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Baddeleyite

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Formula:
ZrO2
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colourless to yellow, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Greasy
Hardness:
Name:
For Joseph Baddeley, British Geologist, a superintendent of a railroad project in Rakwana, who first called attention to the Sri Lankan material.

Classification of Baddeleyite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
4.DE.35

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
E : With medium-sized cations; with various polyhedra
4.4.14.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
4 : AX2
7.10.1

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
10 : Oxides of Zr and Th
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Type Occurrence of Baddeleyite

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
The Natural History Museum, London, England.
Year of Discovery:
1892

Occurrences of Baddeleyite

Geological Setting:
An accessory mineral in carbonatites and kimberlites; in syenites, diabases, gabbros, anorthosites; detrital in gem gravels; also in lunar basalt, tektites and meteorites.

Physical Properties of Baddeleyite

Vitreous, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless to yellow, green, greenish or reddish brown, brown, iron-black; colourless to brown in transmitted light
Streak:
White to brownish white
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Very Good
nearly perfect on {001}, less perfect on {010} and {110}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
5.4 - 6.02 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.83 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Baddeleyite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.1505Å, b = 5.2116Å, c = 5.3173Å
β = 99.23°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.988 : 1 : 1.02
Unit Cell Volume:
V 140.88 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals commonly tabular on {100} and somewhat elongated on [010], or short to long prismatic along [001], to 6 cm; rarely equant; prism faces striated parallel to [001]; also botryoidal masses with radially fibrous structure and concentric banding.
Twinning:
Ubiquitous; on {100} and {110}, both may be polysynthetic; rare on {201}.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.15 (10)
2.835 (9)
2.62 (5)
1.817 (5)
3.66 (4)
3.51 (4)
1.847 (4)
Comments:
Recorded on material from Palabora Mine, South Africa

Optical Data of Baddeleyite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 2.130 nβ = 2.190 nγ = 2.200
2V:
Measured: 30° to 31°, Calculated: 28°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.070
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r > v, rather strong
Comments:
X = yellow, reddish brown, oil-green; Y = oil-green, reddish brown; Z = brown, light brown; Orientation: X vs. c = 13°, Y = b

Chemical Properties of Baddeleyite

Formula:
ZrO2
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
CAS Registry number:
1314-23-4

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society
Analytical Data:
Analysis of material from Balangoda, Sri Lanka
SiO2 (0.19)
ZrO2 (98.90)
Fe2O3 (0.83)
CaO (0.06)
LOI (0.28) (loss on ignition)

sum 100.25 wt.-%
Common Impurities:
Ca,Fe,Hf,Si,Ti

Relationship of Baddeleyite to other Species

4.DE.05DowneyiteSeO2
4.DE.10Koragoite(Mn2+,Fe3+)3(Nb,Ta,Ti)2(Nb,Mn)2(W,Ta)2O20
4.DE.15KoechliniteBi2MoO6
4.DE.15RusselliteBi2WO6
4.DE.15TungstibiteSb23+WO6
4.DE.20TelluriteTeO2
4.DE.25ParatelluriteTeO2
4.DE.30BismutotantaliteBi(Ta,Nb)O4
4.DE.30BismutocolumbiteBi(Nb,Ta)O4
4.DE.30CervantiteSb3+Sb5+O4
4.DE.30StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
4.DE.30StibiocolumbiteSb(Nb,Ta)O4
4.DE.30ClinocervantiteSb3+Sb5+O4
7.10.2ArkeliteZrO2
7.10.3PainiteCaZrAl9(BO3)O15
7.10.4SrilankiteZrTi2O6
7.10.5ZirconoliteCaZrTi2O7
7.10.6CalzirtiteCaZr3TiO9
7.10.7Tazheranite(Zr,Ti,Ca)O2-x
7.10.8Zirkelite(Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-x
7.10.9UhligiteCa3(Ti,Al,Zr)9O20 ?
7.10.10ThorianiteThO2

Other Names for Baddeleyite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Shows a blue-green cathodoluminescence
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Baddeleyite

Reference List:
Fletcher (1892), Nature: 46: 620.

Hussak (1892), Jb. Min.: 2: 141.

Fletcher (1893), Mineralogical Magazine: 10: 148.

Hussak (1895), Min. Mitt.: 14: 395.

Zambonini (1912), Acc. Napoli, Att.: 15: 1.

Yardley (1920), Mineralogical Magazine: 21: 169.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 608-610.

Heimstra, S. A. (1955): Baddeleyite from Phalaborwa, Eastern Transvaal. American Mineralogist 40, 275-282.

Keil, K. and Fricker, P. E. (1974): Baddeleyite (ZrO2) in gabbroic rocks from Axel Heiberg island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. American Mineralogist 59, 249-253.

Scatena-Wachel, D. E. and Jones, A. P. (1984): Primary baddeleyite (ZrO2) in kimberlite from Benfontein, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine 48, 257-261.

Howard, C. J., Hill, R. J. and Reichert, B. E. (1988): Structures of the ZrO2 polymorphs at room temperature by high-resolution neutron powder diffraction. Acta Crystallographica 44, 116-120.

Heaman, L. M. and LeCheminant, A. N. (1993): Paragenesis and U-Pb systematics of baddeleyite (ZrO2). Chemical Geology. 110, 95-126.

Bayanova, T. B., Kirnarsky, Yu. M. and Levkovich, N. V. (1997): U-Pb isotope dating of baddeleyite from rocks of the Kovdor massif. Doklady Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk 356: 509-511 (in Russian).

Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 33.

Internet Links for Baddeleyite

Localities for Baddeleyite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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