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Baryte

This page kindly sponsored by Bill Dameron
Formula:
BaSO4
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Colourless, white, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness:
3 - 3½
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1800 by Dietrich Ludwig Gustav Karsten from the Greek βάρυζ, heavy, due to its unusual heaviness for a non-metallic mineral.
Isostructural with:
Baryte Group. Baryte-Celestine Series.
The barium analogue of Celestine and Anglesite.

Typically found as thick to thin tabular crystals, usually in clusters with the crystals growing parallel to one another, or nearly so. Also as bladed, white masses.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Baryte.

Classification of Baryte

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7.AD.35

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
A : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
Dana 7th ed.:
28.3.1.1
28.3.1.1

28 : ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
3 : AXO4
25.4.17

25 : Sulphates
4 : Sulphates of Ca, Sr and Ba
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-549.html
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Occurrences of Baryte

Geological Setting:
Commonly found as a gangue mineral in metallic ore deposits of epithermal or mesothermal origin; but it may also be found as lenses or replacement deposits in sedimentary rocks, both of hypogene and supergene origin.

Physical Properties of Baryte

Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Colourless, white, yellow, brown, grey, blue, etc.; colourless in transmitted light (also tinted yellow, brown, green, blue, etc.)
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
3 - 3½
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {001}; less so on {210}; Imperfect on {010}.
Parting:
None
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
4.5 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.47 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Baryte

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnma
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.884(2) Å, b = 5.457(3) Å, c = 7.157(2) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.628 : 1 : 1.312
Unit Cell Volume:
V 346.97 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Usually thin to thick tabular {001}, bounded by {210} alone or in combination with {101}, {011} or other forms. Also flattened {001}, and elongated to prismatic [010] or [100]. More rarely prismatic [001], or equant. Often as aggregates or clusters of tabular crystals with edges projecting into crest-like forms, or as rosettes. Also found as massive material, compact, laminated or concretionary; and in fibrous, stalactic, and earthy masses.

Crystallographic forms of Baryte

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Barite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Barite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Barite no.28 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Barite no.35 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Barite no.62 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Barite no.325 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Epitaxial Relationships of Baryte

Epitaxial Minerals:
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.90(50)
3.45(100)
3.32(70)
3.10(100)
2.84(50)
2.73(50)
2.12(80)
2.11(80)

Optical Data of Baryte

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.634 - 1.637 nβ = 1.636 - 1.638 nγ = 1.646 - 1.648
2V:
Measured: 36° to 40°, Calculated: 36° to 42°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.012
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
weak r > v
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
Color X Y Z

Brown: Straw-yellow Wine-yellow Violet
Yellow: Lt. yel.-brn. Yellow-brn Brown
Green: Nr colourless Lt. grn. Amethyst
Blue-grn: Blue-violet Bluish grn Violet

Chemical Properties of Baryte

Formula:
BaSO4
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Sr,Ca,Pb

Relationship of Baryte to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Celestine (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
AnglesitePbSO4
CelestineSrSO4
HashemiteBa(Cr,S)O4
7.AD.05ArcaniteK2SO4
7.AD.05Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
7.AD.10MercalliteKHSO4
7.AD.15MiseniteK8H6(SO4)7
7.AD.20Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2
7.AD.25GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2
7.AD.30AnhydriteCaSO4
7.AD.35AnglesitePbSO4
7.AD.35CelestineSrSO4
7.AD.35OlsacheritePb2(SeO4)(SO4)
7.AD.40KalistrontiteK2Sr(SO4)2
7.AD.40Palmierite(K,Na)2Pb(SO4)2
25.4.1AnhydriteCaSO4
25.4.2BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
25.4.3GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
25.4.4GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2
25.4.5CesaniteNa3Ca2(SO4)3(OH)
25.4.6EugsteriteNa4Ca(SO4)3 · 2H2O
25.4.7HydroglauberiteNa10Ca3(SO4)8 · 6H2O
25.4.8SyngeniteK2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
25.4.9GörgeyiteK2Ca5(SO4)6 · H2O
25.4.10PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
25.4.11Koktaite(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
25.4.12Ye'elimiteCa4Al6(SO4)O12
25.4.13EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
25.4.14BentoriteCa6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
25.4.15CelestineSrSO4
25.4.16KalistrontiteK2Sr(SO4)2

Other Names for Baryte

Other Information

Shades of yellow, occasionally orange or pink (LW UV). Shades of yellow, white (Franklin & Sterling Hill, NJ). May phosphoresce strongly greenish-white.
Magnetism:
Diamagnetic
Thermal Behaviour:
Inverts to another (monoclinic ?) polymorph when heated to 1149°C. Above 1400°C decomposition to barium oxide, sulphur dioxide and oxygen.
Thermoluminescent at times.
Other Information:
Insoluble in water, acids and bases. Moderately soluble in hot, concentrated sulphuric acid, due to formation of the hydrogen sulphate.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Hanson Aggregates Flemingsburg quarry,..., Fleming Co., Kentucky, USA: fades to white or colourless in sunlight
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Used as an additive in drilling fluids, as a white pigment, e. g. in cosmetic products and in paints, and as a filling material for polymers and papers. Also the main source of barium.

References for Baryte

Reference List:
Licetus, F. (1640) (as Lapis Bononiensis, Litheophorus).

Mentzel (1673) Misc. Ac. Nat. Cur.

Mentzel (1675) Obscuro lucens (as Lapis Bononiensis).

Wallerius, J.G (1747) Mineralogia, eller Mineralriket. Stockholm: 56 (as Lysesten, Bononiensisksten, Gypsum irregulare, lamellosum).

Cronstedt A. (1758) Mineralogie; eller Mineral-Rikets Upstallning. Stockholm: 21 (as Gypsum spatosum, Marmor metallicum, Spatum Bononiense, Tungspath). p. 25 (as Terra calcarea phlogisto et acido vitrioli mixta, Les wersten, Lapis hepaticus).

Born, I. von (1772) Lythophylacium Bornianum; Index fossiliumquae colligit, etc., Prague, pt 1: 14 (as Gypsum ponderosum).

de Lisle, R. (1772) Essai de cristallographie. Paris (as Spath pesant ou séléniteux).

Bergmann, T. (1782) Sciagraphia regni mineralis (as Spathum ponderosum).

de Lisle, R. (1783) Cristallographie, ou description des formes propres à tous les corps du regne minéral. 4 volumes, Paris. (as Spath pesant ou séléniteux).

Withering (1784) Royal Society of London, Philosophical Transactions.

Kirwan, R. (1794) Elements of Mineralogy, second edition: 1: 136 (as Baroselenite).

Delamétherie, J.C. (1797) Théorie de la Terre, 2nd. Edition, 5 volumes, Paris: 2: 8 (as Barytite).

Karsten, D.L.G. (1800) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. First edition: 38, 75 (as Baryt, Hepatit).

Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol., Paris: 2 (as Baryte).

Eaton, in: Macneven: Atomic Theory Chym., New York: 19 (as Schoharite).

Beudant, F.S. (1824), Traité élémentaire de Minéralogie Paris: 441 (as Barytine).

Dufrénoy (1835) Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 60: 102 (as Dréelite).

Breithaupt (1838) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 15: 322 (as Allomorphit).

Shepard (1838) American Journal of Science: 34: 161 (as Calstronbarite).

Glocker, E.F. (1847) Generum et specierum mineralium secundum ordines naturales digestorum synopsis. Halle: 261 (as Dreeit).

Dana, J.D. (1850) System of Mineralogy, 3rd. Edition, New York: 704.

Waltershausen (1855) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 94: 137 (as Barytocölestin).

Dana, J.D. (1868) System of Mineralogy, 5th. Edition, New York: 617 (as Celestobarite).

Adam, M. (1869) Tableau minéralogique, Paris: 62 (as Schoarite = a mis-spelling).

Helmhacker (1872) Ak. Wien, Denkschr.: 32, part 2: 1.

Hankel (1874) Sächs Ges. Wiss., Abh.: 10: 281.

Sandberger (1875) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 383.

Collie (1879) Mineralogical Magazine: 2: 220.

Bauer (1887) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 37.

Lacroix (1889) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 108: 1126 (as Michel-lévyte).

Valentin (1889) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 15: 576.

Gonnard (1890) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 13: 354.

Luedeking and Wheeler (1891) American Journal of Science: 42: 495.

Beckenkamp (1897) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 28: 69.

Jannetaz and Goldberg (1897) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 28: 103.

Mügge (1898) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 71.

Samoiloff (1902) Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Liubitelei Priordy, Moscow, Bulletin: 16: 105.

Mügge (1903) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 16: 399.

Barker (1908) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 45: 25.

Rosický (1908) Ac. sc. Bohéme, Bulletin: 13.

Ungemach (1908) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 31: 92.

Vogt (1908) Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Oslo: 1: 3.

Pogue (1910) Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum: 38: 17.

Henglein (1911) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 32: 71.

Kolb (1911) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 49: 14.

Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 1: 140.

Tarr (1919) Economic Geology: 14: 46.

Grahmann (1920) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 1.

Grahmann (1920) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 81: 257.

Ōhashi (1920) Mineralogical Magazine: 19: 73.

Veit (1922) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 45: 121.

Maier (1923) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 58: 75.

Niggli (1924) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 59: 266.

Zeller (1924) Földtani Közlöny, Budapest (Magyarhone Földtani Torsulat): 53: 139.

James and Wood (1925) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: 109A: 598.

Basche and Mark (1926) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 64: 1.

Ruiz (1926) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rendus, Rome: 3(6): 342.

Bruce and Light (1927) American Mineralogist: 12: 396.

Doelter, C. (1927) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 4(2): 227.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1(3B), 3782.

Gallitelli (1929) Atti. soc. nat. mat. Modena: 8: 86.

Wagner (1929) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 2: 27.

Kalb (1930) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 74: 469.

Heide (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 78: 257.

Kalb and Koch (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 78: 169.

Wagner (1931) Zs. angew. Chem.: 44: 665.

Braun (1932) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 65: 173.

Buschendorf (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 81: 38.

Buttgenbach (1932) Annales of the Société géologique de Belgique, Liége: 55: 165.

Kalb (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 81: 342.

Haas (1933) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 67: 217.

Masuda (1932) Proceedings of the Imperial Academy, Tokyo: 8: 436.

Tarr (1933) American Mineralogist: 18: 260.

Russell (1934) Mineralogical Magazine: 24: 318.

Bobkova (1935) Publ. Foc. Sc. University of Masaryk, no. 211.

Howland (1936) American Mineralogist: 21: 584.

Kolaczkowska (1936) Arch. min. soc. Varsovie: 12: 181.

Tertsch (1936) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 95: 296.

Tokody (1936) Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, Budapest: 54: 650.

Franco (1938) Bol. fac. fil. Cienc. Let. University of São Paulo, no. 10: 75.

Grimm, Peters, and Wolff (1938) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 236: 57.

Erdélyi (1939) Földtani Közlöny, Budapest (Magyarhone Földtani Torsulat): 69: 290.

Kašpar (1939) in: Mineral Abstracts: 7: 336.

Saukov (1939) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S., n.s.: 22: 254.

Tavora (1946) Estud. Brasil. deGeol.: 1: 47.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 408-415.

Heinrich, Eberhardt William & R.W. Vian (1967), Carbonitic barites: American Mineralogist: 52: 1179-1189.

Isetti G. (1967) - Studi sul colore e sul pleocroismo della Baritina. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 25-41.

Isetti G. (1968) - Studio sulla fotoconducibilità elettrica della baritina. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 45- 53.

American Mineralogist (1974): 59: 1209-1219.

American Mineralogist (1978): 63: 506-510.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 572.

Pina, C.M., U. Becker, P. Risthaus, D. Bosbach, and A. Putnis (1998): Molecular-scale mechanisms of crystal growth in barite. Nature, 395, 483-486.

Hanor, J.S. (2000): Barite–celestine geochemistry and environments of formation. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 40, 193-275.

Majzlan, J., Navrotsky, A., and Neil, J.M. (2002) Energetics of anhydrite, barite, celestine, and anglesite: a high-temperature and differential scanning calorimetry study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 66: 1839-1850.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 45.

Internet Links for Baryte

Specimens:
The following Baryte specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Baryte

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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