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Baryte

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Formula:
BaSO
 
4
System:OrthorhombicColour:Colourless, white, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, PearlyHardness:3 - 3½
Member of:Baryte Group
Name:Named in 1800 by Dietrich Ludwig Gustav Karsten from the Greek βάρυζ, heavy, due to its unusual heaviness for a non-metallic mineral.
Isostructural with:Anglesite, Celestine


Baryte Group. Baryte-Celestine Series.
The barium analogue of Celestine and Anglesite.

Typically found as thick to thin tabular crystals, usually in clusters with the crystals growing parallel to one another, or nearly so. Also as bladed, white masses.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Baryte. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Baryte

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/A.09-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.AD.35

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
A : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
Dana 7th edition ID:28.3.1.1
Dana 8th edition ID:28.3.1.1

28 : ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
3 : AXO4
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.4.17

25 : Sulphates
4 : Sulphates of Ca, Sr and Ba
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Occurrences of Baryte

Geological Setting:Commonly found as a gangue mineral in metallic ore deposits of epithermal or mesothermal origin; but it may also be found as lenses or replacement deposits in sedimentary rocks, both of hypogene and supergene origin.

Physical Properties of Baryte

Lustre:Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Colour:Colourless, white, yellow, brown, grey, blue, etc.; colourless in transmitted light (also tinted yellow, brown, green, blue, etc.)
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):3 - 3½
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {001}; less so on {210}; Imperfect on {010}.
Parting:None
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):4.5 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.47 g/cm3

Crystallography of Baryte

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:Pnma
Cell Parameters:a = 8.884(2) Å, b = 5.457(3) Å, c = 7.157(2) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.628 : 1 : 1.312
Unit Cell Volume:V 346.97 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Usually thin to thick tabular {001}, bounded by {210} alone or in combination with {101}, {011} or other forms. Also flattened {001}, and elongated to prismatic [010] or [100]. More rarely prismatic [001], or equant. Often as aggregates or clusters of tabular crystals with edges projecting into crest-like forms, or as rosettes. Also found as massive material, compact, laminated or concretionary; and in fibrous, stalactic, and earthy masses.

Crystal Atlas:
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Barite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Barite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Barite no.28 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Barite no.35 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Barite no.62 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Barite no.325 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Epitaxial Relationships of Baryte

Epitaxial Minerals:
Witherite
BaCO
 
3
Celestine
SrSO
 
4
Calcite
CaCO
 
3
Barytocalcite
BaCa(CO
 
3
)
 
2
Anglesite
PbSO
 
4
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.90(50)
3.45(100)
3.32(70)
3.10(100)
2.84(50)
2.73(50)
2.12(80)
2.11(80)

Optical Data of Baryte

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.634 - 1.637 nβ = 1.636 - 1.638 nγ = 1.646 - 1.648
2V:Measured: 36° to 40°, Calculated: 36° to 42°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.012

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:weak r > v
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:Color X Y Z

Brown: Straw-yellow Wine-yellow Violet
Yellow: Lt. yel.-brn. Yellow-brn Brown
Green: Nr colourless Lt. grn. Amethyst
Blue-grn: Blue-violet Bluish grn Violet

Chemical Properties of Baryte

Formula:
BaSO
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:BaSO4
Essential elements:Ba, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Ba, O, S
Common Impurities:Sr,Ca,Pb

Relationship of Baryte to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Celestine (see here)
Member of:Baryte Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Anglesite
PbSO
 
4
Celestine
SrSO
 
4
Hashemite
Ba(Cr,S)O
 
4
Common Associates:
SideriteQuartzPyriteManganiteGalena
FluoriteDolomiteCalcite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.AD.05Arcanite
K
 
2
SO
 
4
7.AD.05Mascagnite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
SO
 
4
7.AD.10Mercallite
KHSO
 
4
7.AD.15Misenite
K
 
8
H
 
6
(SO
 
4
)
 
7
7.AD.20Letovicite
(NH
 
4
)
 
3
H(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AD.25Glauberite
Na
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AD.30Anhydrite
CaSO
 
4
7.AD.35Anglesite
PbSO
 
4
7.AD.35Celestine
SrSO
 
4
7.AD.35Olsacherite
Pb
 
2
(SeO
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)
7.AD.40Kalistrontite
K
 
2
Sr(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AD.40Palmierite
(K,Na)
 
2
Pb(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.4.1Anhydrite
CaSO
 
4
25.4.2Bassanite
CaSO
 
4
· 0.5H
 
2
O
25.4.3Gypsum
CaSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.4Glauberite
Na
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.4.5Cesanite
Na
 
3
Ca
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
25.4.6Eugsterite
Na
 
4
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.7Hydroglauberite
Na
 
10
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
8
· 6H
 
2
O
25.4.8Syngenite
K
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
25.4.9Görgeyite
K
 
2
Ca
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
· H
 
2
O
25.4.10Polyhalite
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.11Koktaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
25.4.12Ye'elimite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
6
(SO
 
4
)O
 
12
25.4.13Ettringite
Ca
 
6
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
25.4.14Bentorite
Ca
 
6
(Cr
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
25.4.15Celestine
SrSO
 
4
25.4.16Kalistrontite
K
 
2
Sr(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
28.3.1.3Anglesite
PbSO
 
4

Other Names for Baryte

Synonyms:
AstapiaAstrapiaBarititeBaroiteBaroselenite
BaroteBarytesBarytineBarytiteBologna stone
Bolognian SparBononian stoneBoulaniteBouloniteCalk
CalstronbariteCaukCawkDreeliteDréelite
Fetid Heavy SparHeavy SparTiffVolnyeYellow Spar
Other Languages:
Arabic:باريت
Bosnian (Latin Script):Barit
Catalan:Baritina
Czech:Baryt
French:Barite
Baryte sulfatée
Michel-lévyte
Spath pesant ou séléniteux
Galician:Barita
German:Baryt
Achrenstein
Aehrenstein
Barit
Baritit
Baroit
Baroselenit
Boulanit
Boulonit
Dreeit
Prismatischer Halbaryt
Schwefelsaures Baryt
Schwerspat
Schwerspath
Stangenspath
Strahlbaryt
Hebrew:בריט
Hungarian:Barit
Icelandic:Barít
Italian:Barite
Baritina
Pietra di Bologna
Pietra fosforica di Bologna
Spato pesato
Japanese:重晶石
Latin:Gypsum irregulare
Gypsum ponderosum
Lamellosum
Lapis Bononiensis
Lapis hepaticus
Litheophosphorus
Litheosphorus
Marmor metallicum
Spathum ponderosum
Spatum Bononiense
Spatum tessulare
Terra calcarea phlogisto et acido vitrioli mixta
Lithuanian:Baritas
Polish:Baryt
Portuguese:Barita
Romanian:Baritină
Russian:Барит
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Барит
Simplified Chinese:重晶石
Slovak:Barit
Slovenian:Barit
Spanish:Baritina
Barita
Baritita
Baroita
Baroselenita
Boulanita
Boulonita
Swedish:Baryt
Bononiensisk sten
Leswersten
Lysesten
Tungspat
Turkish:Barit
Ukrainian:Барит
Varieties:
Angleso-bariteBaryte RoseCa- and Sr-rich BaryteCalcareobariteCelestobarite (of Dana)
HepatiteHokutoliteMeißelspatOakstoneRadian Barite
SchohariteStrontian Baryte

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Shades of yellow, occasionally orange or pink (LW UV). Shades of yellow, white (Franklin & Sterling Hill, NJ). May phosphoresce strongly greenish-white.
Magnetism:Diamagnetic
Thermal Behaviour:Inverts to another (monoclinic ?) polymorph when heated to 1149°C. Above 1400°C decomposition to barium oxide, sulphur dioxide and oxygen.
Thermoluminescent at times.
Other Information:Insoluble in water, acids and bases. Moderately soluble in hot, concentrated sulphuric acid, due to formation of the hydrogen sulphate.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Hanson Aggregates Flemingsburg quarry,..., Fleming Co., Kentucky, USA: fades to white or colourless in sunlight
Special Storage/
Display Requirements from:
Hanson Aggregates Flemingsburg quarry,..., Fleming Co., Kentucky, USAFades to white or colorless in sunlight
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Used as an additive in drilling fluids, as a white pigment, e. g. in cosmetic products and in paints, and as a filling material for polymers and papers. Also the main source of barium.

References for Baryte

Reference List:

- +
Licetus, F. (1640) (as Lapis Bononiensis, Litheophorus).

Mentzel (1673) Misc. Ac. Nat. Cur.

Mentzel (1675) Obscuro lucens (as Lapis Bononiensis).

Wallerius, J.G (1747) Mineralogia, eller Mineralriket. Stockholm: 56 (as Lysesten, Bononiensisksten, Gypsum irregulare, lamellosum).

Cronstedt A. (1758) Mineralogie; eller Mineral-Rikets Upstallning. Stockholm: 21 (as Gypsum spatosum, Marmor metallicum, Spatum Bononiense, Tungspath). p. 25 (as Terra calcarea phlogisto et acido vitrioli mixta, Les wersten, Lapis hepaticus).

Born, I. von (1772) Lythophylacium Bornianum; Index fossiliumquae colligit, etc., Prague, pt 1: 14 (as Gypsum ponderosum).

de Lisle, R. (1772) Essai de cristallographie. Paris (as Spath pesant ou séléniteux).

Bergmann, T. (1782) Sciagraphia regni mineralis (as Spathum ponderosum).

de Lisle, R. (1783) Cristallographie, ou description des formes propres à tous les corps du regne minéral. 4 volumes, Paris. (as Spath pesant ou séléniteux).

Withering (1784) Royal Society of London, Philosophical Transactions.

Kirwan, R. (1794) Elements of Mineralogy, second edition: 1: 136 (as Baroselenite).

Delamétherie, J.C. (1797) Théorie de la Terre, 2nd. Edition, 5 volumes, Paris: 2: 8 (as Barytite).

Karsten, D.L.G. (1800) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. First edition: 38, 75 (as Baryt, Hepatit).

Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol., Paris: 2 (as Baryte).

Eaton, in: Macneven: Atomic Theory Chym., New York: 19 (as Schoharite).

Beudant, F.S. (1824), Traité élémentaire de Minéralogie Paris: 441 (as Barytine).

Dufrénoy (1835) Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 60: 102 (as Dréelite).

Breithaupt (1838) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 15: 322 (as Allomorphit).

Shepard (1838) American Journal of Science: 34: 161 (as Calstronbarite).

Glocker, E.F. (1847) Generum et specierum mineralium secundum ordines naturales digestorum synopsis. Halle: 261 (as Dreeit).

Dana, J.D. (1850) System of Mineralogy, 3rd. Edition, New York: 704.

Waltershausen (1855) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 94: 137 (as Barytocölestin).

Dana, J.D. (1868) System of Mineralogy, 5th. Edition, New York: 617 (as Celestobarite).

Adam, M. (1869) Tableau minéralogique, Paris: 62 (as Schoarite = a mis-spelling).

Helmhacker (1872) Ak. Wien, Denkschr.: 32, part 2: 1.

Hankel (1874) Sächs Ges. Wiss., Abh.: 10: 281.

Sandberger (1875) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 383.

Collie (1879) Mineralogical Magazine: 2: 220.

Bauer (1887) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 37.

Lacroix (1889) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 108: 1126 (as Michel-lévyte).

Valentin (1889) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 15: 576.

Gonnard (1890) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 13: 354.

Luedeking and Wheeler (1891) American Journal of Science: 42: 495.

Beckenkamp (1897) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 28: 69.

Jannetaz and Goldberg (1897) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 28: 103.

Mügge (1898) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 71.

Samoiloff (1902) Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Liubitelei Priordy, Moscow, Bulletin: 16: 105.

Mügge (1903) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 16: 399.

Barker (1908) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 45: 25.

Rosický (1908) Ac. sc. Bohéme, Bulletin: 13.

Ungemach (1908) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 31: 92.

Vogt (1908) Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Oslo: 1: 3.

Pogue (1910) Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum: 38: 17.

Henglein (1911) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 32: 71.

Kolb (1911) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 49: 14.

Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 1: 140.

Tarr (1919) Economic Geology: 14: 46.

Grahmann (1920) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 1.

Grahmann (1920) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 81: 257.

Ōhashi (1920) Mineralogical Magazine: 19: 73.

Veit (1922) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 45: 121.

Maier (1923) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 58: 75.

Niggli (1924) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 59: 266.

Zeller (1924) Földtani Közlöny, Budapest (Magyarhone Földtani Torsulat): 53: 139.

James and Wood (1925) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: 109A: 598.

Basche and Mark (1926) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 64: 1.

Ruiz (1926) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rendus, Rome: 3(6): 342.

Bruce and Light (1927) American Mineralogist: 12: 396.

Doelter, C. (1927) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 4(2): 227.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1(3B), 3782.

Gallitelli (1929) Atti. soc. nat. mat. Modena: 8: 86.

Wagner (1929) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 2: 27.

Kalb (1930) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 74: 469.

Heide (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 78: 257.

Kalb and Koch (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 78: 169.

Wagner (1931) Zs. angew. Chem.: 44: 665.

Braun (1932) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 65: 173.

Buschendorf (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 81: 38.

Buttgenbach (1932) Annales of the Société géologique de Belgique, Liége: 55: 165.

Kalb (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 81: 342.

Haas (1933) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 67: 217.

Masuda (1932) Proceedings of the Imperial Academy, Tokyo: 8: 436.

Tarr (1933) American Mineralogist: 18: 260.

Russell (1934) Mineralogical Magazine: 24: 318.

Bobkova (1935) Publ. Foc. Sc. University of Masaryk, no. 211.

Howland (1936) American Mineralogist: 21: 584.

Kolaczkowska (1936) Arch. min. soc. Varsovie: 12: 181.

Tertsch (1936) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 95: 296.

Tokody (1936) Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, Budapest: 54: 650.

Franco (1938) Bol. fac. fil. Cienc. Let. University of São Paulo, no. 10: 75.

Grimm, Peters, and Wolff (1938) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 236: 57.

Erdélyi (1939) Földtani Közlöny, Budapest (Magyarhone Földtani Torsulat): 69: 290.

Kašpar (1939) in: Mineral Abstracts: 7: 336.

Saukov (1939) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S., n.s.: 22: 254.

Tavora (1946) Estud. Brasil. deGeol.: 1: 47.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 408-415.

Heinrich, Eberhardt William & R.W. Vian (1967), Carbonitic barites: American Mineralogist: 52: 1179-1189.

Isetti G. (1967) - Studi sul colore e sul pleocroismo della Baritina. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 25-41.

Isetti G. (1968) - Studio sulla fotoconducibilità elettrica della baritina. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 45- 53.

American Mineralogist (1974): 59: 1209-1219.

American Mineralogist (1978): 63: 506-510.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 572.

Pina, C.M., U. Becker, P. Risthaus, D. Bosbach, and A. Putnis (1998), Molecular-scale mechanisms of crystal growth in barite: Nature: 395: 483-486.

Majzlan, J., Navrotsky, A., and Neil, J.M. (2002) Energetics of anhydrite, barite, celestine, and anglesite: a high-temperature and differential scanning calorimetry study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 66: 1839-1850.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 45.

Mindat.org articles about Baryte

Article entries:
The Jurassic age in North Of Mahallat With Thrust Fault Farid Mohammadi
Minnie (Minney) Moore [and Colorado No. 1] Mine Tintic District, UTAHRussell Hartill

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