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Bakerite

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Formula:
Ca
 
4
(H
 
5
B
 
5
Si
 
3
O
 
20
)
System:MonoclinicColour:Colorless, White
Hardness:
Member of:Gadolinite-Datolite Group
Name:
Named in 1903 by William Brantingham Giles in honor of Richard Charles Baker [1858 Islington, London, England, UK - 1937 California, USA], discoverer of the species, then president of the Borax Consolidated Company [Formerly the Borax Company Limited]of San Bernardino County, California, USA, and for whom Baker, California, USA is also named. [Earlier, Richard C. Baker was also president of the Pacific Coast Borax Company, a company probably related to his later business interests.]


Gadolinite-Datolite Group.

The structure of Bakerite is closely related to that of Datolite. Both minerals contain sheets of four- and eight-membered rings of corner-sharing (HBO4) and (SiO4) tetrahedra, classifying them as phyllo-borosilicates. In Datolite, (HBO4) and (SiO4) are alternating, whereas in Bakerite, one fourth of the (SiO4) tetrahedra is replaced by (HBO4), leading to a net formula of the anion of (H5Bi5Si3O20)n with (H5Bi5Si3O20) as the repeating unit. There is no evidence for even a partial subsitution of (SiO4) with (HBO4) in Datolite, thus making Bakerite a distinct species (Perchiazzi et al., 2004). Note that we are using a sum formula for the anion. It may also be written as (B5Si3O15(OH)5), indicating that the five protons are bonded to oxygen atoms.

Compare also the closely related Shimazakiite.

Classification of Bakerite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/B.29-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.AJ.20

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
J : Nesosilicates with BO3 triangles and/or B[4], Be[4] tetrahedra, cornersharing with SiO4
Dana 8th edition ID:54.2.1b.1

54 : NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
2 : Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
Hey's CIM Ref.:17.5.13

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
5 : Borosilicates
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Type Occurrence of Bakerite

Type Locality:Corkscrew Canyon Mine (Corkscrew Mine), Ryan, Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District; Death Valley Area Borate Deposits; Ryan area), Inyo Co., California, USA
Year of Discovery:1903
Associated Minerals at type locality:
Howlite

Occurrences of Bakerite

Geological Setting:Veins in altered volcanics.

Physical Properties of Bakerite

Lustre:Vitreous, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:Colorless, White
Hardness (Mohs):
Density (measured):2.88 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.94 g/cm3

Crystallography of Bakerite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b {P1 1 21/b} {P21/c} {P1 21/c 1} {P21/a}
Cell Parameters:a = 4.85Å, b = 7.627Å, c = 9.659Å
β = 90.255°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.636 : 1 : 1.266
Unit Cell Volume:V 357.29 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:1
Morphology:Dense and microcrystalline, resembling unglazed porcelain. Nodules and veins. Stout rhombic prisms
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Bakerite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.624 nβ = 1.635 nγ = 1.654
2V:Measured: 87° to 88°
Birefringence:Moderate
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.030

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:weak

Chemical Properties of Bakerite

Formula:
Ca
 
4
(H
 
5
B
 
5
Si
 
3
O
 
20
)
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca4(H5B5Si3O20)
Essential elements:B, Ca, H, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:B, Ca, H, O, Si

Relationship of Bakerite to other Species

Member of:Gadolinite-Datolite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Calcybeborosilite-(Y)
(Y,Ca)
 
2
(□,Fe
2+
 
)(B,Be)
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH,O)
 
2
Datolite
Ca(HBSiO
 
5
)
Gadolinite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Nd,Y)
 
2
Fe
2+
 
Be
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
Gadolinite-(Y)
Y
 
2
Fe
2+
 
Be
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
Hingganite-(Ce)
(Ce,REE)
 
2
(□,Fe
2+
 
)Be
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH)
 
2
Hingganite-(Y)
(Y,REE,Ca)
 
2
(□,Fe
2+
 
)Be
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH)
 
2
Hingganite-(Yb)
(Yb,Y,REE)
 
2
□Be
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH)
 
2
Homilite
Ca
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)B
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
Minasgeraisite-(Y)
CaBe
 
2
Y
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.AJ.05Grandidierite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
9.AJ.05Ominelite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
9.AJ.10Dumortierite
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(BO
 
3
)O
 
3
9.AJ.10Holtite
(Ta
 
0.6
 
0.4
)Al
 
6
BSi
 
3
O
 
18
(O,OH)
 
2.25
9.AJ.10Magnesiodumortierite
(Mg,Ti,◻(Al,Mg)
 
2
Al
 
4
Si
 
3
O
 
18-y
(OH)
 
y
B y = 2-3
9.AJ.15Garrelsite
Ba
 
3
NaSi
 
2
B
 
7
O
 
16
(OH)
 
4
9.AJ.20Datolite
Ca(HBSiO
 
5
)
9.AJ.20Gadolinite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Nd,Y)
 
2
Fe
2+
 
Be
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
9.AJ.20Gadolinite-(Y)
Y
 
2
Fe
2+
 
Be
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
9.AJ.20Hingganite-(Ce)
(Ce,REE)
 
2
(□,Fe
2+
 
)Be
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AJ.20Hingganite-(Y)
(Y,REE,Ca)
 
2
(□,Fe
2+
 
)Be
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AJ.20Hingganite-(Yb)
(Yb,Y,REE)
 
2
□Be
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AJ.20Homilite
Ca
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)B
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
9.AJ.20Melanocerite-(Ce)
(Ce,Ca)
 
5
(Si,B)
 
3
O
 
12
(OH,F) · nH
 
2
O
9.AJ.20Minasgeraisite-(Y)
CaBe
 
2
Y
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
9.AJ.20Calcybeborosilite-(Y)
(Y,Ca)
 
2
(□,Fe
2+
 
)(B,Be)
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH,O)
 
2
9.AJ.25Stillwellite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Ca)BSiO
 
5
9.AJ.30Cappelenite-(Y)
Ba(Y,Ce)
 
6
Si
 
3
B
 
6
O
 
24
F
 
2
9.AJ.35Okanoganite-(Y)
(Na,Ca)
 
3
(Y,Ce)
 
12
Si
 
6
B
 
2
O
 
27
F
 
14
9.AJ.35Vicanite-(Ce)
(Ca,Ce,La,Th)
 
15
As
5+
 
(As
3+
0.5
,Na
 
0.5
)Fe
3+
 
Si
 
6
B
 
4
O
 
40
F
 
7
9.AJ.35Hundholmenite-(Y)
(Y,REE,Ca,Na)
 
15
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)(Ca
 
x
As
3+
1-x
)(Si,As
5+
 
)Si
 
6
B
 
3
(O,F)
 
48
9.AJ.35Proshchenkoite-(Y)
Ca(Y,REE,Ca,Na,Mn)
 
15
Fe
2+
 
(P,Si)Si
 
6
B
 
3
O
 
34
F
 
14
9.AJ.40Jadarite
LiNaSiB
 
3
O
 
7
(OH)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
17.5.1Manandonite
LiAl
 
4
(BSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
6
17.5.2Reedmergnerite
Na[BSi
 
3
O
 
8
]
17.5.3Searlesite
Na(H
 
2
BSi
 
2
O
 
7
)
17.5.4Olenite
Na(Al
 
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
O
 
3
(OH)
17.5.5Elbaite
Na(Li
 
1.5
Al
 
1.5
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
17.5.6Kalborsite
K
 
6
Al
 
4
BSi
 
6
O
 
20
(OH)
 
4
Cl
17.5.7Boromuscovite
KAl
 
2
(BSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
17.5.8Poudretteite
KNa
 
2
B
 
3
Si
 
12
O
 
30
17.5.9Liddicoatite
Ca(Li
 
2
Al)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
17.5.10Datolite
Ca(HBSiO
 
5
)
17.5.11Danburite
CaB
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
17.5.12Howlite
Ca
 
2
B
 
5
SiO
 
9
(OH)
 
5
17.5.14Oyelite
Ca
 
10
Si
 
8
B
 
2
O
 
29
· 12.5H
 
2
O
17.5.15Kornerupine
Mg
 
3
Al
 
6
(Si,Al,B)
 
5
O
 
21
(OH)
17.5.16Harkerite
Ca
 
12
Mg
 
4
Al(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
17.5.17Serendibite
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
[O
 
2
|(Si,Al,B)
 
6
O
 
18
]
17.5.18Stillwellite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Ca)BSiO
 
5
17.5.19Tadzhikite-(Ce)
(Ca,Ce)
 
4
(Ce,Y)
 
2
(Ti
4+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Al)[B
 
4
Si
 
4
O
 
22
](OH)
 
2
17.5.20Melanocerite-(Ce)
(Ce,Ca)
 
5
(Si,B)
 
3
O
 
12
(OH,F) · nH
 
2
O
17.5.21Okanoganite-(Y)
(Na,Ca)
 
3
(Y,Ce)
 
12
Si
 
6
B
 
2
O
 
27
F
 
14
17.5.22Tritomite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Y,Th)
 
5
(Si,B)
 
3
(O,OH,F)
 
13
17.5.23Tritomite-(Y)
(Y,Ca,La,Fe)
 
5
(Si,B,Al)
 
3
(O,OH,F)
 
13
17.5.24Cappelenite-(Y)
Ba(Y,Ce)
 
6
Si
 
3
B
 
6
O
 
24
F
 
2
17.5.25Dumortierite
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(BO
 
3
)O
 
3
17.5.26Holtite
(Ta
 
0.6
 
0.4
)Al
 
6
BSi
 
3
O
 
18
(O,OH)
 
2.25
17.5.27Dravite
Na(Mg
 
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
17.5.28 Ferridravite
17.5.29Axinite-(Mg)
Ca
 
2
MgAl
 
2
BSi
 
4
O
 
15
OH
17.5.30Uvite
Ca(Mg
 
3
)MgAl
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(F/OH)
17.5.31Garrelsite
Ba
 
3
NaSi
 
2
B
 
7
O
 
16
(OH)
 
4
17.5.32Tienshanite
KNa
 
3
Na
 
6
Ca
 
2
Ba
 
6
Mn
 
6
(Ti
4+
 
,Nb)
 
6
B
 
12
Si
 
36
O
 
114
(O,OH,F)
 
11
17.5.33Leucosphenite
BaNa
 
4
Ti
 
2
B
 
2
Si
 
10
O
 
30
17.5.34Taramellite
Ba
 
4
(Fe
3+
 
,Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
4
(B
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
27
)O
 
2
Cl
 
x
17.5.35Titantaramellite
Ba
 
4
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
4
(B
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
27
)O
 
2
Cl
 
x
17.5.36Nagashimalite
Ba
 
4
(V,Ti)
 
4
B
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
27
(O,OH)
 
2
Cl
17.5.37Chromium-dravite
Na(Mg
 
3
)Cr
3+
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
17.5.38Wawayandaite
Ca
 
6
Mn
 
2
BBe
 
9
Si
 
6
O
 
23
(OH,Cl)
 
15
17.5.39Werdingite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
Al
 
14
Si
 
4
B
 
4
O
 
37
17.5.40Axinite-(Mn)
Ca
 
2
Mn
2+
 
Al
 
2
BSi
 
4
O
 
15
(OH)
17.5.41Axinite
17.5.42Tinzenite
(CaMn
2+
 
)
 
2
Mn
2+
 
Al
 
2
BSi
 
4
O
 
15
(OH)
17.5.44Schorl
Na(Fe
2+
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
17.5.45Fluor-buergerite
Na(Fe
3+
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
O
 
3
F
17.5.46Feruvite
Ca(Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
MgAl
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
17.5.47Axinite-(Fe)
Ca
 
2
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
BSi
 
4
O
 
15
OH
17.5.48Homilite
Ca
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)B
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
17.5.49Grandidierite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
17.5.50Hyalotekite
(Pb,Ba,K)
 
4
(Ca,Y)
 
2
(B,Be)
 
2
(Si,B)
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
28
(F,Cl)
17.5.51Hellandite-(Y)
(Ca,Y)
 
6
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)Si
 
4
B
 
4
O
 
20
(OH)
 
4

Other Names for Bakerite

Other Languages:
German:Bakerit
Russian:Бакерит
Spanish:Bakerita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Bakerite

Reference List:

- +
Giles, W.B. (1903), Bakerite (a new borosilicate of calcium) and howlite from California, Mineralogical Magazine: 13: 353-355.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 363.

Kramer, H.C. & R.D. Allen (1956), A restudy of bakerite, priceite, and veatchite, American Mineralogist: 41: 689-700.

Murdoch, Joseph (1962), Bakerite crystals: American Mineralogist: 47: 919-923.

Pemberton, H. Earl (1971a) Type locality for bakerite. American Mineralogist: 56: 1109-1110.

Perchiazzi, N., Gualtieri, A.F., Merlino, S., Kampf, A.R. (2004): The atomic structure of bakerite and its relationship to datolite. The American Mineralogist, 89, 767-776.

Internet Links for Bakerite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Bakerite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Bakerite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Canada
     
    • Ontario
      • Haliburton Co.
    Am Min 89:5-6 pp 767-776
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Casarza Ligure
        • Ne
          • Graveglia Valley
            • Reppia
    MinRec 32:360
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chugoku Region
        • Okayama Prefecture
          • Takahashi City
            • Bitchu-cho-fuka (Bicchu-cho-fuka)
    Mineralogical Record: 27: 303.; Mineralogical Journal Vol. 17 (1994) , No. 3 pp 111-117
    Mexico
     
    • San Luis Potosí
      • Mun. de Charcas
    Handbook of Mineralogy (Bakerite)
    Panczner (1987).
    Panczner (1987): 108.
    Panczner (1987): 108.
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
      • Wairarapa
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
    Turkey
     
    • Central Anatolia Region
      • Sivas Province
    Am Min 89:5-6 pp 767-776
    • Marmara Region
      • Balikesir Province
        • Bigadiç
          • Faraşköy (Faraş)
    CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
    USA
     
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
        • Amargosa Range
          • Black Mts
            • Corkscrew Canyon
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 95.
        • Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District; Death Valley Area Borate Deposits; Ryan area)
          • Ryan
    www.mineralsocal.org; Mineralogical Magazine 1903 13 : 353-355.
            • Mouth of Corkscrew Canyon area
    Larsen, Esper Signius (1921), The microscopic determination of nonopaque minerals: USGS Bulletin 679, 294 pp.: 43; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 95.
    American Mineralogist (2004): 89(5-6): 767-776.
      • Los Angeles Co.
        • Lang
          • Tick Canyon
            • Tick Canyon Borate deposit
    Murdoch, Joseph (1962), Bakerite crystals: American Mineralogist: 47: 919-923; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 71, 95, 122; Pemberton, H. Earl (1968) The minerals of the Sterling borax mine, Los Angeles County, California. Mineral Explorer 3, No. 1, 10 pp.: 8, 9; Masimer, G.E. (1966) Tick Canyon revisited. Gems and Minerals: 347: 20-23; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 509; www.mineralsocal.org.
    Harvard Museum of Natural History specimen no. 127118
        • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
          • Calico District (Daggett District)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 363.
    Giles, W.B. (1903), Bakerite (a new borosilicate of calcium) and howlite from California: Mineralogical Magazine: 13: 353-355; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 95.
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Franklin
    Dunn(1995):Pt3:363.
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