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Bakerite

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Richard Charles Baker
Formula:
Ca4(H5B5Si3O20)
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colorless, White
Hardness:
Name:
Named in 1903 by William Brantingham Giles in honor of Richard Charles Baker [1858 Islington, London, England, UK - 1937 California, USA], discoverer of the species, then president of the Borax Consolidated Company [Formerly the Borax Company Limited]of San Bernardino County, California, USA, and for whom Baker, California, USA is also named. [Earlier, Richard C. Baker was also president of the Pacific Coast Borax Company, a company probably related to his later business interests.]
Gadolinite-Datolite Group.

The structure of Bakerite is closely related to that of Datolite. Both minerals contain sheets of four- and eight-membered rings of corner-sharing (HBO4) and (SiO4) tetrahedra, classifying them as phyllo-borosilicates. In Datolite, (HBO4) and (SiO4) are alternating, whereas in Bakerite, one fourth of the (SiO4) tetrahedra is replaced by (HBO4), leading to a net formula of the anion of (H5Bi5Si3O20)n with (H5Bi5Si3O20) as the repeating unit. There is no evidence for even a partial subsitution of (SiO4) with (HBO4) in Datolite, thus making Bakerite a distinct species (Perchiazzi et al., 2004). Note that we are using a sum formula for the anion. It may also be written as (B5Si3O15(OH)5), indicating that the five protons are bonded to oxygen atoms.

Compare also the closely related Shimazakiite.

Classification of Bakerite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
9.AJ.20

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
J : Nesosilicates with BO3 triangles and/or B[4], Be[4] tetrahedra, cornersharing with SiO4
54.2.1b.1

54 : NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
2 : Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
17.5.13

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
5 : Borosilicates
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First Recorded Occurrence of Bakerite

Year of Discovery:
1903
Associated Minerals at First Recorded Locality:

Occurrences of Bakerite

Geological Setting:
Veins in altered volcanics.

Physical Properties of Bakerite

Vitreous, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Colour:
Colorless, White
Hardness (Mohs):
Density:
2.88 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.94 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Bakerite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.85Å, b = 7.627Å, c = 9.659Å
β = 90.255°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.636 : 1 : 1.266
Unit Cell Volume:
V 357.29 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
1
Morphology:
Dense and microcrystalline, resembling unglazed porcelain. Nodules and veins. Stout rhombic prisms
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Bakerite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.624 nβ = 1.635 nγ = 1.654
2V:
Measured: 87° to 88°
Birefringence:
Moderate
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.030
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
weak

Chemical Properties of Bakerite

Formula:
Ca4(H5B5Si3O20)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Bakerite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Calcybeborosilite-(Y)(Y,Ca)2(□,Fe2+)(B,Be)2[SiO4]2(OH,O)2
DatoliteCa(HBSiO5)
Gadolinite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Nd,Y)2Fe2+Be2Si2O10
Gadolinite-(Y)Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10
Hingganite-(Ce)(Ce,REE)2(□,Fe2+)Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2
Hingganite-(Y)(Y,REE,Ca)2(□,Fe2+)Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2
Hingganite-(Yb)(Yb,Y,REE)2□Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2
HomiliteCa2(Fe2+,Mg)B2Si2O10
Minasgeraisite-(Y)CaBe2Y2Si2O10
9.AJ.05Grandidierite(Mg,Fe2+)(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)(BO3)O2
9.AJ.05Ominelite(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)(BO3)O2
9.AJ.10Dumortierite(Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3
9.AJ.10Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25
9.AJ.10Magnesiodumortierite(Mg,Ti,◻(Al,Mg)2Al4Si3O18-y(OH)yB y = 2-3
9.AJ.15GarrelsiteBa3NaSi2B7O16(OH)4
9.AJ.20DatoliteCa(HBSiO5)
9.AJ.20Gadolinite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Nd,Y)2Fe2+Be2Si2O10
9.AJ.20Gadolinite-(Y)Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10
9.AJ.20Hingganite-(Ce)(Ce,REE)2(□,Fe2+)Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2
9.AJ.20Hingganite-(Y)(Y,REE,Ca)2(□,Fe2+)Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2
9.AJ.20Hingganite-(Yb)(Yb,Y,REE)2□Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2
9.AJ.20HomiliteCa2(Fe2+,Mg)B2Si2O10
9.AJ.20Melanocerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,0)
9.AJ.20Minasgeraisite-(Y)CaBe2Y2Si2O10
9.AJ.20Calcybeborosilite-(Y)(Y,Ca)2(□,Fe2+)(B,Be)2[SiO4]2(OH,O)2
9.AJ.25Stillwellite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca)BSiO5
9.AJ.30Cappelenite-(Y)Ba(Y,Ce)6Si3B6O24F2
9.AJ.35Okanoganite-(Y)(Na,Ca)3(Y,Ce)12Si6B2O27F14
9.AJ.35Vicanite-(Ce)(Ca,Ce,La,Th)15As5+(As3+0.5,Na0.5)Fe3+Si6B4O40F7
9.AJ.35Hundholmenite-(Y)(Y,REE,Ca,Na)15(Al,Fe3+)(CaxAs3+1-x)(Si,As5+)Si6B3(O,F)48
9.AJ.35Proshchenkoite-(Y)Ca(Y,REE,Ca,Na,Mn)15Fe2+(P,Si)Si6B3O34F14
9.AJ.40JadariteLiNaSiB3O7(OH)
17.5.1ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8
17.5.2ReedmergneriteNa[BSi3O8]
17.5.3SearlesiteNa(H2BSi2O7)
17.5.4OleniteNa(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)
17.5.5ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.6KalborsiteK6Al4BSi6O20(OH)4Cl
17.5.7BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2
17.5.8PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30
17.5.9LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.10DatoliteCa(HBSiO5)
17.5.11DanburiteCaB2Si2O8
17.5.12HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5
17.5.14OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
17.5.15KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
17.5.16HarkeriteCa12Mg4Al(BO3)3(SiO4)4(CO3)5 · H2O
17.5.17Serendibite(Ca,Na)2(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+)3[O2|(Si,Al,B)6O18]
17.5.18Stillwellite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca)BSiO5
17.5.19Tadzhikite-(Ce)(Ca,Ce)4(Ce,Y)2(Ti4+,Fe3+,Al)[B4Si4O22](OH)2
17.5.20Melanocerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,0)
17.5.21Okanoganite-(Y)(Na,Ca)3(Y,Ce)12Si6B2O27F14
17.5.22Tritomite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Y,Th)5(Si,B)3(O,OH,F)13
17.5.23Tritomite-(Y)(Y,Ca,La,Fe)5(Si,B,Al)3(O,OH,F)13
17.5.24Cappelenite-(Y)Ba(Y,Ce)6Si3B6O24F2
17.5.25Dumortierite(Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3
17.5.26Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25
17.5.27DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.28 Ferridravite
17.5.29Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
17.5.30UviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
17.5.31GarrelsiteBa3NaSi2B7O16(OH)4
17.5.32TienshaniteKNa3Na6Ca2Ba6Mn6(Ti4+,Nb)6B12Si36O114(O,OH,F)11
17.5.33LeucospheniteBaNa4Ti2B2Si10O30
17.5.34TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
17.5.35TitantaramelliteBa4(Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
17.5.36NagashimaliteBa4(V,Ti)4B2Si8O27(O,OH)2Cl
17.5.37Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.38WawayandaiteCa6Mn2BBe9Si6O23(OH,Cl)15
17.5.39Werdingite(Mg,Fe)2Al14Si4B4O37
17.5.40Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
17.5.41Axinite
17.5.42Tinzenite(Ca,Mn2+)2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
17.5.44SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.45Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe33+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
17.5.46FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.47Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
17.5.48HomiliteCa2(Fe2+,Mg)B2Si2O10
17.5.49Grandidierite(Mg,Fe2+)(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)(BO3)O2
17.5.50Hyalotekite(Pb,Ba,K)4(Ca,Y)2(B,Be)2(Si,B)2Si8O28(F,Cl)
17.5.51Hellandite-(Y)(Ca,REE)4Y2Al(Be,Li)2-xB4Si4O22(OH)2

Other Names for Bakerite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Bakerit
Spanish:Bakerita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Bakerite

Reference List:
Giles, W.B. (1903), Bakerite (a new borosilicate of calcium) and howlite from California, Mineralogical Magazine: 13: 353-355.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 363.

Kramer, H.C. & R.D. Allen (1956), A restudy of bakerite, priceite, and veatchite, American Mineralogist: 41: 689-700.

Murdoch, Joseph (1962), Bakerite crystals: American Mineralogist: 47: 919-923.

Pemberton, H. Earl (1971a) Type locality for bakerite. American Mineralogist: 56: 1109-1110.

Perchiazzi, N., Gualtieri, A.F., Merlino, S., Kampf, A.R. (2004): The atomic structure of bakerite and its relationship to datolite. The American Mineralogist, 89, 767-776.

Internet Links for Bakerite

Localities for Bakerite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Canada
 
  • Ontario
    • Haliburton Co.
Am Min 89:5-6 pp 767-776
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Casarza Ligure
      • Ne
        • Graveglia Valley
          • Reppia
MinRec 32:360
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chugoku Region
      • Okayama Prefecture
        • Takahashi City
          • Bicchu-cho (Bitchu-cho)
            • Fuka
Mineralogical Record: 27: 303.; Mineralogical Journal Vol. 17 (1994) , No. 3 pp 111-117
Mexico
 
  • San Luis Potosí
    • Mun. de Charcas
Handbook of Mineralogy (Bakerite)
Panczner (1987).
Panczner (1987): 108.
Panczner (1987): 108.
New Zealand
 
  • North Island
    • Wairarapa
Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
Turkey
 
  • Central Anatolia Region
    • Sivas Province
Am Min 89:5-6 pp 767-776
  • Marmara Region
    • Balikesir Province
      • Bigadiç
        • Faraşköy (Faraş)
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
      • Susurluk
        • Sultançayırı (Sultan Tschair)
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.; Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Amargosa Range
        • Black Mts
          • Corkscrew Canyon
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 95.
      • Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District; Death Valley Area Borate Deposits; Ryan area)
        • Ryan
www.mineralsocal.org; Mineralogical Magazine 1903 13 : 353-355.
          • Mouth of Corkscrew Canyon area
Larsen, Esper Signius (1921), The microscopic determination of nonopaque minerals: USGS Bulletin 679, 294 pp.: 43; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 95.
American Mineralogist (2004): 89(5-6): 767-776.
    • Los Angeles Co.
      • Lang
        • Tick Canyon
          • Tick Canyon Borate deposit
Murdoch, Joseph (1962), Bakerite crystals: American Mineralogist: 47: 919-923; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 71, 95, 122; Pemberton, H. Earl (1968) The minerals of the Sterling borax mine, Los Angeles County, California. Mineral Explorer 3, No. 1, 10 pp.: 8, 9; Masimer, G.E. (1966) Tick Canyon revisited. Gems and Minerals: 347: 20-23; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 509; www.mineralsocal.org.
Harvard Museum of Natural History specimen no. 127118
      • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
        • Calico District (Daggett District)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 363.
Giles, W.B. (1903), Bakerite (a new borosilicate of calcium) and howlite from California: Mineralogical Magazine: 13: 353-355; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 95.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Dunn(1995):Pt3:363.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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