCaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2O
16.9.30StelleriteCa4(Si28Al8)O72 · 28H2O
16.9.31SträtlingiteCa2Al2SiO7 · 8H2O
16.9.32AmstalliteCaAl(Si,Al)4O8(OH)4 · (H2O,Cl)

Other Names for Zoisite

Name in Other Languages:
Croatian:Zoisit
Dutch:Zoisiet
Finnish:Zoisiitti
French:Zoïsite
Hungarian:Zoizit
Italian:Zoisite
Japanese:灰簾石
Lithuanian:Zoisitas
Polish:Zoisyt
Portuguese:Zoisite
Romanian:Zoisit
Russian:Цоизит
Simplified Chinese:黝帘石
Swedish:Zoisit
Traditional Chinese:黝簾石

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Zoisite

Reference List:
Jameson R. (1804) A system of mineralogy, Edinburgh. 2, 597.

Klaproth, M.H. (1807) Untersuchung des Zoisits von der Saualpe, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Vierter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 179-185

American Mineralogist (1968). 53, 1882-1898.

Mineralogical Magazine (1985). 49, 97.

Schmidt, M.W. and Poli, S. (1994) The stability of lawsonite and zoisite at high pressures: experiments in CASH to 92 kbar and implications for the presence of hydrous phases in subducted lithosphere. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 124, 105-118.

Pawley, A.R., Redfern, S.A.T., and Holland, T.J.B. (1996) Volume behavior of hydrous minerals at high pressures and temperatures: 1. Thermal expansion of lawsonite, zoisite, clinozoisite, and diaspore. American Mineralogist. 81, 335-340.

Holland, T.J.B., Redfern, S.A.T., and Pawley, A.R. (1996) Volume behavior of hydrous minerals at high pressure and temperature: II. Compressibilities of lawsonite, zoisite, clinozoisite and epidote. American Mineralogist. 81, 341-348.

Grevel, K.-D., Nowlan, E.U., Fasshauer, D.W., and Burchard, M. (2000) In situ X-ray diffraction investigation of lawsonite and zoisite at high pressures and temperatures. American Mineralogist. 85, 206-216.

Armbruster, T., Bonazzi, P., Akasaka, M., Bermanec, V., Chopin, C., Gieré R., Heuss-Assbichler, S., Liebscher, A., Menchetti, S., Pan, Y., Pasero, M. (2006): Recommended nomenclature of epidote-group minerals. European Journal of Mineralogy, 18, 551-567.

Internet Links for Zoisite

Specimens:
The following Zoisite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Zoisite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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