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Balkanite

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Formula:
Cu
 
9
Ag
 
5
HgS
 
8
System:OrthorhombicColour:Steel Grey
Lustre:MetallicHardness:
Name:For the medieval and popular name of the Stara Planina (Balkan Mountains), the type locality.


Compare danielsite.

Classification of Balkanite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/B.09-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.BD.15

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
B : Metal Sulfides, M: S > 1: 1 (mainly 2: 1)
D : With Hg, Tl
Dana 8th edition ID:2.16.7.1

2 : SULFIDES
16 : Miscellaneous
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.5.6

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
5 : Sulphides etc. of Hg and Tl
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Type Occurrence of Balkanite

Type Locality:Sedmochislenitsi Mine (Sedmocislenici Mine), Balkan Mts (Stara Planina), Vratsa Oblast (Vratza), Bulgaria
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Mineralogical Museum of the Higher Institute of Mining and Geology, 619; Museum of the University of Sofia “Kliment Ohridsky”, Sofia, 1351; National Museum of Natural History, Sofia, Bulgaria, 2339.
Year of Discovery:1973
Geological Setting of type material:High grade copper ores in stratiform deposit.

Physical Properties of Balkanite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Steel Grey
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=79.4 - 91.6 kg/mm2
Density (measured):6.318 g/cm3
Density (calculated):6.421 g/cm3
Comment:Measured on synthetic material

Crystallography of Balkanite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Cell Parameters:a = 10.62(2) Å, b = 9.42(2) Å, c = 3.92(4) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.127 : 1 : 0.416
Unit Cell Volume:V 392.16 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:1
Morphology:Rod like prismatic crystals.
Twinning:Lamellar in several directions
Comment:sp. gr. P222, Pmm2 or Pmmm
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.09 (7)
2.98 (10)
2.61 (8)
2.55 (10)
2.45 (8)
1.985 (8)
1.955 (9)
Comments:Sedmochislenitsi deposit, Bulgaria.

Optical Data of Balkanite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Strong
Reflectivity:
440nmR1=35.4%R2= 30.6%
460nmR1=35.6%R2= 31.0%
480nmR1=35.4%R2= 31.0%
500nmR1=35.0%R2= 30.2%
520nmR1=34.0%R2= 28.9%
540nmR1=34.0%R2= 28.0%
560nmR1=33.4%R2= 27.2%
580nmR1=32.8%R2= 26.5%
600nmR1=32.4%R2= 26.0%
620nmR1=32.1%R2= 25.6%
640nmR1=31.8%R2= 25.1%
660nmR1=31.5%R2= 24.9%


Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Peak reflectance is 35.6%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:White-grey

Chemical Properties of Balkanite

Formula:
Cu
 
9
Ag
 
5
HgS
 
8
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu9Ag5HgS8
Essential elements:Ag, Cu, Hg, S
All elements listed in formula:Ag, Cu, Hg, S
Analytical Data:Sedmochislenitsi deposit, Bulgaria; by electron microprobe.
Cu (37.4)
Ag (33.1)
Hg (14.0)
S (17.2)
Total (101.7)
Empirical Formula:
Cu
 
8.78
Ag
 
4.58
Hg
 
1.04
S
 
8.00

Relationship of Balkanite to other Species

Common Associates:
BorniteChalcociteChalcopyriteDjurleiteDigenite
TennantiteStromeyeriteMckinstryiteWitticheniteBismuth
RammelsbergiteSilverCinnabarPyriteCalcite
BaryteAragonite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.BD.UM2004-33-S:AgCuHgSe
(Ag,Cu)
 
8
Hg
 
3
(S,Se)
 
7
2.BD.05Imiterite
Ag
 
2
HgS
 
2
2.BD.10Gortdrumite
(Cu,Fe)
 
6
Hg
 
2
S
 
5
2.BD.15Danielsite
(Cu,Ag)
 
14
HgS
 
8
2.BD.20Donharrisite
Ni
 
8
Hg
 
3
S
 
9
2.BD.25Carlinite
Tl
 
2
S
2.BD.30Bukovite
Tl
 
2
(Cu,Fe)
 
4
Se
 
4
2.BD.30Murunskite
K
 
2
(Cu,Fe)
 
4
S
 
4
2.BD.30Thalcusite
Tl
 
2
Cu
 
3
FeS
 
4
2.BD.35Rohaite
(Tl,Pb,K)
 
2
Cu
 
8.7
Sb
 
2
S
 
4
2.BD.40Chalcothallite
Tl
 
2
(Cu,Fe)
 
6
SbS
 
4
2.BD.45Sabatierite
Cu
 
6
TlSe
 
4
2.BD.50Crookesite
Cu
 
7
(Tl, Ag)Se
 
4
2.BD.55Brodtkorbite
Cu
 
2
HgSe
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.5.1Cinnabar
HgS
3.5.2Hypercinnabar
HgS
3.5.3Metacinnabar
HgS
3.5.4Imiterite
Ag
 
2
HgS
 
2
3.5.5Tiemannite
HgSe
3.5.7Danielsite
(Cu,Ag)
 
14
HgS
 
8
3.5.8Coloradoite
HgTe
3.5.9Gortdrumite
(Cu,Fe)
 
6
Hg
 
2
S
 
5
3.5.10Polhemusite
(Zn,Hg)S
3.5.11Carlinite
Tl
 
2
S
3.5.12Crookesite
Cu
 
7
(Tl, Ag)Se
 
4
3.5.13Sabatierite
Cu
 
6
TlSe
 
4
3.5.14Picotpaulite
TlFe
 
2
S
 
3
3.5.15Raguinite
TlFeS
 
2
3.5.16Thalcusite
Tl
 
2
Cu
 
3
FeS
 
4
3.5.17Bukovite
Tl
 
2
(Cu,Fe)
 
4
Se
 
4
3.5.18Gallite
CuGaS
 
2
3.5.19Roquesite
CuInS
 
2
3.5.20Indite
FeIn
 
2
S
 
4

Other Names for Balkanite

Synonyms:
IMA1971-009
Other Languages:
German:Balkanit
Simplified Chinese:硫汞铜银矿
Spanish:Balkanita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Balkanite

Reference List:

- +
Atanassov, V.A. and Kirov, G.N. (1973): Balkanite, Cu9Ag5HgS8, a new mineral from the Sedmochislenitsi mine, Bulgaria. American Mineralogist, 58, 11-15.

Internet Links for Balkanite

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  • External Links:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Balkanite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Localities for Balkanite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Saalfelden
        • Leogang
          • Hütten
            • Schwarzleograben
              • Schwarzleo District
    Paar, W. H. & Chen, T. T. (1985): Zur Mineralogie von Cu-Ni(Co)-Pb-Ag-Hg-Erzen im Revier Schwarzleo bei Leogang, Salzburg, Österreich. Mitt. österr. geol. Ges. 78, 125-148.; A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Kitzbühel Alps
          • Fieberbrunn
    Steiner, M., Vavtar, F., Tropper, P. (2008): Rare Ag ores (danielsite, balkanite) from the fahlore deposit of the Röhrerbühel (N-Tyrol, Austria). Poster, Annual Meeting of the DMG, Berlin, Germany, September 14-17, 2008; CD with abstracts, Abs. no. 292; Steiner M., Vavtar F., Tropper P., Kaindl R. (2009): Silbererze (Balkanit und Danielsit) in den Fahlerzen von Röhrerbühel. In: Oeggl K., Prast M. (Hrsg.), Die Geschichte des Bergbaus in Tirol und seinen angrenzenden Gebieten. Proceedings zum 3. Milestone-Meeting des SFB-HiMAT vom 23.–26. 10. 2008 in Silbertal, Innsbruck, 193-195; Steiner, M., Tropper, P., Vavtar, F., Kaindl, R. & Krismer, M. (2010): Balkanite from the Cu ore deposit Röhrerbühel, Kitzbühel (N-Tyrol, Austria). N. Jb. Mineral. Abh. 187, 207-215.
    Belgium
     
    • Luxembourg Province
      • Stavelot Massif
        • Vielsalm
    http://perso.infonie.be/jose.dehove/photos/Salmchateau.htm
    Bulgaria
     
    • Vratsa Oblast (Vratza)
      • Balkan Mts (Stara Planina)
    AM 58 (1973), 11
    China
     
    • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
      • Baise Prefecture
        • Leye Co.
    Lin Niu (1994): Geology and Prospecting 30(3), 1-8
    Italy
     
    • Sardinia
      • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
        • Iglesias
          • Punta della Torre
    Orlandi, P. & Campostrini, I. (2005): Zibaldone. Aggiornamenti di mineralogia italiana 2004. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/2005, 184-191.
    Mexico
     
    • Sonora
    Handbook of Mineralogy
    USA
     
    • Nevada
      • Nye Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
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    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
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